Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 61 in total

  1. Rosli R, Abdul Kadir MR, Kamarul T
    Proc Inst Mech Eng H, 2014 Apr;228(4):342-9.
    PMID: 24622982 DOI: 10.1177/0954411914527074
    Anterior corpectomy and reconstruction using a plate with locking screws are standard procedures for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Although adding more screws to the construct will normally result in improved fixation stability, several issues need to be considered. Past reports have suggested that increasing the number of screws can result in the increase in spinal rigidity, decreased spine mobility, loss of bone and, possibly, screw loosening. In order to overcome this, options to have constrained, semi-constrained or hybrid screw and plate systems were later introduced. The purpose of this study is to compare the stability achieved by four and two screws using different plate systems after one-level corpectomy with placement of cage. A three-dimensional finite-element model of an intact C1-C7 segment was developed from computer tomography data sets, including the cortical bone, soft tissue and simulated corpectomy fusion at C4-C5. A spinal cage and an anterior cervical plate with different numbers of screws and plate systems were constructed to a fit one-level corpectomy of C5. Moment load of 1.0 N m was applied to the superior surface of C1, with C7 was fixed in all degrees of freedom. The kinematic stability of a two-screw plate was found to be statistically equivalent to a four-screw plate for one-level corpectomy. Thus, it can be a better option of fusion and infers comparable stability after one-level anterior cervical corpectomy, instead of a four-screw plate.
  2. Kadir MR, Syahrom A, Ochsner A
    Med Biol Eng Comput, 2010 May;48(5):497-505.
    PMID: 20224954 DOI: 10.1007/s11517-010-0593-2
    Human bones can be categorised into one of two types--the compact cortical and the porous cancellous. Whilst the cortical is a solid structure macroscopically, the structure of cancellous bone is highly complex with plate-like and strut-like structures of various sizes and shapes depending on the anatomical site. Reconstructing the actual structure of cancellous bone for defect filling is highly unfeasible. However, the complex structure can be simplified into an idealised structure with similar properties. In this study, two idealised architectures were developed based on morphological indices of cancellous bone: the tetrakaidecahedral and the prismatic. The two architectures were further subdivided into two types of microstructure, the first consists of struts only and the second consists of a combination of plates and struts. The microstructures were transformed into finite element models and displacement boundary condition was applied to all four idealised cancellous models with periodic boundary conditions. Eight unit cells extracted from the actual cancellous bone obtained from micro-computed tomography were also analysed with the same boundary conditions. Young's modulus values were calculated and comparison was made between the idealised and real cancellous structures. Results showed that all models with a combination of plates and struts have higher rigidity compared to the one with struts only. Values of Young's modulus from eight unit cells of cancellous bone varied from 42 to 479 MPa with an average of 234 MPa. The prismatic architecture with plates and rods closely resemble the average stiffness of a unit cell of cancellous bone.
  3. Li S, Shaharudin S, Abdul Kadir MR
    Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 2021 04 01;100(4):337-344.
    PMID: 33727516 DOI: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000001567
    BACKGROUND: Due to the pain caused by knee injuries, low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction (L-BFR) may be a potential adjuvant therapeutic tool in the rehabilitation of knee injuries. This review aimed to analyze the effectiveness of L-BFR training modality in knee rehabilitation.

    DESIGN: A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the potential impact of blood flow restriction on patients with knee injuries. PubMed, EBSCO, and Web of Science databases were searched for eligible studies from January 2000 until January 2020. The mean differences of the data were analyzed using Revman 5.3 software with a 95% confidence interval.

    RESULTS: Nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. These studies involved 179 patients who received L-BFR, 96 patients who underwent high-load resistance training, and another 94 patients who underwent low-load resistance training. The analysis of pooled data showed that patients in both the L-BFR (standardized mean difference, 0.83 [0.53, 1.14], P < 0.01) and high-load resistance training (standardized mean difference, -0.09 [-0.43, 0.24], P = 0.58) groups experienced an increase in muscle strength after the training. In addition, pain score was significantly reduced in the L-BFR group compared with the other two groups (standardized mean difference, -0.61 [-1.19, -0.03], P = 0.04).

    CONCLUSIONS: Muscle strength increased after L-BFR and high-load resistance training compared with low-load resistance training. Furthermore, pain score was significantly reduced after L-BFR. Hence, L-BFR is a potential intervention to be applied in rehabilitation of knee injuries.

  4. Darmawan MF, Yusuf SM, Abdul Kadir MR, Haron H
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2015 Mar;17(2):71-8.
    PMID: 25456051 DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2014.09.006
    Age estimation was used in forensic anthropology to help in the identification of individual remains and living person. However, the estimation methods tend to be unique and applicable only to a certain population. This paper analyzed age estimation using twelve regression models carried out on X-ray images of the left hand taken from an Asian data set for subjects under the age of 19. All the nineteen bones of the left hand were measured using free image software and the statistical analysis were performed using SPSS. There are two methods to determine age in this study which are single bone method and all bones method. For single bone method, S-curve regression model was found to have the highest R-square value using second metacarpal for males, and third proximal phalanx for females. For age estimation using single bone, fifth metacarpal from males and fifth proximal phalanx from females can be used due to the lowest mean square error (MSE) value. To conclude, multiple linear regressions is the best techniques for age estimation in cases where all bones are available, but if not, S-curve regression can be used using single bone method.
  5. Darmawan MF, Yusuf SM, Kadir MR, Haron H
    Forensic Sci Int, 2015 Feb;247:130.e1-11.
    PMID: 25540897 DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.11.007
    Sex estimation is used in forensic anthropology to assist the identification of individual remains. However, the estimation techniques tend to be unique and applicable only to a certain population. This paper analyzed sex estimation on living individual child below 19 years old using the length of 19 bones of left hand applied for three classification techniques, which were Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) multilayer perceptron. These techniques were carried out on X-ray images of the left hand taken from an Asian population data set. All the 19 bones of the left hand were measured using Free Image software, and all the techniques were performed using MATLAB. The group of age "16-19" years old and "7-9" years old were the groups that could be used for sex estimation with as their average of accuracy percentage was above 80%. ANN model was the best classification technique with the highest average of accuracy percentage in the two groups of age compared to other classification techniques. The results show that each classification technique has the best accuracy percentage on each different group of age.
  6. Syahrom A, Abdul Kadir MR, Harun MN, Öchsner A
    Med Eng Phys, 2015 Jan;37(1):77-86.
    PMID: 25523865 DOI: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2014.11.001
    Artificial bone is a suitable alternative to autografts and allografts, however their use is still limited. Though there were numerous reports on their structural properties, permeability studies of artificial bones were comparably scarce. This study focused on the development of idealised, structured models of artificial cancellous bone and compared their permeability values with bone surface area and porosity. Cancellous bones from fresh bovine femur were extracted and cleaned following an established protocol. The samples were scanned using micro-computed tomography (μCT) and three-dimensional models of the cancellous bones were reconstructed for morphology study. Seven idealised and structured cancellous bone models were then developed and fabricated via rapid prototyping technique. A test-rig was developed and permeability tests were performed on the artificial and real cancellous bones. The results showed a linear correlation between the permeability and the porosity as well as the bone surface area. The plate-like idealised structure showed a similar value of permeability to the real cancellous bones.
  7. Mustafa AA, Matinlinna JP, Saidin S, Kadir MR
    J Prosthet Dent, 2014 Dec;112(6):1498-506.
    PMID: 24993375 DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2014.05.011
    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The inconsistency of dentin bonding affects retention and microleakage.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this laboratory and finite element analysis study was to investigate the effects on the formation of a hybrid layer of an experimental silane coupling agent containing primer solutions composed of different percentages of hydroxyethyl methacrylate.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 125 sound human premolars were restored in vitro. Simple class I cavities were formed on each tooth, followed by the application of different compositions of experimental silane primers (0%, 5%, 25%, and 50% of hydroxyethyl methacrylate), bonding agents, and dental composite resins. Bond strength tests and scanning electron microscopy analyses were performed. The laboratory experimental results were validated with finite element analysis to determine the pattern of stress distribution. Simulations were conducted by placing the restorative composite resin in a premolar tooth by imitating simple class I cavities. The laboratory and finite element analysis data were significantly different from each other, as determined by 1-way ANOVA. A post hoc analysis was conducted on the bond strength data to further clarify the effects of silane primers.

    RESULTS: The strongest bond of hybrid layer (16.96 MPa) was found in the primer with 25% hydroxyethyl methacrylate, suggesting a barely visible hybrid layer barrier. The control specimens without the application of the primer and the primer specimens with no hydroxyethyl methacrylate exhibited the lowest strength values (8.30 MPa and 11.78 MPa) with intermittent and low visibility of the hybrid layer. These results were supported by finite element analysis that suggested an evenly distributed stress on the model with 25% hydroxyethyl methacrylate.

    CONCLUSIONS: Different compositions of experimental silane primers affected the formation of the hybrid layer and its resulting bond strength.

  8. Ramlee MH, Kadir MR, Murali MR, Kamarul T
    Med Eng Phys, 2014 Oct;36(10):1358-66.
    PMID: 25092623 DOI: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2014.07.001
    Subtalar dislocation is a rare injury caused by high-energy trauma. Current treatment strategies include leg casts, internal fixation and external fixation. Among these, external fixators are the most commonly used as this method is believed to provide better stabilization. However, the biomechanical stability provided by these fixators has not been demonstrated. This biomechanical study compares two commonly used external fixators, i.e. Mitkovic and Delta. CT imaging data were used to reconstruct three-dimensional models of the tibia, fibula, talus, calcaneus, navicular, cuboid, three cuneiforms and five metatarsal bones. The 3D models of the bones and cartilages were then converted into four-noded linear tetrahedral elements, whilst the ligaments were modelled with linear spring elements. Bones and cartilage were idealized as homogeneous, isotropic and linear. To simulate loading during walking, axial loading (70 N during the swing and 350 N during the stance phase) was applied at the end of diaphyseal tibia. The results demonstrate that the Mitkovic fixator produced greater displacement (peak 3.0mm and 15.6mm) compared to the Delta fixator (peak 0.8mm and 3.9 mm), in both the swing and stance phase, respectively. This study demonstrates that the Delta external fixator provides superior stability over the Mitkovic fixator. The Delta fixator may be more effective in treating subtalar dislocation.
  9. Jamuna-Thevi K, Saarani NN, Abdul Kadir MR, Hermawan H
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2014 Oct;43:253-63.
    PMID: 25175212 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2014.07.028
    This paper discusses the successful fabrication of a novel triple-layered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based composite membrane using only a single step that combines the techniques of solvent casting and thermally induced phase separation/solvent leaching. The resulting graded membrane consists of a small pore size layer-1 containing 10 wt% non-stoichiometric nanoapatite (NAp)+1-3 wt% lauric acid (LA) for fibroblastic cell and bacterial inhibition, an intermediate layer-2 with 20-50 wt% NAp+1 wt% LA, and a large pore size layer-3 containing 30-100 wt% NAp without LA to allow bone cell growth. The synergic effects of 10-30 wt% NAp and 1 wt% LA in the membrane demonstrated higher tensile strength (0.61 MPa) and a more elastic behavior (16.1% elongation at break) in 3 wt% LA added membrane compared with the pure PLGA (0.49 MPa, 9.1%). The addition of LA resulted in a remarkable plasticizing effect on PLGA at 3 wt% due to weak intermolecular interactions in PLGA. The pure and composite PLGA membranes had good cell viability toward human skin fibroblast, regardless of LA and NAp contents.
  10. Fallahiarezoodar A, Abdul Kadir MR, Alizadeh M, Naveen SV, Kamarul T
    Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2014 Dec;22(12):3019-27.
    PMID: 25149643 DOI: 10.1007/s00167-014-3227-7
    PURPOSE: Reproducing the femoral rollback through specially designed mechanism in knee implants is required to achieve full knee function in total knee arthroplasty. Most contemporary implants use cam/post mechanism to replace the function of Posterior Cruciate Ligament. This study was aimed to determine the most appropriate cam and post designs to produce normal femoral rollback of the knee.

    METHODS: Three different cams (triangle, ellipse, and circle) and three different posts (straight, convex, concave) geometries were considered in this study and were analysed using kinematic analyses. Femoral rollback did not occur until reaching 50° of knee flexion. Beyond this angle, two of the nine combinations demonstrate poor knee flexion and were eliminated from the study.

    RESULTS: The combination of circle cam with concave post, straight post and convex post showed 15.6, 15.9 and 16.1 mm posterior translation of the femur, respectively. The use of ellipse cam with convex post and straight post demonstrated a 15.3 and 14.9 mm femoral rollback, whilst the combination of triangle cam with convex post and straight post showed 16.1 and 15.8 mm femoral rollback, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that the use of circle cam and convex post created the best femoral rollback effect which in turn produces the highest amount of knee flexion. The findings of the study suggest that if the design is applied for knee implants, superior knee flexion may be possible for future patients.


  11. Ramlee MH, Kadir MR, Murali MR, Kamarul T
    Med Eng Phys, 2014 Oct;36(10):1322-30.
    PMID: 25127377 DOI: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2014.05.015
    Pilon fractures are commonly caused by high energy trauma and can result in long-term immobilization of patients. The use of an external fixator i.e. the (1) Delta, (2) Mitkovic or (3) Unilateral frame for treating type III pilon fractures is generally recommended by many experts owing to the stability provided by these constructs. This allows this type of fracture to heal quickly whilst permitting early mobilization. However, the stability of one fixator over the other has not been previously demonstrated. This study was conducted to determine the biomechanical stability of these external fixators in type III pilon fractures using finite element modelling. Three-dimensional models of the tibia, fibula, talus, calcaneus, navicular, cuboid, three cuneiforms and five metatarsal bones were reconstructed from previously obtained CT datasets. Bones were assigned with isotropic material properties, while the cartilage was assigned as hyperelastic springs with Mooney-Rivlin properties. Axial loads of 350 N and 70 N were applied at the tibia to simulate the stance and the swing phase of a gait cycle. To prevent rigid body motion, the calcaneus and metatarsals were fixed distally in all degrees of freedom. The results indicate that the model with the Delta frame produced the lowest relative micromovement (0.03 mm) compared to the Mitkovic (0.05 mm) and Unilateral (0.42 mm) fixators during the stance phase. The highest stress concentrations were found at the pin of the Unilateral external fixator (509.2 MPa) compared to the Mitkovic (286.0 MPa) and the Delta (266.7 MPa) frames. In conclusion, the Delta external fixator was found to be the most stable external fixator for treating type III pilon fractures.
  12. Saidin S, Chevallier P, Abdul Kadir MR, Hermawan H, Mantovani D
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2013 Dec 1;33(8):4715-24.
    PMID: 24094179 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2013.07.026
    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coated implant is more susceptible to bacterial infection as the micro-structure surface which is beneficial for osseointegration, could also become a reservoir for bacterial colonisation. The aim of this study was to introduce the antibacterial effect of silver (Ag) to the biomineralised HA by utilising a polydopamine film as an intermediate layer for Ag and HA immobilisation. Sufficient catechol groups in polydopamine were required to bind chemically stainless steel 316 L, Ag and HA elements. Different amounts of Ag nanoparticles were metallised on the polydopamine grafted stainless steel by varying the immersion time in silver nitrate solution from 12 to 24 h. Another polydopamine layer was then formed on the metallised film, followed by surface biomineralisation in 1.5 Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) solution for 3 days. Several characterisation techniques including X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Contact Angle showed that Ag nanoparticles and HA agglomerations were successfully immobilised on the polydopamine film through an element reduction process. The Ag metallisation at 24 h has killed the viable bacteria with 97.88% of bactericidal ratio. The Ag was ionised up to 7 days which is crucial to prevent bacterial infection during the first stage of implant restoration. The aged functionalised films were considered stable due to less alteration of its chemical composition, surface roughness and wettability properties. The ability of the functionalised film to coat complex and micro scale metal make it suitable for dental and orthopaedic implants application.
  13. Ishak MI, Kadir MR, Sulaiman E, Kasim NH
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants, 2013 May-Jun;28(3):e151-60.
    PMID: 23748334 DOI: 10.11607/jomi.2304
    To compare the extramaxillary approach with the widely used intrasinus approach via finite element method.
  14. Ahmad M, Uzir Wahit M, Abdul Kadir MR, Mohd Dahlan KZ
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:474851.
    PMID: 22666129 DOI: 10.1100/2012/474851
    Ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene/high-density polyethylene (UHMWPE/HDPE) blends prepared using polyethylene glycol PEG as the processing aid and hydroxyapatite (HA) as the reinforcing filler were found to be highly processable using conventional melt blending technique. It was demonstrated that PEG reduced the melt viscosity of UHMWPE/HDPE blend significantly, thus improving the extrudability. The mechanical and bioactive properties were improved with incorporation of HA. Inclusion of HA from 10 to 50 phr resulted in a progressive increase in flexural strength and modulus of the composites. The strength increment is due to the improvement on surface contact between the irregular shape of HA and polymer matrix by formation of mechanical interlock. The HA particles were homogenously distributed even at higher percentage showed improvement in wetting ability between the polymer matrix and HA. The inclusion of HA enhanced the bioactivity properties of the composite by the formation of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) precipitates on the composite surface as proven from SEM and XRD analysis.
  15. Saidin S, Abdul Kadir MR, Sulaiman E, Abu Kasim NH
    J Dent, 2012 Jun;40(6):467-74.
    PMID: 22366313 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2012.02.009
    The aim of this study was to analyse micromotion and stress distribution at the connections of implants and four types of abutments: internal hexagonal, internal octagonal, internal conical and trilobe.
  16. Bajuri MN, Abdul Kadir MR, Murali MR, Kamarul T
    Med Biol Eng Comput, 2013 Feb;51(1-2):175-86.
    PMID: 23124814 DOI: 10.1007/s11517-012-0982-9
    The total replacement of wrists affected by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has had mixed outcomes in terms of failure rates. This study was therefore conducted to analyse the biomechanics of wrist arthroplasty using recently reported implants that have shown encouraging results with the aim of providing some insights for the future development of wrist implants. A model of a healthy wrist was developed using computed tomography images from a healthy volunteer. An RA model was simulated based on all ten general characteristics of the disease. The ReMotion ™ total wrist system was then modelled to simulate total wrist arthroplasty (TWA). Finite element analysis was performed with loads simulating the static hand grip action. The results show that the RA model produced distorted patterns of stress distribution with tenfold higher contact pressure than the healthy model. For the TWA model, contact pressure was found to be approximately fivefold lower than the RA model. Compared to the healthy model, significant improvements were observed for the TWA model with minor variations in the stress distribution. In conclusion, the modelled TWA reduced contact pressure between bones but did not restore the stress distribution to the normal healthy condition.
  17. Bajuri MN, Kadir MR, Amin IM, Ochsner A
    Proc Inst Mech Eng H, 2012 Jul;226(7):510-20.
    PMID: 22913098 DOI: 10.1177/0954411912445846
    The wrist is the most complex joint for virtual three-dimensional simulations, and the complexity is even more pronounced when dealing with skeletal disorders of the joint such, as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In order to analyse the biomechanical difference between healthy and diseased joints, three-dimensional models of these two wrist conditions were developed from computed tomography images. These images consist of eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, the distal radius and ulna. The cartilages were developed based on the shape of the available articulations and ligaments were simulated via mechanical links. The RA model was developed accurately by simulating all ten common criteria of the disease related to the wrist. Results from the finite element (FE) analyses showed that the RA model produced three times higher contact pressure at the articulations compared to the healthy model. Normal physiological load transfer also changed from predominantly through the radial side to an increased load transfer approximately 5% towards the ulnar. Based on an extensive literature search, this is the first ever reported work that simulates the pathological conditions of the rheumatoid arthritis of the wrist joint.
  18. Ishak MI, Abdul Kadir MR, Sulaiman E, Abu Kasim NH
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2012 Sep;41(9):1077-89.
    PMID: 22575179 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijom.2012.04.010
    The aim of this study was to compare two different types of surgical approaches, intrasinus and extramaxillary, for the placement of zygomatic implants to treat atrophic maxillae. A computational finite element simulation was used to analyze the strength of implant anchorage for both approaches in various occlusal loading locations. Three-dimensional models of the craniofacial structures surrounding a region of interest, soft tissue and framework were developed using computed tomography image datasets. The implants were modelled using computer-aided design software. The bone was assumed to be linear isotropic with a stiffness of 13.4 GPa, and the implants were assumed to be made of titanium with a stiffness of 110 GPa. Masseter forces of 300 N were applied at the zygomatic arch, and occlusal loads of 150 N were applied vertically onto the framework surface at different locations. The intrasinus approach demonstrated more satisfactory results and could be a viable treatment option. The extramaxillary approach could also be recommended as a reasonable treatment option, provided some improvements are made to address the cantilever effects seen with that approach.
  19. Syahrom A, Abdul Kadir MR, Abdullah J, Öchsner A
    Med Eng Phys, 2013 Jun;35(6):792-9.
    PMID: 22959618 DOI: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2012.08.011
    In the development of artificial cancellous bones, two major factors need to be considered: the integrity of the overall structure and its permeability. Whilst there have been many studies analysing the mechanical properties of artificial and natural cancellous bones, permeability studies, especially those using numerical simulation, are scarce. In this study, idealised cancellous bones were simulated from the morphological indices of natural cancellous bone. Three different orientations were also simulated to compare the anisotropic nature of the structure. Computational fluid dynamics methods were used to analyse fluid flow through the cancellous structures. A constant mass flow rate was used to determine the intrinsic permeability of the virtual specimens. The results showed similar permeability of the prismatic plate-and-rod model to the natural cancellous bone. The tetrakaidecahedral rod model had the highest permeability under simulated blood flow conditions, but the plate counterpart had the lowest. Analyses on the anisotropy of the virtual specimens showed the highest permeability for the horizontal orientation. Linear relationships were found between permeability and the two physical properties, porosity and bone surface area.
  20. Syahrom A, Abdul Kadir MR, Abdullah J, Öchsner A
    Med Biol Eng Comput, 2011 Dec;49(12):1393-403.
    PMID: 21947767 DOI: 10.1007/s11517-011-0833-0
    The relationship between microarchitecture to the failure mechanism and mechanical properties can be assessed through experimental and computational methods. In this study, both methods were utilised using bovine cadavers. Twenty four samples of cancellous bone were extracted from fresh bovine and the samples were cleaned from excessive marrow. Uniaxial compression testing was performed with displacement control. After mechanical testing, each specimen was ashed in a furnace. Four of the samples were exemplarily scanned using micro-computed tomography (μCT) and three dimensional models of the cancellous bones were reconstructed for finite element simulation. The mechanical properties and the failure modes obtained from numerical simulations were then compared to the experiments. Correlations between microarchitectural parameters to the mechanical properties and failure modes were then made. The Young's modulus correlates well with the bone volume fraction with R² = 0.615 and P value 0.013. Three different types of failure modes of cancellous bone were observed: oblique fracture (21.7%), perpendicular global fracture (47.8%), and scattered localised fracture (30.4%). However, no correlations were found between the failure modes to the morphological parameters. The percentage of error between computer predictions and the actual experimental test was from 6 to 12%. These mechanical properties and information on failure modes can be used for the development of synthetic cancellous bone.
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