Spices are rich sources of antioxidants due to the presence of phenols and flavonoids. In this study, the DNA protecting activity and inhibition of nicotine-induced cancer cell migration of 9 spices were analysed. Murine fibroblasts (3T3-L1) and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells were pre-treated with spice extracts and then exposed to H₂O₂ and nicotine. The comet assay was used to analyse the DNA damage. Among the 9 spices, ginger, at 50 μg/ml protected against 68% of DNA damage in 3T3-L1 cells. Caraway, cumin and fennel showed statistically significant (p<0.05) DNA protecting activity. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with nicotine induced cell migration, whereas pre-treatment with spices reduced this migration. Pepper, long pepper and ginger exhibited a high rate of inhibition of cell migration. The results of this study prove that spices protect DNA and inhibit cancer cell migration.
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis is the commonest inflammatory joint disease, affecting nearly 1% of the adult population worldwide. Early and accurate diagnosis and prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have become increasingly important. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the relationships between hematological, biochemical, immunological and cytogenetic parameters in rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy normal controls.
METHODS:The study group comprised of 126 RA patients and equal number of healthy normal control subjects. The blood wa s collected and analyzed for biochemical, immunological, enzymatic and cytogenetic parameters.
RESULTS: Results of the present study indicated that 20% of RA patient's hematological, 31% of biochemical and 70% immunological parameters had a significant difference from the controls and reference range. The RF and anti-CCP antibody levels were also positive in 70% of RA patients. A significant increase in minor chromosomal abnormalities was also observed in patients as compared to controls.
CONCLUSION: The knowledge about autoimmune diseases is very low among the South Indian population. The present study has thus helped in understanding the RA disease in a better way based on a pattern of various clinical markers of the disease condition which might help in planning therapeutic intervention strategies and create awareness about the disease management among RA patients of the population studied.
KEYWORDS: Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP); Rheumatoid arthritis (RA); Rheumatoid factor (RF)
The outcome of 109 patients with severe head injury was studied in relation to clinical and computed tomographic (CT) criteria on admission, after resuscitation. Age, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) and state of pupils strongly correlated with outcome. The presence of hypothalamic disturbances, hypoxia and hypotension were associated with an adverse outcome. The CT indicators associated with poor outcome were perimesencephalic cistern (PMC) obliteration, subarachnoid haemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury and acute subdural haematoma. The prognostic value of midline shift and mass effect were influenced by concomitant presence of diffuse brain injury. For the subset of patients aged < 20 years, with GCS 6-8 and patent PMC (n = 21), 71.4% correct predictions were made for a good outcome. For the subset of patients aged > 20 years, with GCS 3-5 and partial or complete obliteration of PMC (n = 28), 89.3% correct predictions were made for a poor outcome.
Smoking and smokeless tobacco consumption is a significant risk factor that provokes genetic alterations. The present investigation was to evaluate the biomarkers of genotoxicity including micronucleus (MN), chromosome aberrations (CA) and DNA strand breaks among tobacco consumers and control individuals residing in hilly areas of Western Ghats, Tamilnadu, South India. This study included 268 tobacco consumers with equal number of controls. The tobacco consumers were divided into Group I (<10 years of tobacco consumption with an age range from 15 to 35 years) and group II (>10 years consumption above 35 years of age). Chromosome aberration (CA) and comet assay were performed using blood and micronucleus assay from exfoliated buccal epithelial cells obtained from tobacco consumers and controls. Elevated levels of CA were found in group II (Chromatid type: 2.39 ± 1.13 and chromosome type: 1.44 ± 1.24) exposed subjects, high micronucleus and DNA damage (TL:4.48 ± 1.24 and TM:3.40 ± 1.58) levels were significantly (p
In this study, phyto-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was achieved using an aqueous leaf extract of Alternanthera tenella. The phytochemical screening results revealed that flavonoids are responsible for the AgNPs formation. The AgNPs were characterised using UV-visible spectrophotometer, field emission scanning microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray, transmission electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction. The average size of the nanoparticles was found to be ≈48 nm. The EDX results show that strong signals were observed for the silver atoms. The strong band appearing at 1601-1595 cm(-1) correspond to C-C stretching vibration from dienes in FT-IR spectrum indicating the formation of AgNPs. Human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells treated with various concentrations of AgNPs showed a dose-dependent increase in cell inhibition. The IC50 value of the AgNPs was calculated to be 42.5 μg mL(-1). The AgNPs showed a significant reduction in the migration of MCF-7 cells.
Inexpensive forms of tobacco are widely used in developing countries such as India. We have evaluated genotoxicity endpoints (chromosome aberrations, micronucleus frequency, comet assay) and polymorphisms of the XRCC1 and p53 genes among smokers and smokeless tobacco (SLT) users in rural Tamilnadu, South India. Cytogenetic, DNA damage and SNP analyses were performed on peripheral blood samples; micronucleus frequency was measured in peripheral blood and buccal mucosa exfoliated cells. Both categories of tobacco users had elevated levels of genotoxic damage. SNP analysis of tobacco users revealed that 17% carry the XRCC1 gln399gln genotype and 19% carry the p53 pro72pro genotype. Both genotypes are associated with increased risk of cancer.
Antimetastatic and anti-inflammatory activities of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (OSEO) have been assessed in this study. OSEO at the concentration of 250 μg/mL and above showed a significant ((*) P < 0.05) decrease in the number of migrated cancer cells. In addition, OSEO at concentration of 250 μg/mL and above suppressed MMP-9 activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory cells. A dose-dependent downregulation of MMP-9 expression was observed with the treatment of OSEO compared to the control. Our findings indicate that OSEO has both antimetastatic and anti-inflammatory potentials, advocating further investigation for clinical applications in the treatment of inflammation associated cancer.
In this work, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles from a pigment produced by a recently-discovered bacterium, Chryseobacterium artocarpi CECT 8497, was achieved, followed by an investigation of its anticancer properties. The bacterial pigment was identified as flexirubin following NMR ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR), UV-Vis, and LC-MS analysis. An aqueous silver nitrate solution was treated with isolated flexirubin to produce silver nanoparticles. The synthesised silver nanoparticles were subsequently characterised by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy methodologies. Furthermore, the anticancer effects of synthesised silver nanoparticles in a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were evaluated. The tests showed significant cytotoxicity activity of the silver nanoparticles in the cultured cells, with an IC50 value of 36μgmL(-1). This study demonstrates that silver nanoparticles, synthesised from flexirubin from C. artocarpi CECT 8497, may have potential as a novel chemotherapeutic agent.
Essential oil of Ocimum sanctum Linn. exhibited various pharmacological activities including antifungal and antimicrobial activities. In this study, we analyzed the anticancer and apoptosis mechanisms of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (OSEO).
Tropical and sub-tropical fruits are tremendous sources of polysaccharides (PSs), which are of great interest in the human welfare system as natural medicines, food and cosmetics. This review paper aims to highlight the recent trends in extraction (conventional and non-conventional), purification and analytic techniques of fruit polysaccharides (FPSs). The chemical structure and biological activities, such as immunomodulatory, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-coagulant and anti-diabetic effects, of PSs extracted from 53 various fruits were compared and discussed. With this wide coverage, a total of 172 scientific articles were reviewed and discussed. This comprehensive survey from previous studies suggests that the FPSs are non-toxic and highly biocompatible. In addition, this review highlights that FPSs might be excellent functional foods as well as effective therapeutic drugs. Finally, the future research advances of FPSs are also described. The content of this review will promote human wellness-based food product development in the future.