METHODS: Our data were obtained from the Foshan Workplace Employee Survey (FWES). Mental health was proxied by the subjective assessment of workers' need to receive psychological counselling or treatment. To address endogeneity concerns, this study employed an extended ordered probit model and the two-stage least squares (2SLS) method.
RESULTS: Frontline workers employed in innovative manufacturing firms are significantly more likely than those in firms taking no such action to experience psychological difficulties and to seek psychological counselling or treatment. Firms with a higher likelihood of upgrading their production process are more capable of taking a range of measures to significantly but not sufficiently mitigate the psychological problems of their workers induced by process innovation. In workplaces with a new advanced automation environment, workers believe that they face higher job insecurity (JI) and work stress, which in turn is partially and effectively linked to the deterioration in their mental health and further increases treatment-seeking behaviours.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that carrying out process innovation is associated with increased psychological distress and, hence, more needs for mental healthcare services. To narrow the treatment gap originally subject to existing obstacles, it is necessary to face the new challenges posed by automation-induced change in the workplace, which policies should be particularly attentive to.
METHODS: A total of 480 Ae. aegypti adult mosquitoes were collected from October and November 2018 based on the results of previous investigations and the distribution of Ae. aegypti in Yunnan. Each individual sample was processed and screened for the presence of Wolbachia by PCR with wsp primers. Phylogenetic trees for the wsp gene was constructed using the neighbour-joining method with 1,000 bootstrap replicates, and the p-distance distribution model of molecular evolution was applied.
RESULTS: 24 individual adult mosquito samples and 10 sample sites were positive for Wolbachia infection. The Wolbachia infection rate (IR) of each population ranged from 0 - 41.7%. The infection rate of group A alone was 0%-10%, the infection rate of group B alone was 0%-7.7%, and the infection rate of co-infection with A and B was 0-33.3%.
CONCLUSIONS: Wolbachia infection in wild Ae. aegypti in China is the first report based on PCR amplification of the Wolbachia wsp gene. The Wolbachia infection is 5%, and the wAlbA and wAlbB strains were found to be prevalent in the natural population of Ae. aegypti in Yunnan Province.
OBJECTIVES: To report the retinoblastoma stage at diagnosis in patients across the world during a single year, to investigate associations between clinical variables and national income level, and to investigate risk factors for advanced disease at diagnosis.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 278 retinoblastoma treatment centers were recruited from June 2017 through December 2018 to participate in a cross-sectional analysis of treatment-naive patients with retinoblastoma who were diagnosed in 2017.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Age at presentation, proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma, and tumor stage and metastasis.
RESULTS: The cohort included 4351 new patients from 153 countries; the median age at diagnosis was 30.5 (interquartile range, 18.3-45.9) months, and 1976 patients (45.4%) were female. Most patients (n = 3685 [84.7%]) were from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Globally, the most common indication for referral was leukocoria (n = 2638 [62.8%]), followed by strabismus (n = 429 [10.2%]) and proptosis (n = 309 [7.4%]). Patients from high-income countries (HICs) were diagnosed at a median age of 14.1 months, with 656 of 666 (98.5%) patients having intraocular retinoblastoma and 2 (0.3%) having metastasis. Patients from low-income countries were diagnosed at a median age of 30.5 months, with 256 of 521 (49.1%) having extraocular retinoblastoma and 94 of 498 (18.9%) having metastasis. Lower national income level was associated with older presentation age, higher proportion of locally advanced disease and distant metastasis, and smaller proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma. Advanced disease at diagnosis was more common in LMICs even after adjusting for age (odds ratio for low-income countries vs upper-middle-income countries and HICs, 17.92 [95% CI, 12.94-24.80], and for lower-middle-income countries vs upper-middle-income countries and HICs, 5.74 [95% CI, 4.30-7.68]).
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This study is estimated to have included more than half of all new retinoblastoma cases worldwide in 2017. Children from LMICs, where the main global retinoblastoma burden lies, presented at an older age with more advanced disease and demonstrated a smaller proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma, likely because many do not reach a childbearing age. Given that retinoblastoma is curable, these data are concerning and mandate intervention at national and international levels. Further studies are needed to investigate factors, other than age at presentation, that may be associated with advanced disease in LMICs.
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