MATERIALS AND METHODS: 100 smokers and 100 nonsmokers ages 18-50 years were recruited for this study in Kota Bharu, Malaysia. Oral hygiene (good/fair vs poor) was determined using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, and the halitosis level was measured using a Halimeter. Subjects were instructed to refrain from consuming foods containing garlic, onions, strong spices, alcohol and using mouthwashes 48 h prior to the examination. The halitosis levels were quantified by recording volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) three times at 3-min intervals, resulting in a mean halitosis score. Various statistical analyses were performed, ranging from simple frequency analysis to multivariable modelling.
RESULTS: The proportions of subjects with poor oral hygiene and high halitosis were 24.0% and 41.5%, respectively. According to bivariate analyses, both problems were significantly less frequent among younger adults (halitosis), females, subjects with higher education, those with adequate habits to maintain good oral hygiene, those who had recent dental visits and those self-reporting fewer health problems. The percentages of poor oral hygiene and high halitosis were significantly higher in smokers (p < 0.001). However, almost all these variables failed to show significance in the multivariate analyses, with the exceptions of smoking for both poor oral hygiene and halitosis, education for poor oral hygiene, and age, self-reported health problems and time since the previous dental visit for halitosis.
CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate a significantly higher level of halitosis and poorer oral hygiene in smokers than nonsmokers.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to systematically review all the prosthetic techniques that have been used in the oral rehabilitation of patients with microstomia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data sources, including PubMed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS and Web of Science, were searched for case reports and case series published through September 2017. Three investigators reviewed and verified the extracted data. Only case reports and case series on prosthetic rehabilitation in microstomia patients published in the English language were considered eligible.
RESULTS: A total of 212 records were identified from the database search. Forty duplicate records were removed. The remaining 172 articles were assessed for eligibility, and 139 articles were removed because they did not satisfy the inclusion criteria. A total of 34 cases (including 32 case reports and 1 case series) were finally included in the qualitative analysis. The review revealed the use of a modified impression technique with flexible and sectional trays to record impressions in patients with microstomia. Modified forms of oral prostheses ranging from sectional, flexible, collapsible and hinged dentures to implant-supported prosthesis were fabricated to overcome the limited mouth opening. The success of the prosthetic technique primarily depended on the extent of the microstomia and the nature of the cause of the microstomia.
CONCLUSION: Even though the patient acceptance of the prosthetic techniques summarized in the systematic review were high, long-term success rates for each option could not be assessed because of the short follow-up time in most of the included case reports and series.