Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 32 in total

  1. Ibrahim WN, Muizzuddin Bin Mohd Rosli L, Doolaanea AA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2020;15:8059-8074.
    PMID: 33116518 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S269340
    Introduction: Thymoquinone (TQ) is the main active compound extracted from Nigella sativa a traditional herb with wide therapeutic applications and recognizable anticancer properties. This study aimed to formulate and characterize TQ-nanoparticles using PLGA as a biocompatible coating material (TQ-PLGA NPs) with the evaluation of its therapeutic properties in human melanoma cancer cells.

    Methods: The TQ-PLGA NPs were prepared and characterized for size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, and release profile.

    Results: The particle size was 147.2 nm, with 22.1 positive zeta potential and 96.8% encapsulation efficiency. The NPs released 45.6% of the encapsulated TQ within 3 h followed by characteristic sustained release over 7 days with a total of 69.7% cumulative release. TQ-PLGA NPs were taken up effectively by the cells in a time-dependent manner up to 24 h. Higher cell toxicity was determined within the first 24 h in melanoma cells due to the rapid release of TQ from the NPs and its low stability in the cell culture media.

    Conclusion: TQ-PLGA NPs is a potential anticancer agent taking advantage of the sustained release and tailored size that allows accumulation in the cancer tissue by the enhanced permeability and retention effect. However, stability problems of the active ingredient were address in this study and requires further investigation.

  2. Hassani A, Azarian MMS, Ibrahim WN, Hussain SA
    Sci Rep, 2020 10 20;10(1):17808.
    PMID: 33082415 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-71175-8
    Gallic acid (GA) is a natural phenolic compound with therapeutic effects that are often challenged by its rapid metabolism and clearance. Therefore,  GA was encapsulated using gum arabic into nanoparticles to increase its bioavailability. The formulated nanoparticles (GANPs) were characterized for physicochemical properties and size and were then evaluated for antioxidant and antihypertensive effects using various established in vitro assays, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide scavenging (NO), β-carotene bleaching and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory assays. The GANPs were further evaluated for the in vitro cytotoxicity, cell uptake and cell migration in four types of human cancer cell lines including (MCF-7, MDA-MB231) breast adenocarcinoma, HepG2 hepatocellular cancer, HT-29 colorectal adenocarcinoma, and MCF-10A breast epithelial cell lines. The GANPs demonstrated potent antioxidant effects and have shown promising anti-cancer properties in a dose-dependent manner with a predilection toward HepG2 and MCF7 cancer cells. The uptake of GANPs was successful in the majority of cancer cells with a propensity to accumulate in the nuclear region of the cells. The HepG2 and MCF7 cancer cells also had a significantly higher percentage of apoptosis and were more sensitive to gallic acid nanoparticle treatment in the cell migration assay. This study is the first to confirm the synergistic effects of gum arabic in the encapsulation of gallic acid by increasing the selectivity towards cancer cells and enhancing  the antioxidant properties. The formulated nanoparticles also had remarkably low toxicity in normal cells. Based on these findings, GANPs may have promising therapeutic applications towards the development of more effective treatments with a probable targeting precision in cancer cells.
  3. Ng NT, Sanagi MM, Wan Ibrahim WN, Wan Ibrahim WA
    Food Chem, 2017 May 01;222:28-34.
    PMID: 28041555 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.11.147
    Agarose-chitosan-immobilized octadecylsilyl-silica (C18) film micro-solid phase extraction (μSPE) was developed and applied for the determination of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) in chrysanthemum tea samples using high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The film of blended agarose and chitosan allows good dispersion of C18, prevents the leaching of C18 during application and enhances the film mechanical stability. Important μSPE parameters were optimized including amount of sorbent loading, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time. The matrix match calibration curves showed good linearity (r⩾0.994) over a concentration range of 1-500ppb. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method showed good limits of detection (0.549-0.673ppb), good analyte recoveries (100.8-105.99%) and good reproducibilities (RSDs⩽13.53%, n=3) with preconcentration factors of 4 and 72 for PHE and PYR, respectively.
  4. Al-Mahmood SMA, Rahim H, Othman N, Ibrahim WN
    Objective: This study aims to determine the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and its association with perceived stress levels among nursing students at the International Islamic University Malaysia.
    Methods: A cross-sectional design was used in this study. A three-part questionnaire was used to gather data on stress levels and IBS symptoms. Part A posed questions on socio-demographic aspects. In part B, a Perceived Stress Scale was used to measure individuals’ perceived stress. Part C used a questionnaire developed by the World Gastroenterology Organisation (WGO) with the support of Danone.
    Results: The response rate was 85.5%: out of 200 students, 171 completed the questionnaires. According to the results, there is a significant relationship between stress levels and IBS (p = 0.006), where students who experienced moderate stress (151, 88.3%) were more exposed to IBS (60, 39.7%). There is no association between the characteristics of subjects with IBS and their level of stress (P > 0.05).
    Conclusion: The prevalence of IBS among the students in this study was roughly moderate. The frequency of moderate stress levels was high and there was a significant association with IBS. On the other hand, subject characteristics, e.g. smoking habits, were insignificantly associated with IBS and stress level (SL).
  5. Alallam B, Oo MK, Ibrahim WN, Doolaanea AA
    J Cell Mol Med, 2022 01;26(1):235-238.
    PMID: 34873828 DOI: 10.1111/jcmm.17078
    Due to the restrictions in accessing research laboratories and the challenges in providing proper storage and transportation of cells during the COVID-19 pandemic, having an effective and feasible mean to solve these challenges would be of immense help. Therefore, we developed a 3D culture setting of cancer cells using alginate beads and tested its effectiveness in different storage and transportation conditions. The viability and proliferation of cancer cells were assessed using trypan blue staining and quantitative CCK-8 kit, respectively. The developed beads allowed cancer cells survival up to 4 weeks with less frequent maintenance measures such as change of the culture media or subculture of cells. In addition, the recovery of cancer cells and proliferation pattern were significantly faster with better outcomes in the developed 3D alginate beads compared to the standard cryopreservation of cells or the 2D culture conditions. The 3D alginate beads also supported the viability of cells while the shipment at room temperature for a duration of up to 5 days with no humidity or CO2  support. Therefore, 3D culture in alginate beads can be used to store or ship biological cells with ease at room temperature with minimal preparations.
  6. Bahron H, Tajuddin AM, Ibrahim WN, Chantrapromma S, Fun HK
    Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online, 2014 Aug 1;70(Pt 8):m289-90.
    PMID: 25249876 DOI: 10.1107/S1600536814015025
    In the title complex, [Pd(C16H16NO2)2]·CHCl3, the Pd(II) cation lies on an inversion center. One Cl atom of the CHCl3 solvent mol-ecule lies on a twofold axis and the C-H group is disordered with equal occupancies about this axis with the other Cl atom in a general position with full occupancy. The Pd(II) cation is four-coordinate and adopts a square-planar geometry via coordination of the imine N and phenolic O atoms of the two bidentate Schiff base anions. The N and O atoms of these ligands are mutually trans. The plane of the benzene ring makes a dihedral angle of 73.52 (10)° with that of the meth-oxy-phenolate ring. In the crystal, mol-ecules of the Pd(II) complex are arranged into sheets parallel to the ac plane, and the chloro-form solvent mol-ecules are located in the inter-stitial areas between the complex mol-ecules. Weak inter-molecular C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions stabilize the packing.
  7. Bahron H, Tajuddin AM, Ibrahim WN, Fun HK, Chantrapromma S
    Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online, 2014 Aug 1;70(Pt 8):104-6.
    PMID: 25249867 DOI: 10.1107/S160053681401650X
    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Ni(C15H14NO2)2], comprises an Ni(II) cation, lying on an inversion centre, and a Schiff base anion that acts as a bidentate ligand. The Ni(II) cation is in a square-planar coordination environment binding to the imine N and phenolate O atoms of the two Schiff base ligands. The N- and O-donor atoms of the two ligands are mutually trans, with Ni-N and Ni-O bond lengths of 1.9191 (11) and 1.8407 (9) Å, respectively. The plane of the meth-oxy-benzene ring makes a dihedral angle of 84.92 (6)° with that of the phenolate ring. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked into screw chains by weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Additional C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, together with C-H⋯π contacts, arrange the mol-ecules into sheets parallel to the ac plane.
  8. Sanagi MM, Loh SH, Wan Ibrahim WN, Pourmand N, Salisu A, Wan Ibrahim WA, et al.
    J Sep Sci, 2016 Mar;39(6):1152-9.
    PMID: 27027592 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201501207
    Recently, there has been considerable interest in the use of miniaturized sample preparation techniques before the chromatographic monitoring of the analytes in unknown complex compositions. The use of biopolymer-based sorbents in solid-phase microextraction techniques has achieved a good reputation. A great variety of polysaccharides can be extracted from marine plants or microorganisms. Seaweeds are the major sources of polysaccharides such as alginate, agar, agarose, as well as carrageenans. Agarose and alginate (green biopolymers) have been manipulated for different microextraction approaches. The present review is focused on the classification of biopolymer and their applications in multidisciplinary research. Besides, efforts have been made to discuss the state-of-the-art of the new microextraction techniques that utilize commercial biopolymer interfaces such as agarose in liquid-phase microextraction and solid-phase microextraction.
  9. Hassan I, Wan Ibrahim WN, Yusuf FM, Ahmad SA, Ahmad S
    J Toxicol, 2020;2020:8815313.
    PMID: 33029137 DOI: 10.1155/2020/8815313
    Background: Pathophysiological changes leading to the death of nerve cells present in the brain and spinal cord are referred to as neurodegenerative diseases. Presently, treatment of these diseases is not effective and encounters many challenges due to the cost of drug and side effects. Thus, the search for the alternative agents to replace synthetic drugs is in high demand. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the anticholinesterase properties of Ginkgo biloba seed.

    Methods: The seed was extracted with 80% methanol. Toxicity studies and evaluation of anticholinesterase activities were carried out in adult Javanese medaka (Oryzias javanicus). Phytochemical study to identify the bioactive lead constituents of the crude extract was also carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

    Results: The result shows activities with high significant differences at P < 0.001 between the treated and nontreated groups. A bioactive compound (vitaxin) was identified with the aid of HPLC method.

    Conclusion: The presence of bioactive compound vitaxin is among the major secondary metabolites that contribute to increasing activities of this plant extract. High anticholinesterase activities and low toxicity effect of this plant show its benefit to be used as natural medicine or supplements.

  10. Hassan IM, Wan Ibrahim WN, Yusuf FM, Ahmad SA, Ahmad S
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2021 Jan;34(1):47-56.
    PMID: 34248002
    Diseases caused by oxidative stress can be prevented by antioxidant. Current treatments for those neurodegenerative diseases are not effective and cause many side effects. Thus, the search for alternative medicines is in high demand. Therefore, the main purposed of this study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Curcuma longa (rhizome) 80% methanol extract. Antioxidant using dichlorofuoresence diacetate (DCF-DA) assay on SH-SY5Y cells revealed high activities of Curcuma longa (rhizome) extract with IC50 of 105.9±0.8 µg/mL. Sub-acute and chronic toxicity tests of the plant extract on adult Javanese medaka (Oryzias javanicus) showed high toxicity effect with LC50 of 24.15±0.8 mg/L and 13.69±0.7 mg/L respectively. Neuroprotective tests using cholinesterase assay disclose significant differences at P<0.05 between the group that are exposed to arsenic and treated with the crude extract and the group that are exposed to only arsenic. Identification of vitexin and isovitexin justified the high antioxidant potential of this plant leaf and it highest benefit to be used as medicinal supplement.
  11. Kamaruzaman S, Nasir NM, Mohd Faudzi SM, Yahaya N, Mohamad Hanapi NS, Wan Ibrahim WN
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Oct 31;13(21).
    PMID: 34771337 DOI: 10.3390/polym13213780
    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are synthetic polymers with a predetermined selectivity for a particular analyte or group of structurally related compounds, making them ideal materials for separation processes. Hence, in sample preparation, MIPs are chosen as an excellent material to provide selectivity. Moreover, its use in solid-phase extraction, also referred to as molecular imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE), is well regarded. In recent years, many papers have been published addressing the utilization of MIPs or MISPE as sorbents in natural product applications, such as synthesis. This review describes the synthesis and characterization of MIPs as a tool in natural product applications.
  12. Kamaruzaman S, Sanagi MM, Yahaya N, Wan Ibrahim WA, Endud S, Wan Ibrahim WN
    J Sep Sci, 2017 Nov;40(21):4222-4233.
    PMID: 28837263 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201700549
    A new facile magnetic micro-solid-phase extraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry detection was developed for the extraction and determination of selected antidepressant drugs in biological fluids using magnetite-MCM-41 as adsorbent. The synthesized sorbent was characterized by several spectroscopic techniques. The maximum extraction efficiency for extraction of 500 μg/L antidepressant drugs from aqueous solution was obtained with 15 mg of magnetite-MCM-41 at pH 12. The analyte was desorbed using 100 μL of acetonitrile prior to gas chromatography determination. This method was rapid in which the adsorption procedure was completed in 60 s. Under the optimized conditions using 15 mL of antidepressant drugs sample, the calibration curve showed good linearity in the range of 0.05-500 μg/L (r2  = 0.996-0.999). Good limits of detection (0.008-0.010 μg/L) were obtained for the analytes with good relative standard deviations of <8.0% (n = 5) for the determination of 0.1, 5.0, and 500.0 μg/L of antidepressant drugs. This method was successfully applied to the determination of amitriptyline and chlorpromazine in plasma and urine samples. The recoveries of spiked plasma and urine samples were in the range of 86.1-115.4%. Results indicate that magnetite micro-solid-phase extraction with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry is a convenient, fast, and economical method for the extraction and determination of amitriptyline and chlorpromazine in biological samples.
  13. Abdul Rahim N, Nordin N, Ahmad Rasedi NIS, Mohd Kauli FS, Wan Ibrahim WN, Zakaria F
    PMID: 35202824 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2022.109303
    The World Health Organization (WHO) recorded approximately 350 million people worldwide have suffered from mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and addictive behaviors. The search for new drugs from nature has drawn on many biological resources and human practices. In this study, leaves of Polygonum minus standardized extract (Biokesum®), 1 and 100 mg/L were used to evaluate the anti-stress effect in the chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) zebrafish model. Five groups of zebrafish were manipulated in this study, comprising control, chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), CUS + Biokesum® 1 mg/L (4 days, 20 min/day, immersion) CUS + Biokesum® 100 mg/L (4 days, 20 min/day, immersion) and CUS + fluoxetine 0.6 mg/L (4 days, 20 min/day, immersion). Four different behavioral tests were used, i.e. open-field test, social interaction test, light and dark test, and exploratory test. After four consecutive days of treatment, the zebrafish were sacrificed for whole-body cortisol analysis. The exploratory test showed a significant change upon P. minus treatment (one-way ANOVA; p = 0.0011). Cortisol analysis showed a decrease of cortisol level after treatment with the extract and fluoxetine, without significant difference. These results showed that zebrafish is a reliable model to study the anti-stress effect of compounds or herbal extract.
  14. Wan Ibrahim WN, Sanagi MM, Mohamad Hanapi NS, Kamaruzaman S, Yahaya N, Wan Ibrahim WA
    J Sep Sci, 2018 Jul;41(14):2942-2951.
    PMID: 29877605 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201800064
    We describe the preparation, characterization, and application of a composite film adsorbent based on blended agarose-chitosan-multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the preconcentration of selected nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in aqueous samples before determination by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The composite film showed a high surface area (4.0258 m2 /g) and strong hydrogen bonding between the multiwalled carbon nanotubes and agarose/chitosan matrix, which prevent adsorbent deactivation and ensure long-term stability. Several parameters, such as sample pH, addition of salt, extraction time, desorption solvent, and concentration of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in the composite film were optimized using a one-factor-at-time approach. The optimum extraction conditions obtained were as follows: isopropanol as conditioning solvent, 10 mL of sample solution at pH 2, extraction time of 30 min, stirring speed of 600 rpm, 100 μL of isopropanol as desorption solvent, desorption time of 5 min under ultrasonication, and 0.4% w/v of composite film. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve showed good linearity in the range of 1-500 ng/mL (r2  = 0.997-0.999), and good limits of detection (0.89-8.05 ng/mL) were obtained with good relative standard deviations of
  15. Mohamad Hanapi NS, Sanagi MM, Ismail AK, Wan Ibrahim WA, Saim N, Wan Ibrahim WN
    PMID: 28142101 DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2017.01.028
    The aim of this study was to investigate and apply supported ionic liquid membrane (SILM) in two-phase micro-electrodriven membrane extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) for pre-concentration and determination of three selected antidepressant drugs in water samples. A thin agarose film impregnated with 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C6MIM] [PF6], was prepared and used as supported ionic liquid membrane between aqueous sample solution and acceptor phase for extraction of imipramine, amitriptyline and chlorpromazine. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the method provided good linearity in the range of 1.0-1000μgL(-1), good coefficients of determination (r(2)=0.9974-0.9992) and low limits of detection (0.1-0.4μgL(-1)). The method showed high enrichment factors in the range of 110-150 and high relative recoveries in the range of 88.2-111.4% and 90.9-107.0%, for river water and tap water samples, respectively with RSDs of ≤7.6 (n=3). This method was successfully applied to the determination of the drugs in river and tap water samples. It is envisaged that the SILM improved the perm-selectivity by providing a pathway for targeted analytes which resulted in rapid extraction with high degree of selectivity and high enrichment factor.
  16. Alshwyeh HA, Al-Sheikh WMS, Rasedee A, Alnasser SM, Al-Qubaisi MS, Ibrahim WN
    Mol Cell Oncol, 2024;11(1):2299046.
    PMID: 38196561 DOI: 10.1080/23723556.2023.2299046
    In this study, we investigated the effects of an ethanolic extract of Mangifera indica L. kernel on the viability and proliferation of human lung cancer cells. We utilized MTT and BrdU cell proliferation assays, morphological assessments, cell cycle analyses, and apoptosis assays to investigate the extract's effects on lung cancer (A549 and NCI-H292) and normal lung (MRC-5) cells. The extract demonstrated a toxicity toward cancer cells compared to normal cells with dose-dependent anti-proliferative effect on lung cancer cells. The extract also caused differential effects on the cell cycle, inducing G0/G1 arrest and increasing the Sub-G1 population in both lung cancer and normal lung cells. Notably, the extract induced loss of membrane integrity, shrinkage, membrane blebbing, and apoptosis in lung cancer cells, while normal cells exhibited only early apoptosis. Furthermore, the extract exhibited higher toxicity towards NCI-H292 cells, followed by A549 and normal MRC-5 cells in decreasing order of potency. Our results suggest that the ethanolic extract of M. indica L. kernel has significant potential as a novel therapeutic agent for treating lung cancer cells, given its ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines while causing minimal harm to normal cells.
  17. Spulber S, Kilian P, Wan Ibrahim WN, Onishchenko N, Ulhaq M, Norrgren L, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(4):e94227.
    PMID: 24740186 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094227
    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a widely spread environmental contaminant. It accumulates in the brain and has potential neurotoxic effects. The exposure to PFOS has been associated with higher impulsivity and increased ADHD prevalence. We investigated the effects of developmental exposure to PFOS in zebrafish larvae, focusing on the modulation of activity by the dopaminergic system. We exposed zebrafish embryos to 0.1 or 1 mg/L PFOS (0.186 or 1.858 µM, respectively) and assessed swimming activity at 6 dpf. We analyzed the structure of spontaneous activity, the hyperactivity and the habituation during a brief dark period (visual motor response), and the vibrational startle response. The findings in zebrafish larvae were compared with historical data from 3 months old male mice exposed to 0.3 or 3 mg/kg/day PFOS throughout gestation. Finally, we investigated the effects of dexamfetamine on the alterations in spontaneous activity and startle response in zebrafish larvae. We found that zebrafish larvae exposed to 0.1 mg/L PFOS habituate faster than controls during a dark pulse, while the larvae exposed to 1 mg/L PFOS display a disorganized pattern of spontaneous activity and persistent hyperactivity. Similarly, mice exposed to 0.3 mg/kg/day PFOS habituated faster than controls to a new environment, while mice exposed to 3 mg/kg/day PFOS displayed more intense and disorganized spontaneous activity. Dexamfetamine partly corrected the hyperactive phenotype in zebrafish larvae. In conclusion, developmental exposure to PFOS in zebrafish induces spontaneous hyperactivity mediated by a dopaminergic deficit, which can be partially reversed by dexamfetamine in zebrafish larvae.
  18. Aznan AS, Lee KL, Low CF, Iberahim NA, Wan Ibrahim WN, Musa N, et al.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2018 Jul;78:338-345.
    PMID: 29684603 DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2018.04.033
    Outbreaks of edwardsiellosis have severe impact on the aquaculture production of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. In this study, feed supplemented with apple mangrove Sonneratia caseolaris extract was evaluated for its protective effect against Edwardsiella tarda infection in African catfish. Results showed an increase in growth performance and higher survival rate in the treatment groups in a dose dependent manner. Haematological analyses showed an increase in white blood cell count in the treatment groups. Histopathological analysis revealed degenerative changes and regeneration of liver tissue architecture in both the control and treatment groups. However, the presence of inflammatory cells was found exclusively in the kidney of T3 treatment group that was supplemented with the highest dose of extract at 3.17 mg/ml, which inferred the activation of immune response in the fish. Contrast to the deteriorative alteration observed in the kidney of the control group due to E. tarda infection, treatment group exhibited tissue regeneration and well-defined kidney tissue architecture at 3 dpi. Taken together, these results demonstrated that supplementation with the methanol extract of S. caseolaris possesses protective effect in African catfish against the infection of E. tarda.
  19. Hassani A, Mahmood S, Enezei HH, Hussain SA, Hamad HA, Aldoghachi AF, et al.
    Molecules, 2020 May 10;25(9).
    PMID: 32397633 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25092244
    The approach of drug delivery systems emphasizes the use of nanoparticles as a vehicle, offering the optional property of delivering drugs as a single dose rather than in multiple doses. The current study aims to improve antioxidant and drug release properties of curcumin loaded gum Arabic-sodium alginate nanoparticles (Cur/ALG-GANPs). The Cur/ALG-GANPs were prepared using the ionotropic gelation technique and further subjected to physico-chemical characterization using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), size distribution, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size of Cur/ALG-GANPs ranged between 10 ± 0.3 nm and 190 ± 0.1 nm and the zeta potential was -15 ± 0.2 mV. The antioxidant study of Cur/ALG-GANPs exhibited effective radical scavenging capacity for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) at concentrations that ranged between 30 and 500µg/mL. Cytotoxicity was performed using MTT assay to measure their potential in inhibiting the cell growth and the result demonstrated a significant anticancer activity of Cur/ALG-GANPs against human liver cancer cells (HepG2) than in colon cancer (HT29), lung cancer (A549) and breast cancer (MCF7) cells. Thus, this study indicates that Cur/ALG-GANPs have promising anticancer properties that might aid in future cancer therapy.
  20. Almajali B, Al-Jamal HAN, Taib WRW, Ismail I, Johan MF, Doolaanea AA, et al.
    Pharmaceuticals (Basel), 2021 Apr 16;14(4).
    PMID: 33923474 DOI: 10.3390/ph14040369
    To date, natural products are widely used as pharmaceutical agents for many human diseases and cancers. One of the most popular natural products that have been studied for anticancer properties is thymoquinone (TQ). As a bioactive compound of Nigella sativa, TQ has shown anticancer activities through the inhibition of cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. The anticancer efficacy of TQ is being investigated in several human cancers such as pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, hepatic cancer, cervical cancer, and leukemia. Even though TQ induces apoptosis by regulating the expression of pro- apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes in many cancers, the TQ effect mechanism on such cancers is not yet fully understood. Therefore, the present review has highlighted the TQ effect mechanisms on several signaling pathways and expression of tumor suppressor genes (TSG). Data from relevant published experimental articles on TQ from 2015 to June 2020 were selected by using Google Scholar and PubMed search engines. The present study investigated the effectiveness of TQ alone or in combination with other anticancer therapeutic agents, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors on cancers, as a future anticancer therapy nominee by using nanotechnology.
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