Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

  1. Khan K, Khan W, Khan T, Naaz G, Naheda A, Aqeel S
    Trop Biomed, 2020 Dec 01;37(4):1038-1049.
    PMID: 33612756 DOI: 10.47665/tb.37.4.1038
    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect all mammals, serving as intermediate hosts. The cause of congenital toxoplasmosis is transplacental transmission of the parasite to the foetus, resulting in wide range of manifestations from mild chorioretinitis to miscarriage. Its frequency can be reduced by early screening of pregnant women which is based mainly on tests for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. We collected serum samples of 594 pregnant women (subjects) after taking their consent over a period of two years (2016-2018) and analyzed them for anti-Toxoplasma IgG by ELISA. The positive samples were then analyzed for IgG avidity test which could differentiate between recent and past infections. The seroprevalence was also correlated with the age of the subjects and their contact with cats. 162 subjects were found positive out of which only three showed a recent infection. After following up until delivery, one of them delivered a baby who had jaundice and was diagnosed with anti-Toxoplasma IgM at birth. The foetus of the second subject died in-utero, while the third woman delivered a normal baby after being given spiramycin when diagnosed with toxoplasmosis in the first trimester. It was found that most of the positive subjects had frequent contact with cats. Invasion of the parasite during third trimester resulted in death in-utero and jaundice. Most common cause of pregnancy wastage during our study was spontaneous abortions while pregnancy loss due to congenital anomalies was rare.
  2. Tuite AR, Watts AG, Khan K, Bogoch II
    Infect Dis Model, 2019;4:251-256.
    PMID: 31667444 DOI: 10.1016/j.idm.2019.09.001
    Southern Thailand has been experiencing a large chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak since October 2018. Given the magnitude and duration of the outbreak and its location in a popular tourist destination, we sought to determine international case exportation risk and identify countries at greatest risk of receiving travel-associated imported CHIKV cases. We used a probabilistic model to estimate the expected number of exported cases from Southern Thailand between October 2018 and April 2019. The model incorporated data on CHIKV natural history, infection rates in Southern Thailand, average length of stay for tourists, and international outbound air passenger numbers from the outbreak area. For countries highly connected to Southern Thailand by air travel, we ran 1000 simulations to estimate the expected number of imported cases. We also identified destination countries with conditions suitable for autochthonous CHIKV transmission. Over the outbreak period, we estimated that an average of 125 (95% credible interval (CrI): 102-149) cases would be exported from Southern Thailand to international destinations via air travel. China was projected to receive the most cases (43, 95% CrI: 30-56), followed by Singapore (7, 95% CrI: 2-12) and Malaysia (5, 95% CrI: 1-10). Twenty-three countries were projected to receive at least one imported case, and 64% of these countries had one or more regions that could potentially support autochthonous CHIKV transmission. The overall risk of international exportation of CHIKV cases associated with the outbreak is Southern Thailand is high. Our model projections are consistent with recent reports of CHIKV in travelers returning from the region. Countries should be alert to the possibility of CHIKV infection in returning travelers, particularly in regions where autochthonous transmission is possible.
  3. Khan K, Khan AH, Sulaiman SA, Soo CT, Akhtar A
    Jpn J Infect Dis, 2016;69(1):56-9.
    PMID: 26073728 DOI: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2014.246
    In the current study we explored the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to antiretroviral therapy among human immune-deficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients. We concluded an observational retrospective study in all patients who were diagnosed with HIV infection and were receiving highly active antiviral therapy from Jan. 2007 to Dec. 2012 at Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Patient socio-demographic details along with clinical features and susceptible ADRs were observed during the study period. Out of 743 patients, 571 (76.9%) were men, and 172 (23.1%) were women. Overall 314 (42.2%) patients experienced ADRs. A total of 425 ADRs were reported, with 311 (73.1%) occurring in men and 114 (26.8%) in women, with a significant statistical relationship (P value (P) = 0.02, OR = 1.21). Overall 239 (56.2%) ADRs were recorded among Chinese, 94 (22.1%) in Malay, and 71 (16.7%) in Indian patients, which had a statistically significant association with ADRs (P = 0.05, OR = 1.50). Out of a total 425 among ADRs, lipodystrophy was recorded in 151 (35.5%) followed by skin rashes in 80 (18.8%), anemia in 74 (17.4%), and peripheral neuropathy in 27 (6.3%) patients. These findings suggest a need of intensive monitoring of ADRs in HIV treatment centres across Malaysia.
  4. Akhtar A, Khan AH, Sulaiman SA, Soo CT, Khan K
    J Med Virol, 2016 Mar;88(3):455-60.
    PMID: 26255632 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24347
    According to WHO, Malaysia has been classified as a concentrated epidemic country due to progression of HIV infection in the population of injecting drug users. The main objectives of current study are to determine the prevalence of HBV among HIV-positive individuals in a tertiary care hospital of Malaysia and to assess the predictors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients. A retrospective, cross-sectional study is conducted at Hospital Palau Pinang, Malaysia. The collection of socio-demographic data as well as clinical data is done with the help of data collection form. Data were analyzed after putting the collected values of required data by using statistical software SPSS version 20.0 and P > 0.05 is considered as significant. Results show that the overall prevalence of HBV was 86 (13%) including 495 (74.5%) males and 169 (25.5%) females among a total of 664 HIV-infected patients. It was observed that there is a high prevalence of HIV-HBV co-infection in males 76 (11.4%) as compared to females 10 (1.5%) (P = 0.002). The median age of the study population was 39 years. The statistical significant risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were observed in the variables of gender, age groups, and injecting drug users. The findings of the present study shows that the prevalence of HBV infection among HIV-positive patients was 13% and the risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were gender, age, and intravenous drug users.
  5. Taha M, Adnan Ali Shah S, Afifi M, Imran S, Sultan S, Rahim F, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2018 08;78:17-23.
    PMID: 29525348 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2018.02.028
    Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) over expression plays role in several pathological conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, chronic inflammatory diseases, psoriasis, and tumor angiogenesis. The inhibitor of this enzyme plays an important role in preventing the serious threat due to over expression of TP. In this regard, a series of seventeenanalogs of 3-formylcoumarin (1-17) were synthesized, characterized by 1HNMR and EI-MS and screened for thymidine phosphorylaseinhibitory activity. All analogs showed a variable degree of thymidine phosphorylase inhibition with IC50 values ranging between 0.90 ± 0.01 and 53.50 ± 1.20 μM when compared with the standard inhibitor 7-Deazaxanthine having IC50 value 38.68 ± 1.12 μM. Among the series, fifteenanalogs such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16 and 17 showed excellent inhibition which is many folds better than the standard 7-Deazaxanthine whiletwo analogs 13 and 14 showed good inhibition. The structure activity relationship (SAR) was mainly based upon by bring about difference of substituents on phenyl ring. Molecular docking study was carried out to understand the binding interaction of the most active analogs.
  6. Abbas Khan K, Zaman K, Shoukry AM, Sharkawy A, Gani S, Sasmoko, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 May;26(14):14287-14299.
    PMID: 30864039 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-04755-5
    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of natural disasters on external migration, price level, poverty incidence, health expenditures, energy and environmental resources, water demand, financial development, and economic growth in a panel of selected Asian countries for a period of 2005-2017. The results confirm that natural disasters in the form of storm and flood largely increase migration, price level, and poverty incidence, which negatively influenced country's economic resources, including enlarge healthcare expenditures, high energy demand, and low economic growth. The study further presented the following results: i) natural resource depletion increases external migration, ii) FDI inflows increase price level, iii) increase healthcare spending and energy demand decreases poverty headcount, iv) poverty incidence and mortality rate negatively influenced healthcare expenditures, v) industrialization increases energy demand, and vi) agriculture value added, fertilizer, and cereal yields required more water supply to produce greater yield. The study emphasized the need to magnify the intensity of natural disasters and create natural disaster mitigation unit to access the human and infrastructure cost and attempt quick recovery for global prosperity.
  7. Aftab RA, Khan AH, Syed Sulaiman SA, Ali I, Khan K
    Am J Med Sci, 2014 Nov;348(5):357-61.
    PMID: 25118657 DOI: 10.1097/MAJ.0000000000000269
    BACKGROUND: The insufficient adoption of internationally accepted clinical guidelines may lead to less than adequate patient care of patients with asthma.
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the knowledge and treatment compliance with Global Initiative of Asthma (GINA, 2011) asthma treatment guidelines among emergency physicians (EPs) at a referral hospital in northern Malaysia.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed in the territory-level referral hospital in northern Malaysia. Twenty-seven EPs were asked to complete an asthma guideline questionnaire to assess their knowledge regarding GINA 2011 asthma treatment guidelines. A total of 810 patients were enrolled, and 30 patients were selected per physician. The authors evaluated the physicians' compliance with GINA 2011 asthma treatment guidelines.
    RESULTS: Of 27 EPs, 20 (74.1%) had adequate knowledge of GINA 2011 asthma treatment guidelines. A total of 615 (75.9%) patients received guideline-recommended emergency treatment. Shortness of breath (n = 436, 53.8%) was the most frequently reported chief complaint. Furthermore, there was a significant but weak association between knowledge of the guideline and treatment compliance among emergency doctors (P = 0.003, φ = 0.110). Moreover, there was no significant change in therapy for patients with comorbid conditions. The mean age of respondents was 27.3 years.
    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, a fair level of guideline knowledge and treatment compliance was noted among EPs. Doctors with adequate guideline knowledge were more likely to comply with GINA 2011 asthma treatment guidelines.
  8. Taha M, Tariq Javid M, Imran S, Selvaraj M, Chigurupati S, Ullah H, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2017 10;74:179-186.
    PMID: 28826047 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2017.08.003
    α-Amylase is a target for type-2 diabetes mellitus treatment. However, small molecule inhibitors of α-amylase are currently scarce. In the course of developing small molecule α-amylase inhibitors, we designed and synthesized thiadiazole quinoline analogs (1-30), characterized by different spectroscopic techniques such as 1HNMR and EI-MS and screened for α-amylase inhibitory potential. Thirteen analogs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28 and 30 showed outstanding α-amylase inhibitory potential with IC50 values ranges between 0.002±0.60 and 42.31±0.17μM which is many folds better than standard acarbose having IC50 value 53.02±0.12μM. Eleven analogs 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19 and 24 showed good to moderate inhibitory potential while seven analogs 8, 13, 16, 20, 21 and 29 were found inactive. Our study identifies novel series of potent α-amylase inhibitors for further investigation. Structure activity relationship has been established.
  9. Tajudeen Bale A, Mohammed Khan K, Salar U, Chigurupati S, Fasina T, Ali F, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2018 09;79:179-189.
    PMID: 29763804 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2018.05.003
    Despite of a diverse range of biological activities associated with chalcones and bis-chalcones, they are still neglected by the medicinal chemist for their possible α-amylase inhibitory activity. So, the current study is based on the evaluation of this class for the identification of new leads as α-amylase inhibitors. For that purpose, a library of substituted chalcones 1-13 and bis-chalcones 14-18 were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic techniques EI-MS and 1H NMR. CHN analysis was carried out and found in agreement with the calculated values. All compounds were evaluated for in vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity and demonstrated good activities in the range of IC50 = 1.25 ± 1.05-2.40 ± 0.09 µM as compared to the standard acarbose (IC50 = 1.04 ± 0.3 µM). Limited structure-activity relationship (SAR) was established by considering the effect of different groups attached to aryl rings on varying inhibitory activity. SMe group in chalcones and OMe group in bis-chalcones were found more influential on the activity than other groups. However, in order to predict the involvement of different groups in the binding interactions with the active site of α-amylase enzyme, in silico studies were also conducted.
  10. Taha M, Sultan S, Imran S, Rahim F, Zaman K, Wadood A, et al.
    Bioorg Med Chem, 2019 09 15;27(18):4081-4088.
    PMID: 31378594 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2019.07.035
    In searchof the potenttherapeutic agent as an α-glucosidase inhibitor, we have synthesized twenty-five analogs (1-25) of quinoline-based Schiff bases as an inhibitoragainst α-glucosidase enzyme under positive control acarbose (IC50 = 38.45 ± 0.80 µM). From the activity profile it was foundthat analogs 1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 12 and 20with IC50values 12.40 ± 0.40, 9.40 ± 0.30, 14.10 ± 0.40, 6.20 ± 0.30, 14.40 ± 0.40, 7.40 ± 0.20 and 13.20 ± 0.40 µMrespectively showed most potent inhibition among the series even than standard drug acarbose (IC50 = 38.45 ± 0.80 µM). Here in the present study analog 4 (IC50 = 6.20 ± 0.30 µM) was found with many folds better α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than the reference drug. Eight analogs like 5, 7, 8, 16, 17, 22, 24 and 25 among the whole series displayed less than 50% inhibition. The substituents effects on phenyl ring thereby superficially established through SAR study. Binding interactions of analogs and the active site of ligands proteins were confirmed through molecular docking study. Spectroscopic techniques like 1H NMR, 13C NMR and ESIMS were used for characterization.
  11. Solangi M, Kanwal, Mohammed Khan K, Saleem F, Hameed S, Iqbal J, et al.
    Bioorg Med Chem, 2020 Nov 01;28(21):115605.
    PMID: 33065441 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2020.115605
    One of the most prevailing metabolic disorder diabetes mellitus has become the global health issue that has to be addressed and cured. Different marketed drugs have been made available for the treatment of diabetes but there is still a need of introducing new therapeutic agents that are economical and have lesser or no side effects. The current study deals with the synthesis of indole acrylonitriles (3-23) and the evaluation of these compounds for their potential for α-glucosidase inhibition. The structures of these synthetic molecules were deduced by using different spectroscopic techniques. Acarbose (IC50 = 2.91 ± 0.02 μM) was used as standard in this study and the synthetic molecules (3-23) have shown promising α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Compounds 4, 8, 10, 11, 14, 18, and 21 displayed superior inhibition of α-glucosidase enzyme in the range of (IC50 = 0.53 ± 0.01-1.36 ± 0.04 μM) as compared to the standard acarbose. Compound 10 (IC50 = 0.53 ± 0.01 μM) was the most effective inhibitor of this library and displayed many folds enhanced activity in contrast to the standard. Molecular docking of synthetic compounds was performed to verify the binding interactions of ligand with the active site of enzyme. This study had identified a number of potential α-glucosidase inhibitors that can be used for further research to identify a potent therapeutic agent against diabetes.
  12. Fayyaz O, Khan A, Shakoor RA, Hasan A, Yusuf MM, Montemor MF, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2021 Mar 05;11(1):5327.
    PMID: 33674680 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-84716-6
    In the present study, the effect of concentration of titanium carbide (TiC) particles on the structural, mechanical, and electrochemical properties of Ni-P composite coatings was investigated. Various amounts of TiC particles (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g L-1) were co-electrodeposited in the Ni-P matrix under optimized conditions and then characterized by employing various techniques. The structural analysis of prepared coatings indicates uniform, compact, and nodular structured coatings without any noticeable defects. Vickers microhardness and nanoindentation results demonstrate the increase in the hardness with an increasing amount of TiC particles attaining its terminal value (593HV100) at the concentration of 1.5 g L-1. Further increase in the concentration of TiC particles results in a decrease in hardness, which can be ascribed to their accumulation in the Ni-P matrix. The electrochemical results indicate the improvement in corrosion protection efficiency of coatings with an increasing amount of TiC particles reaching to ~ 92% at 2.0 g L-1, which can be ascribed to a reduction in the active area of the Ni-P matrix by the presence of inactive ceramic particles. The favorable structural, mechanical, and corrosion protection characteristics of Ni-P-TiC composite coatings suggest their potential applications in many industrial applications.
  13. Taha M, Imran S, Salahuddin M, Iqbal N, Rahim F, Uddin N, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2021 Mar 10;110:104808.
    PMID: 33756236 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.104808
    We have synthesized new hybrid class of indole bearing sulfonamide scaffolds (1-17) as α-glucosidase inhibitors. All scaffolds were found to be active except scaffold 17 and exhibited IC50 values ranging from 1.60 to 51.20 µM in comparison with standard acarbose (IC50 = 42.45 µM). Among the synthesized hybrid class scaffolds 16 was the most potent analogue with IC50 value 1.60 μM, showing many folds better potency as compared to standard acarbose. Whereas, synthesized scaffolds 1-15 showed good α-glucosidase inhibitory potential. Based on α-glucosidase inhibitory effect, Scaffold 16 was chosen due to highest activity in vitro for further evaluation of antidiabetic activity in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The Scaffold 16 exhibited significant antidiabetic activity. All analogues were characterized through 1H, 13CNMR and HR MS. Structure-activity relationship of synthesized analogues was established and confirmed through molecular docking study.
  14. Chua PY, Day AC, Lai KL, Hall N, Tan LL, Khan K, et al.
    Br J Ophthalmol, 2018 Apr;102(4):539-543.
    PMID: 28794074 DOI: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2017-310725
    PURPOSE: To estimate the incidence, and describe the clinical features and short-term clinical outcomes of acute angle closure (AAC).

    METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed AAC were identified prospectively over a 12-month period (November 2011 to October 2012) by active surveillance through the Scottish Ophthalmic Surveillance Unit reporting system. Data were collected at case identification and at 6 months follow-up.

    RESULTS: There were 114 cases (108 patients) reported, giving an annual incidence of 2.2 cases (95% CI 1.8 to 2.6) or 2 patients (95% CI 1.7 to 2.4) per 1 00 000 in the whole population in Scotland. Precipitating factors were identified in 40% of cases. Almost one in five cases was associated with topical dilating drops. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at presentation ranged from 6/6 to perception of light. The mean presenting intraocular pressure (IOP) was 52 mm Hg (SD 11). Almost 30% cases had a delayed presentation of 3 or more days. At 6 months follow-up, 75% had BCVA of 6/12 or better and 30% were found to have glaucoma at follow-up. Delayed presentation (≥3 days) was associated with higher rate of glaucoma at follow-up (22.6% vs 60.8%, p<0.001), worse VA (0.34 vs 0.74 LogMAR, p<0.0001) and need for more topical medication (0.52 vs 1.2, p=0.003) to control IOP.

    CONCLUSION: The incidence of AAC in Scotland is relatively low compared with the Far East countries, but in line with previous European data. Almost one in five cases were associated with pupil dilation for retinal examination.

  15. Muhammad A, Khan B, Iqbal Z, Khan AZ, Khan I, Khan K, et al.
    ACS Omega, 2019 Sep 03;4(10):14188-14192.
    PMID: 31508540 DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.9b01041
    The antipyretic potential of viscosine, a natural product isolated from the medicinal plant Dodonaea viscosa, was investigated using yeast-induced pyrexia rat model, and its structure-activity relationship was investigated through molecular docking analyses with the target enzymes cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1). The in vivo antipyretic experiments showed a progressive dose-dependent reduction in body temperatures of the hyperthermic test animals when injected with viscosine. Comparison of docking analyses with target enzymes showed strongest bonding interactions (binding energy -17.34 kcal/mol) of viscosine with the active-site pocket of mPGES-1. These findings suggest that viscosine shows antipyretic properties by reducing the concentration of prostaglandin E2 in brain through its mPGES-1 inhibitory action and make it a potential lead compound for developing effective and safer antipyretic drugs for treating fever and related pathological conditions.
  16. Yeye EO, Kanwal, Mohammed Khan K, Chigurupati S, Wadood A, Ur Rehman A, et al.
    Bioorg Med Chem, 2020 06 01;28(11):115467.
    PMID: 32327353 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2020.115467
    Thirty-three 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole derivatives 1-33 were synthesized by reacting 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole with a variety of benzaldehydes. The synthetic molecules were characterized via1H NMR and EI-MS spectroscopic techniques and evaluated for their anti-hyperglycemic potential. Compounds 1-33 exhibited good to moderate in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in the range of IC50 values 2.01 ± 0.03-6.44 ± 0.16 and 2.09 ± 0.08-6.54 ± 0.10 µM as compared to the standard acarbose (IC50 = 1.92 ± 0.17 µM) and (IC50 = 1.99 ± 0.07 µM), respectively. The limited structure-activity relationship suggested that different substitutions on aryl part of the synthetic compounds are responsible for variable activity. Kinetic study predicted that compounds 1-33 followed mixed and non-competitive type of inhibitions against α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes, respectively. In silico studies revealed that both triazole and aryl ring along with different substitutions were playing an important role in the binding interactions of inhibitors within the enzyme pocket. The synthetic molecules were found to have dual inhibitory potential against both enzymes thus they may serve as lead candidates for the drug development and research in the future studies.
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