Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 249 in total

  1. Ismail R
    AIDS, 1998;12 Suppl B:S33-41.
    PMID: 9679627
  2. Ismail R
    Sex Transm Dis, 1987 4 1;14(2):113-5.
    PMID: 3112967
    The incidence of infections due to beta-lactamase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae is increasing in many parts of the world. An epidemiologic survey of infections caused by beta-lactamase-producing strains of N. gonorrhoeae at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, from February 1977 to December 1985 (106 months) showed that the incidence rose from 4.8% (two cases) in 1977 to 49.4% (39 cases) by the end of 1985. The highest incidence of gonococcal infections was found to be in the group aged 20-39 years; the male-to-female ratio was 1.55:1. The mean inhibitory concentrations of benzylpenicillin were 0.12 microgram/ml for non-beta-lactamase-producing strains and 16 micrograms/ml for isolates of N. gonorrhoeae that produce beta-lactamase.
  3. Ismail R
    Data Brief, 2019 Aug;25:104166.
    PMID: 31516921 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2019.104166
    Generally, a base isolator is made up of alternate layers of steel and rubber. The idea of adopting magnetoreological elastomers (MREs) in base isolator systems was introduced in the past few years in order to improve the efficiency of base isolator systems. The article provides information on the mechanical corresponding to different carbon black loading loadings of 20 parts per hundred rubber (pphr), 40 pphr and 60 pphr in natural rubber compound. The mechanical dataset described the data from tensile, hardness and rebound test.
  4. Ismail R
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2005;14(4):414-9.
    PMID: 16326649
    Several million tones of palm oil and palm olein are used annually in the world for frying. This paper will discuss their frying performances in three major applications - industrial production of potato chips/crisps, industrial production of pre-fried frozen French fries and in fast food outlets. In the first study, about four tones of potato chips were continuously fried 8 hours a day and five days a week. The palm olein used (with proper management) performed well and was still in excellent condition and usable at the end of the trial. This was reflected in its low free fatty acid (FFA) content of around 0.23%, peroxide value of 4 meq/kg, anisidine value of 16, low polar and polymer contents of 10% and 2%, respectively, induction period (OSI) of 21 hours and high content of tocopehrols and tocotrienols of 530 ppm even after >1900 hours. In the second study in which an average 12 tones pre-fried frozen French fries were continuously fried a day for 5 days a week, palm oil performed excellently as reflected by its low FFA of 0.34%, food oil sensor reading of 1.1, low polar and polymer contents of 17% and 2.8%, respectively, over the 12 days of trial. In the third study in which palm shortening, palm oil and palm olein were simultaneously used to intermittently fry chicken parts in the laboratory simulating the conditions in fast food outlets, the three frying oils also performed very satisfactorily as reflected by their reasonably low FFA of <1%, smoke points of >180 degrees C, and polar and polymer contents of <25% and <6%, respectively, after 5 days of consecutive frying. All the quality indicators did not exceed the maximum discard points for frying oils/fats in the three applications, while the fried food product was well accepted by the in-house train sensory panel using a-nine point hedonic score.
  5. Ismail R
    Med J Malaysia, 1987 Jun;42(2):124-6.
    PMID: 2971861
    Acne is one of the most common disorders affecting mankind. Although acne does not cause death, it however produces a lot of discomfort, disfigurement and psychological trauma, particularly in teenagers. Acne vulgaris is a chronic condition involving the pilosebaceous unit of the skin. It is characterised by the presence of comedones, inflammatory papules, pustules or cysts, and eventually by scarring. The end result of acne varies from hyperpigmentation, slight pitting, to extremely disfiguring scars that may develop into keloids. Acne fulminans is a rare disorder and is characterised by sudden explosive appearance of highly inflammatory, tender, crusted, ulcerated lesions involving the back, chest and face. It is one of the most scarring acute dermatologic disorders of young people. A case of acne fulminans in a young female who developed haemolysis due to dapsone is reported here.
  6. Jing W, Ismail R
    Int J Dermatol, 1999 Jun;38(6):457-63.
    PMID: 10397587
    BACKGROUND: Mucocutaneous lesions directly related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection usually present as initial manifestations of immune deficiency. The most common mucocutaneous lesions are Kaposi's sarcoma, histoplasmosis, oro-esophageal candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, and, in Asia, Penicillium marneffei infection. Non-HIV-related skin lesions, such as psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, and nodular prurigo, may be the initial presentation among HIV infected patients attending outpatient clinics.

    METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 145 HIV-positive Malaysians of Chinese descent from two centers at the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur (UHKL) and the General Hospital Kuala Lumpur (GHKL) from March 1997 to February 1998. Demographic data and clinical data were analyzed.

    RESULTS: The analysis showed that 104 out of 145 patients had mucocutaneous disorders (71.7%). In the study, there were 100 men (96.2%) and four women (3.8%). The majority of patients were in the age group 20-50 years. The patients who presented with mucocutaneous disease also had low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and most had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining illness. The number of cases with generalized hyperpigmentation was very high in the group (35.9%), followed by nodular prurigo (29.7%) and xerosis (27.6%). Seborrheic dermatitis was seen in 20.7% of cases, with psoriasis in 8.3%. The most common infections were oral candidiasis (35.9%), tinea corporis and onychomycosis (9.7%), and herpes infection (5.5%); however, mucocutaneous manifestations of Kaposi's sarcoma were rare.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that mucocutaneous findings are useful clinical predictors of HIV infection or signs of the presence of advanced HIV infection.

  7. Kang ES, Ismail R
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2014;9(1):598.
    PMID: 25404871 DOI: 10.1186/1556-276X-9-598
    The electronic band structure and carrier density of strained armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) with widths of n =3 m and n =3 m +1 were examined using tight-binding approximation. The current-voltage (I-V) model of uniaxial strained n =3 m AGNRs incorporating quantum confinement effects is also presented in this paper. The derivation originates from energy dispersion throughout the entire Brillouin zone of uniaxial strained AGNRs based on a tight-binding approximation. Our results reveal the modification of the energy bandgap, carrier density, and drain current upon strain. Unlike the two-dimensional graphene, whose bandgap remains near to zero even when a large strain is applied, the bandgap and carrier density of AGNRs are shown to be sensitive to the magnitude of uniaxial strain. Discrepancies between the classical calculation and quantum calculation were also measured. It has been found that as much as 19% of the drive current loss is due to the quantum confinement. These analytical models which agree well with the experimental and numerical results provide physical insights into the characterizations of uniaxial strained AGNRs.
  8. Johari Z, Ismail R
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2013;8(1):479.
    PMID: 24229375 DOI: 10.1186/1556-276X-8-479
    : Armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) for n=3m and n=3m+1 family carrier statistic under uniaxial strain is studied by means of an analytical model based on tight binding approximation. The uniaxial strain of AGNR carrier statistic models includes the density of state, carrier concentration, and carrier velocity. From the simulation, it is found that AGNR carrier concentration has not been influenced by the uniaxial strain at low normalized Fermi energy for n=3m and n=3m+1. In addition, the carrier velocity of AGNR is mostly affected by strain at high concentration of n≈3.0×107 and 1.0 × 107 m-1 for n=3m and n=3m+1, respectively. The result obtained gives physical insight into the understanding of uniaxial strain in AGNR.
  9. Zahari Z, Ismail R
    Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet., 2014;29(1):29-43.
    PMID: 23759977
    CYP2D6 polymorphisms show large geographical and interethnic differences. Variations in CYP2D6 activity may impact upon a patient's pain level and may contribute to interindividual variations in the response to opioids. This paper reviews the evidence on how CYP2D6 polymorphisms might influence pain sensitivity and clinical response to codeine and tramadol. For example, it is shown that (1) CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs) may be less efficient at synthesizing endogenous morphine compared with other metabolizers. In contrast, ultra-rapid metabolizers (UMs) may be more efficient than other metabolizers at synthesizing endogenous morphine, thus strengthening endogenous pain modulation. Additionally, for codeine and tramadol that are bioactivated by CYP2D6, PMs may undergo no metabolite formation, leading to inadequate analgesia. Conversely, UMs may experience quicker analgesic effects but be prone to higher mu-opioid-related toxicity. The literature suggested the potential usefulness of the determination of CYP2D6 polymorphisms in elucidating serious adverse events and in preventing subsequent inappropriate selection or doses of codeine and tramadol. Notably, even though many studies investigated a possible role of the CYP2D6 polymorphisms on pain sensitivity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these drugs, the results of analgesia and adverse effects are conflicting. More studies are required to demonstrate genetically determined unresponsiveness and risk of developing serious adverse events for patients with pain and these should involve larger numbers of patients in different population types.
  10. Ismail R, Teh LK
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2006 Feb;31(1):99-109.
    PMID: 16476126
    CYP2D6 polymorphisms are well described in normal populations but there are few data on its clinical significance. We therefore investigated the influence of CYP2D6 polymorphism on steady-state plasma concentrations and apparent oral clearance of metoprolol in patients with cardiovascular diseases.
  11. Ismail R, Doi S, Naganathna N
    Med J Malaysia, 1995 Dec;50(4):298-301.
    PMID: 8668046
    The spread of HIV infection into Malaysia is estimated to have occurred in the early 1980's. The first case of AIDS was reported here in 1986. As of March 31, 1994, the numbers have increased to 8049 HIV positive individuals detected in the country. The risk behaviours among those tested positive were intravenous drug use in 77.2%, sexual transmission in 4.5%, while the remainder are still under investigation. Pediatric AIDS constitutes 0.2% of positives. The high prevalence among intravenous drug users (IVDU) is likely to be due to mandatory testing for HIV upon entry to rehabilitation centres. The trend of HIV infection in this country seems to be highest amongst the intravenous drug users. The increasing number of HIV infected prostitutes and heterosexuals in our population is worrying. Since 1986, a total of 104 HIV positive individuals have been treated at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Of these, 25 have died and of those still alive, 5 have symptomatic disease. The most common AIDS-defining illness is Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Education programmes have been developed targeting the various high risk groups and the general population.
  12. Ismail R, Rahman AF
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 1993 Feb;18(1):55-8.
    PMID: 8473361
    We used OPT to estimate individual and population pharmacokinetics for carbamazepine (CBZ) in Malaysian epileptic patients attending our Neurology Clinic. We noted that plasma CBZ concentrations and clearances correlated poorly with daily doses and body weights respectively but we found the values for clearance, volumes of distribution, elimination rate constants and half lives to be in good agreement with earlier reports. We conclude that OPT is a simple yet useful program to derive individual and population pharmacokinetic parameters for CBZ for use in dosage adjustments. We also conclude that although the Malaysian population do not differ substantially in handling CBZ, available data for the pharmacokinetic parameters must be used cautiously in applying it to the therapeutic drug monitoring for CBZ in our patients.
  13. Ismail R, Rahman AF
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 1990 Dec;15(6):411-7.
    PMID: 2089048
    We reviewed our data from 122 records of patients taking phenytoin for the treatment of various types of epilepsy and selected 15 (age range 10-43 years old) who were on phenytoin alone to calculate Michaelis-Menten pharmacokinetic parameters. The average Vm and Km for this age group was found to be 8.45 mg/kg/day and 6.72 mg/litre, respectively. Km was independent of age and weight. Vm correlated well with weight but there was no relationship with age.
  14. Goh, S.H., Khor, K.H., Lau, S.F., Ismail, R., Khairani-Bejo, S., Radzi, R.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2019;31(1):17-27.
    Dogs could be reservoirs and carriers of Leptospira spp., hence, may play a potential role in disease transmission, exposing dog handlers to leptospirosis. This study evaluated the dog handlers’ knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) towards leptospirosis. Four working dog and four dog shelter organisations were approached. A total of 138 dog handlers were conveniently recruited and evaluated on their level of knowledge, attitude and practice towards leptospirosis using a validated structured questionnaire. Most of the dog handlers were male aged between 30 and 40 years with a wide range of working experience of 1 - 10 years and all of them have no formal training about leptospirosis. The majority of the dog handlers from the dog shelters had poor knowledge (90%, n=34/38) and attitude (100%, n=38/38) and moderate practice (53%, n=20/38) towards leptospirosis, whereas the working dog handlers had poor knowledge (58%, n=58/100) and attitude (75%, n=75/100) but a good level of practice (77%, n=77/100). The poor attitude towards leptospirosis in both groups is alarming as it may hinder implementation plans of control and preventive measures. Although there was good hand-washing practices among the dog handlers, there was a lack of personal protective equipment (PPE) practice that may therefore expose both the dogs and dog handlers to leptospirosis. Information gained from this study could be used to implement intervention programmes and to suggest prevention measures to limit the risk of leptospirosis among the dog handlers.
  15. Rosdi R.A., Yusoff S., Mohd Yusoff N., Ismail R., Tan, C.S., Musa N.
    It has been recognized extensively that studies of pharmacogenetics provide massive examples of causal relationship between genotypes and drug effectiveness to account for interindividual phenotypic variations in drug therapy. In most cases, cytochrome P450 (CYP) polymorphisms are one of the major variables that affecting those drug plasma concentration, drug detoxification and drug activation in humans. Thus, understanding of CYP polymorphisms can be crucially valuable in order to allow early and more accurate drug dosage prediction and improve the drug response accordingly. Despite the high level of homologous amino acid sequences, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genes are among the most important CYP genes which metabolize a wide range of clinically therapeutic drugs. Several critical reviews have been published relating to the aforementioned genes. However, this minireview aims to systematically merge reported studies on the SNPs frequencies of both genes concentrating only on Malaysian population. It is hoped that, the minireview can be an opener for new opportunities to reevaluate the evidence on the prevalence of CYP2C genes as a potential genetic factor influencing a particular drug efficacy and safety among Malaysian. Such evaluation can be developed to the next level of early prediction of better and specific drug treatment, thereby improving the drug response while helping the government in minimising the drug expenditures.
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