METHODS: Rat CIRI models were established via middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Primary nerve cells were isolated and cultured in fetal rat cerebral cortex in vitro, and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) models of primary nerve cells were induced. After intervention with DN with different concentrations in MCAO rats and OGD/R nerve cells, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining was used to quantify cerebral infarction size in CIRI rats. Modified neurological severity score was utilized to assess neurological performance. Histopathologic staining and live/dead cell-viability staining was used to observe apoptosis. Levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in tissues and cells were detected using commercial kits. DN level in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of MCAO rats were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, expression levels of proteins like Kelch like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nfr2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, and apoptosis-related proteins like Cleaved caspase-3, BCL-2-associated X protein (Bax) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) were determined by Western blot and immunofluorescence.
RESULTS: DN can significantly enhance neurological function recovery by reducing cerebral infarction size and weakening neurocytes apoptosis in MCAO rats. It was further found that DN could improve oxidative stress (OS) injury of nerve cells by bringing down MDA and ROS levels and increasing SOD and GSH levels. Notably, DN exerts its pharmacological influences through entering blood-brain barrier. Mechanically, DN can reduce Keap1 expression while activate Nrf2 and HO-1 expression in neurocytes.
CONCLUSIONS: The protective effect of DN on neurocytes have been demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo circumstances. It deserves to be developed as a potential neuroprotective agent through regulating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway to ameliorate neurocytes impairment caused by OS.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between July 2011 and February 2015, 155 patients underwent PFNA insertion. The decision on whether to use a short or long PFNA nail, locked or unlocked, was determined by the attending operating surgeon. Visual Analogue Pain Score (VAS) Harris Hip Scores (HHS), Short-form 36 Health Questionnaire (SF-36) and Parker Mobility Scores (PMS) were collected at six weeks, six months and one year post-operatively.
RESULTS: A total of 137 (88.4%) patients were successfully followed-up. Forty-two (30.7%) patients received a short PFNA. The patients were similar in baseline characteristics of age, gender, and comorbidities. Operative time was significantly longer in the short PFNA group (62 ±17 mins) versus the long PFNA group (56±17). While the patients in both groups achieved improvement in all outcome measures, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of HHS (61.0 ±16.0 vs 63.0 ±16.8, p=0.443), PMS (2.3±1.5 vs 2.7±2.1, p=0.545) and VAS (1.7±2.9 vs 1.8 ±2.2 p=0.454). There were 3 (7.1%) and 7 (7.4%) complications in the short versus long PFNA group, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Both short and long PFNA had similar clinical outcomes and complication rates in the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures in an Asian population.
METHODS: This study aimed to compile and synthesize the existing studies on the effects of PT on healthy athletes' technical skill performance. A comprehensive search of SCOPUS, PubMed, Web of Science Core Collection, and SPORTDiscus databases was performed on 3rd May 2023. PICOS was employed to establish the inclusion criteria: 1) healthy athletes; 2) a PT program; 3) compared a plyometric intervention to an active control group; 4) tested at least one measure of athletes' technical skill performance; and 5) randomized control designs. The methodological quality of each individual study was evaluated using the PEDro scale. The random-effects model was used to compute the meta-analyses. Subgroup analyses were performed (participant age, gender, PT length, session duration, frequency, and number of sessions). Certainty or confidence in the body of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE).
RESULTS: Thirty-two moderate-high-quality studies involving 1078 athletes aged 10-40 years met the inclusion criteria. The PT intervention lasted for 4 to 16 weeks, with one to three exercise sessions per week. Small-to-moderate effect sizes were found for performance of throwing velocity (i.e., handball, baseball, water polo) (ES = 0.78; p < 0.001), kicking velocity and distance (i.e., soccer) (ES = 0.37-0.44; all p < 0.005), and speed dribbling (i.e., handball, basketball, soccer) (ES = 0.85; p = 0.014), while no significant effects on stride rate (i.e., running) were noted (ES = 0.32; p = 0.137). Sub-analyses of moderator factors included 16 data sets. Only training length significantly modulated PT effects on throwing velocity (> 7 weeks, ES = 1.05; ≤ 7 weeks, ES = 0.29; p = 0.011). The level of certainty of the evidence for the meta-analyzed outcomes ranged from low to moderate.
CONCLUSION: Our findings have shown that PT can be effective in enhancing technical skills measures in youth and adult athletes. Sub-group analyses suggest that PT longer (> 7 weeks) lengths appear to be more effective for improving throwing velocity. However, to fully determine the effectiveness of PT in improving sport-specific technical skill outcomes and ultimately enhancing competition performance, further high-quality research covering a wider range of sports is required.