Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon is a toxic recalcitrant environmental pollutant and its removal from the environment is very essential. In this study, a novel S1 strain isolated from the tropical rain forest was identified as Candida species based on 18S rRNA. The pyrene biodegradation was performed by Candida sp. S1. Pyrene was 35% degraded in 15 days. The percentage of pyrene biodegradation increased up to 75% with 24 g L-1of sodium chloride and decreased along with increasing salinity. Under the acidic condition, the biodegradation was increased up to 60% at pH 5. It was also found that the increasing glucose concentration of more than 10 g L-1had no significant effect on pyrene biodegradation, while agitation proved to have greater influence. There was a positive relationship between biomass growth and biodegradation rate of pyrene. One pyrene metabolite was identified from the extract solution and analyzed by a thin-layer chromatography, UV-visible absorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The metabolite found in the pyrene degradation was benzoic acid. Suitable conditions must be found to promote a successful microbial augmentation in liquid culture.
Biodiesel, as a renewable and eco-friendly energy source that can be produced through algae oil esterification, has recently received much attention. Maximization of algal biomass and lipid content is crucial for commercial biodiesel production. In this study, Chlorella sp. PG96, a microalgal strain isolated from urban wastewater, was identified considering its morphological and molecular characteristics. Fractional factorial design (211-7) was employed to screen medium and environmental factors for achieving high lipid productivity. The effects of eleven factors including light intensity, light spectrum, aeration rate, temperature, salinity, NaHCO3, CO2, NaNO3, NH4Cl, MgSO4.7H2O, and K2HPO4 and their interactions on growth characteristics of Chlorella sp. PG96 (biomass and lipid production) were statistically assessed. Based on the experimental results, lipid productivity was at its maximum (54.19 ± 8.40 mglipid L-1 day-1) under a combination of high levels of all factors. The analysis also showed that physical parameters of light intensity and temperature were more effective on algal growth compared to nutritional parameters. Furthermore, nitrogen source of ammonium and carbon source of bicarbonate played more significant roles in biomass and lipid production, compared with nitrate and CO2, respectively. Although the effect of sulfur limitation on cellular growth was similar to phosphorus deficiency, S-limitation had a greater impact on lipid accumulation. The interaction between NaHCO3 and NH4Cl was the most prominent interaction affecting all responses. It is concluded that Chlorella sp. PG96 at a high level of light intensity and temperature (22500 Lux and 32 °C, respectively) can be a prospective candidate for biodiesel production.
In this study, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was used to treat domestic wastewater. Ten organic and inorganic parameters were monitored in three weeks for water purification. The six chemical, biological and physical parameters included Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and pH were compared with the Interim National Water Quality Standards, Malaysia River classification (INWQS) and Water Quality Index (WQI). Between 38% to 96% of reduction was observed and water quality has been improved from class III and IV to class II. Analyses for Electricity Conductivity (EC), Salinity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Ammonium (NH4) were also investigated. In all parameters, removal efficiency was in range of 13-17th day (optimum 14th day) which was higher than 3 weeks except DO. It reveals the optimum growth rate of water hyacinth has great effect on waste water purification efficiency in continuous system and nutrient removal was successfully achieved.
Environmental pollution specifically water pollution is alarming both in the developed and developing countries. Heavy metal contamination of water resources is a critical issue which adversely affects humans, plants and animals. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective remediation technology which able to treat heavy metal polluted sites. This environmental friendly method has been successfully implemented in constructed wetland (CWs) which is able to restore the aquatic biosystem naturally. Nowadays, many aquatic plant species are being investigated to determine their potential and effectiveness for phytoremediation application, especially high growth rate plants i.e. macrophytes. Based on the findings, phytofiltration (rhizofiltration) is the sole method which defined as heavy metals removal from water by aquatic plants. Due to specific morphology and higher growth rate, free-floating plants were more efficient to uptake heavy metals in comparison with submerged and emergent plants. In this review, the potential of wide range of aquatic plant species with main focus on four well known species (hyper-accumulators): Pistia stratiotes, Eicchornia spp., Lemna spp. and Salvinia spp. was investigated. Moreover, we discussed about the history, methods and future prospects in phytoremediation of heavy metals by aquatic plants comprehensively.
Microplastics (MPs) are generated from plastic and have negative impact to our environment due to high level of fragmentation. They can be originated from various sources in different forms such as fragment, fiber, foam and so on. For detection of MPs, many techniques have been developed with different functions such as microscopic observation, density separation, Raman and FTIR analysis. Besides, due to ingestion of MPs by wide range of marine species, research on the effect of this pollution on biota as well as human is vital. Therefore, we comprehensively reviewed the occurrence and distribution of MPs pollution in both marine and freshwater environments, including rivers, lakes and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For future studies, we propose the development of new techniques for sampling MPs in aquatic environments and biota and recommend more research regarding MPs release by WWTPs.
Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has globally affected the human mortality rate and economic history of the modern world. According to the World Health Organization, COVID-19 has caused a severe threat to the health of the vulnerable groups, notably the elderly. There is still some disagreements regarding the source of the virus and its intermediate host. However, the spread of this disease has caused most countries to enforce strict curfew laws and close most industrial and recreational centres. This study aims to show the potential positive effects of COVID-19 on the environment and the increase of renewable energy generation in Malaysia. To prevent the spread of this disease, Malaysia enacted the Movement Control Order (MCO) law in March 2020. Implementation of this law led to a reduction in environmental pollution, especially air pollution, in this country. The greenhouse gases (GHG) emission , which was 8 Mt CO2 eq. from January 2020 to March 2020, reduced to <1 Mt CO2 eq. for April and May. The reduction of GHG emission and pollutant gases allowed more sunlight to reach photovoltaic panels, hence increasing the renewable energy generation.
This paper assesses the potential human health risks posed by five heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr) found in seven most consumable fish species (Cirrhinus mrigala, Cirrhinus reba, Catla catla, Lebio rohita, Crossocheilus latius, Clupisoma garua, and Mystus tengara) collected from local markets of Varanasi, Allahabad, Mirzapur, and Kanpur of Uttar Pradesh, India. The Cu concentration was found at Varanasi (4.58 mg/l), Allahabad (2.54 mg/l), and Mirzapur (2.54 mg/l). Pb was recorded 0.54, 0.62, 0.85, and 0.24 mg/l at Kanpur, Allahabad, Mirzapur, and Varanasi, respectively. The Cd concentration was recorded 0.54, 0.68, 0.78, and 0.85 mg/l at Kanpur, Allahabad, Mirzapur, and Varanasi, respectively. The Cr, Cd, and Pb concentrations in the river water were observed over the prescribed safe limits at all sampling sites, while Cu concentration was higher than the standards at all sites except Kanpur. However, Zn was observed under the permissible limits (15 mg/l) at all sampling sites. In case of fish tissues, WHO reported the concentration of Pb, Cd, and Cr higher than the prescribed safe limits. The results determined that the highest heavy metals accumulation was found settled in the liver of all selected fish species. Zn ranked the highest quantity, which was found in fish tissues with the concentration of 32.41 ± 2.55 μg/g in the gill of C. catla and 4.77 ± 0.34 μg/g in the gill C. Reba. The metals followed the magnitude order of Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd > Cr in selected fish tissues.
Inadequately treated or untreated wastewater greatly contribute to the release of unwanted toxic contaminants into water bodies. Some of these contaminants are persistent and bioaccumulative, becoming a great concern as they are released into the environment. Despite the abundance of wastewater treatment technologies, the adsorption method overall has proven to be an excellent way to treat wastewater from multiple industry sources. Because of its significant benefits, i.e., easy availability, handling, and higher efficiency with a low cost relative to other treatments, adsorption is opted as the best method to be used. However, biosorption using naturally found seaweeds has been proven to have promising results in removing pollutants, such as dyes from textile, paper, and the printing industry, nitrogen, and phosphorous and phenolic compounds, as well as heavy metals from various sources. Due to its ecofriendly nature together with the availability and inexpensiveness of raw materials, biosorption via seaweed has become an alternative to the existing technologies in removing these pollutants from wastewater effectively. In this article, the use of low-cost adsorbent (seaweed) for the removal of pollutants from wastewater has been reviewed. An extensive table summarises the applicability of seaweed in treating wastewater. Literature reported that the majority of research used simulated wastewater and minor attention has been given to biosorption using seaweed in the treatment of real wastewater.
The sol-gel/ultrasonically rout produced the novel MnS2-SiO2 nano-hetero-photocatalysts with the various ratio of MnS2. Prepared nano-catalyst were investigated in the photo-degradation of methylene blue under UV light illumination. Structural and optical attributes of as-prepared nano-catalysts were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy. The morphological were studied by scanning electron microscopy-EDS, and dynamic light scattering. The diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was applied to examine the band gap energy. The Eg values of SiO2, MnS2-SiO2-0, MnS2-SiO2-1, and MnS2-SiO2-2 nanocomposites are 6.51, 3.85, 3.17, and 2.67 eV, respectively. The particle size of the SiO2 and MnS2-SiO2-1 nanocomposites were 100.0, and 65.0 nm, respectively. The crystallite size values of MnS2-SiO2-1 were 52.21 nm, and 2.9 eV, respectively. MnS2-SiO2 nano-photocatalyst was recognized as the optimum sample by degrading 96.1% of methylene blue from water. Moreover, the influence of pH of the solution, and contact time as decisive factors on the photo-degradation activity were investigated in this project. The optimum data for pH and time were found 9 and 60 min, respectively. The photo-degradation capacity of MnS2-SiO2-2 is improved (96.1%) due to the low band gap was found from UV-vis DRS. The antimicrobial data of MnS2-SiO2 were studied and demonstrated that the MnS2-SiO2 has fungicidal and bactericidal attributes.
NiS-SiO2 and Cr2S3-TiO2 synthesized by Ultrasound-Microwave method was tested for the photo-degradation of methyl red as azo dye under ultraviolet (UV) light. The structure and morphology of the synthesized materials were examined through scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and the band gap energy differences were determined through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The crystallite size and band gap values of SiO2, TiO2, NiS-SiO2 and Cr2S3-TiO2-1 were obtained from XRD and UV-vis DRS analysis and found insignificant 44.22, 54.11, and 57.11 nm, and 8.9, 3.2, 3.0, 2.7 eV, respectively. The NiS-SiO2 and Cr2S3-TiO2 nanocomposites exhibited good stability and catalytic performance in the azo dye degradation; the composite provides a complete degradation after 50 min under UV irradiation. The effects of different quencher compounds on the Methyl red dye degradation were also investigated. The result for this experiment shows the system without the quencher was highly degradation of Methyl red. The antibacterial influence of the SiO2, TiO2, NiS-SiO2 and Cr2S3-TiO2-1 were studied versus two species bacteria. The antifungal performance of this nanoparticle was analyzed versus two species fungi as the C. albicans and P. funiculosum. Biological data demonstrated that the prepared catalyst has great bactericidal and fungicidal properties.
The aim of this study was ultrasound assisted removal of Ceftriaxone sodium (CS) based on CCD model. Using sonochemical synthesized Bi2WO6 implanted on graphitic carbon nitride/Multiwall carbon nanotube (g-C3N4/MWCNT/Bi2WO6). For this purpose g-C3N4/MWCNT/Bi2WO6 was synthesized and characterized using diverse approaches including XRD, FE-SEM, XPS, EDS, HRTEM, FT-IR. Then, the contribution of conventional variables including pH, CS concentration, adsorbent dosage and ultrasound contact time were studied by central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). ANOVA was employed to the variable factors, and the most desirable operational conditions mass provided. Drug adsorption yield of 98.85% obtained under these defined conditions. Through conducting five experiments, the proper prediction of the optimum point were examined. The respective results showed that RSD% was lower than 5% while the t-test confirmed the high quality of fitting. Langmuir isotherm equation fits the experimental data best and the removal followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The estimation of the experimentally obtained maximum adsorption capacities was 19.57 mg.g- of g-C3N4/MWCNT/Bi2WO6 for CS. Boundary layer diffusion explained the mechanism of removal via intraparticle diffusion.
Photovoltaic (PV) system is the cleanest form of electricity generation, and it is the only form with no effect on the environment at all. However, some environmental challenges persist, which must be overcome before solar energy may be used to represent a source of truly clean energy. This paper aims to study the stability and dynamic behavior of a grid-connected environmentally friendly photovoltaic energy system using the bifurcation theory. This theory introduces a systematic method for stability analysis of dynamic systems, under changes in the system parameters. To produce bifurcation diagrams based on the bifurcation theory, a parameter is constantly changed in each step, using MATLAB and AUTO, and eigenvalues are monitored simultaneously. Considering how the eigenvalues approach the system's imaginary axis in accordance with the changes in the targeted parameter, the occurred saddle-node and Hopf bifurcations of the grid-connected PV system are extracted. Using the obtained bifurcations, the system's dynamic stability limits against changes in controlled (controller coefficients) and systematic parameters (such as the Thevenin impedance network) are found.
Due to the increased complexity and nonlinear nature of microgrid systems such as photovoltaic, wind-turbine fuel cell, and energy storage systems (PV/WT/FC/ESSs), load-frequency control has been a challenge. This paper employs a self-tuning controller based on the fuzzy logic to overcome parameter uncertainties of classic controllers, such as operation conditions, the change in the operating point of the microgrid, and the uncertainty of microgrid modeling. Furthermore, a combined fuzzy logic and fractional-order controller is used for load-frequency control of the off-grid microgrid with the influence of renewable resources because the latter controller benefits robust performance and enjoys a flexible structure. To reach a better operation for the proposed controller, a novel meta-heuristic whale algorithm has been used to optimally determine the input and output scale coefficients of the fuzzy controller and fractional orders of the fractional-order controller. The suggested approach is applied to a microgrid with a diesel generator, wind turbine, photovoltaic systems, and energy storage devices. The comparison made between the results of the proposed controller and those of the classic PID controller proves the superiority of the optimized fractional-order self-tuning fuzzy controller in terms of operation characteristics, response speed, and the reduction in frequency deviations against load variations.
The present study describes the phytoremediation performance of water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) for physicochemical pollutants elimination from paper mill effluent (PME). For this, pot (glass aquarium) experiments were conducted using 0% (BWW: borewell water), 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% treatments of PME under natural day/light regime. Results of the experiments showed that the highest removal of pH (10.75%), electrical conductivity (EC: 63.82%), total dissolved solids (TDS: 71.20%) biological oxygen demand (BOD: 85.03%), chemical oxygen demand (COD: 80.46%), total Kjeldahl's nitrogen (TKN: 93.03%), phosphorus (P: 85.56%), sodium (Na: 91.89%), potassium (K: 84.04%), calcium (Ca: 84.75%), and magnesium (Mg: 83.62%), most probable number (MPN: 77.63%), and standard plate count (SPC: 74.43%) was noted in 75% treatment of PME after treatment by P. stratiotes. PCA showed the best vector length for TKN, Na, and Ca. The maximum plant growth parameters including, total fresh biomass (81.30 ± 0.28 g), chlorophyll content (3.67 ± 0.05 mg g-1 f.wt), and relative growth rate (0.0051 gg-1 d-1 ) was also measured in 75% PME treatment after phytoremediation experiments. The findings of this study make useful insight into the biological management of PME through plant-based pollutant eradication while leftover biomass may be used as a feedstock for low-cost bioenergy production. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Biological treatment of paper mill effluent using water lettuce is presented. Best reduction of physicochemical and microbiological pollutants was attained in 75% treatment. Maximum production of chlorophyll, plant biomass, and highest growth rate was also observed in 75% treatment.
In this paper, the technical-economic framework for designing of water pumping system based on photovoltaic clean energy with water tank storage is presented to supply drinking water of customers for remote areas. The objective function is to minimize the net present cost (NPC) (as economic index) including initial investment costs, maintenance, and replacement costs, and reliability constraint is defined as customer's water not supplied probability (CWNSP) as technical index. A meta-heuristic intelligent water drops algorithm (IWDA) is proposed to optimize the solar water pumping system considering NPC and CWNSP with high accuracy and speed of optimization in achieving the global solution. The simulation results show that the proposed method is capable of responding to customer's water demand by optimally sizing components and water storage tank based on IWDA which is inspired based on flowing the water drops in rivers by achieving the lowest cost with optimal reliability. The NPC of the system with CWNSP equal to 3.17 % is obtained 0.24 M$ for 6-m-high water extraction. The results showed that with increasing the water extraction height, the NPC increased, and the reliability also weakened. Moreover, the superiority of the IWDA is confirmed compared with particle swarm optimization (PSO) in designing a water pumping system with the lowest NPC.
In this study, palm oil mill effluent (POME) was treated using electrocoagulation, whereby the influencing factors including voltage, electrolysis time, and electrolyte amount were optimized to achieve the highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal efficiencies. Graphite was selected as electrode material due to its performance better compared to aluminum and copper. Response surface methodology (RSM) was carried out for optimization of the electrocoagulation operating parameters. The best model obtained using Box-Behnken design (BBD) were quadratic for COD removal (R2 = 0.9844), color reduction (R2 = 0.9412), and oil and grease removal (R2 = 0.9724). The result from the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was obtained to determine the relationship between factors and treatment efficiencies. The experimental results under optimized conditions such as voltage 14, electrolysis time of 3 h, and electrolyte amount of 13.41 g/L show that the electrocoagulation process effectively reduced the COD (56%), color (65%), and oil and grease (99%) of the POME treatment. Graphical abstract.
This review emphasizes the role of toxic metal remediation approaches due to their broad sustainability and applicability. The rapid developmental processes can incorporate a large quantity of hazardous and unseen heavy metals in all the segments of the environment, including soil, water, air and plants. The released hazardous heavy metals (HHMs) entered into the food chain and biomagnified into living beings via food and vegetable consumption and originate potentially health-threatening effects. The physical and chemical remediation approaches are restricted and localized and, mainly applied to wastewater and soils and not the plant. The nanotechnological, biotechnological and genetical approaches required to more rectification and sustainability. A cellular, molecular and nano-level understanding of the pathways and reactions are responsible for potentially toxic metals (TMs) accumulation. These approaches can enable the development of crop varieties with highly reduced concentrations of TMs in their consumable foods and vegetables. As a critical analysis by authors observed that nanoparticles could provide very high adaptability for both in-situ and ex-situ remediation of hazardous heavy metals (HHMs) in the environment. These methods could be used for the improvement of the inbuilt genetic potential and phytoremediation ability of plants by developing transgenic. These biological processes involve the transfer of gene of interest, which plays a role in hazardous metal uptake, transport, stabilization, inactivation and accumulation to increased host tolerance. This review identified that use of nanoremediation and combined biotechnological and, transgenic could help to enhance phytoremediation efficiency in a sustainable way.
Recently, the phyco-synthesis of nanoparticles has been applied as a reliable approach to modern research field, and it has yielded a wide spectrum of diverse uses in fields such as biological science and environmental science. This study used marine natural resource seaweed Sargassum myriocystum due to their unique phytochemicals and their significant attributes in giving effective response on various biomedical applications. The response is created by their stress-tolerant environmental adaptations. This inspired us to make an attempt using the above-mentioned charactersitics. Therfore, the current study performed phycosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) utilising aqueous extracts of S. myriocystum. The TiO2-NPs formation was confirmed in earlier UV-visible spectroscopy analysis. The crystalline structure, functional groups (phycomolecules), particle morphology (cubic, square, and spherical), size (∼50-90 nm), and surface charge (negative) of the TiO2-NPs were analysed and confirmed by various characterisation analyses. In addition, the seaweed-mediated TiO2-NPs was investigated, which showed potential impacts on antibacterial activity and anti-biofilm actions against pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae). Additionally, some evaluations were performed on larvicidal activities of TiO2-NPs in oppose to Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitos and the environmental effects of photocatalytic activities against methylene blue and crystal violet under sunlight irradiation. The highest percent of methylene blue degradation was observed at 92.92% within 45 min. Overall, our findings suggested that S. myriocystum mediates TiO2-NPs to be a potent disruptive material for bacterial pathogens and mosquito larvae and also to enhance the photocatalytic dye degradation.
Incense sticks ash is one of the most unexplored by-products generated at religious places and houses obtained after the combustion of incense sticks. Every year, tonnes of incense sticks ash is produced at religious places in India which are disposed of into the rivers and water bodies. The presence of heavy metals and high content of alkali metals challenges a potential threat to the living organism after the disposal in the river. The leaching of heavy metals and alkali metals may lead to water pollution. Besides this, incense sticks also have a high amount of calcium, silica, alumina, and ferrous along with traces of rutile and other oxides either in crystalline or amorphous phases. The incense sticks ash, heavy metals, and alkali metals can be extracted by water, mineral acids, and alkali. Ferrous can be extracted by magnetic separation, while calcium by HCl, alumina by sulfuric acid treatment, and silica by strong hydroxides like NaOH. The recovery of such elements by using acids and bases will eliminate their toxic heavy metals at the same time recovering major value-added minerals from it. Here, in the present research work, the effect on the elemental composition, morphology, crystallinity, and size of incense sticks ash particles was observed by extracting ferrous, followed by extraction of calcium by HCl and alumina by H2SO4 at 90-95 °C for 90 min. The final residue was treated with 4 M NaOH, in order to extract leachable silica at 90 °C for 90 min along with continuous stirring. The transformation of various minerals phases and microstructures of incense sticks ash (ISA) and other residues during ferrous, extraction, calcium, and alumina and silica extraction was studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). DLS was used for analyzing the size during the experiments while FTIR helped in the confirmation of the formation of new products during the treatments. From the various instrumental analyses, it was found that the toxic metals present in the initial incense sticks ash got eliminated. Besides this, the major alkali metals, i.e., Ca and Mg, got reduced during these successive treatments. Initially, there were mainly irregular shaped, micron-sized particles that were dominant in the incense sticks ash particles. Besides this, there were plenty of carbon particles left unburned during combustion. In the final residue, nanosized flowers shaped along with cuboidal micron-sized particles were dominant. present in If, such sequential techniques will be applied by the industries based on recycling of incense sticks ash, then not only the solid waste pollution will be reduced but also numerous value-added minerals like ferrous, silica, alumina calcium oxides and carbonates can be recovered from such waste. The value-added minerals could act as an economical and sustainable source of adsorbent for wastewater treatment in future.