Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

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  1. Karim N, Leong SW
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2000 Jun;9(2):82-6.
    PMID: 24394392
    A nutritional status study was carried out among a group of young Chinese adults, aged between 19 and 25, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Subjects comprised 108 young adults (55 women, 53 men) who were students at two institutes of higher learning. Physical characteristics were evaluated by anthropometric measurements while food intake was determined with a 3-day food record. Blood cholesterol and triglyceride were assessed using the Reflotron analyser. Birthweight was obtained from birth certificates or by proxy. The results showed that the mean body mass index (BMI) for men and women was 21.4 ± 3.3 and 20.0 ± 2.0, respectively, indicating normal weight. Further analysis of BMI classification demonstrated that 28% of men and 39% of women were underweight, 11% of men and 2% of women were overweight while 2% of men were obese. Mean waist-to-hip ratio showed that the subjects had a low risk of developing cardiovascular disease (0.72 ± 0.03 women; 0.81 ± 0.05 men). Mean energy intake was 8841 ± 1756 kJ per day for men and 6426 ± 1567 kJ per day for women. Closer analysis of energy intake of the subjects showed that 86% of men and 91% of women were consuming below the Malaysian recommendation for energy. Nutrients found to be deficient in at least one third of women were calcium, vitamin A, niacin and iron. Mean cholesterol intake in the diet was 278.7 ± 108.7 mg in men and 207.0 ± 82.5 mg in women and there was a significant difference between genders. Blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels were 3.88 ± 0.76 mmol/L and 1.08 ± 0.33 mmol/L, respectively in men, while these levels were lower in women, 3.87 ± 0.80 mmol/L for cholesterol and 0.99 ± 0.29 mmol/L for triglyceride. A general trend of higher mean blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels was shown in adults who were born with lower birthweights.
  2. Karen Leong SW, Wu LL
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 02;74(1):92-93.
    PMID: 30846672
    Testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART) are aberrant adrenal tissue within the testes (1). Although benign, they can lead to obstruction of the seminiferous tubules and infertility in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report six boys who developed TART, a complication of CAH. Diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound and testicular vein sampling of elevated 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) levels. Glucocorticoids dosages were increased 1½-2 folds to suppress size of the aberrant adrenal tissues. Despite reductions in 17-OHP, the lesions remained unchanged. Three patients had testis-sparing surgery to excise the TART and to preserve normal testicular tissues.
  3. Leong SW, Chia SL, Abas F, Yusoff K
    Eur J Med Chem, 2018 Sep 05;157:716-728.
    PMID: 30138803 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2018.08.039
    In the present study, a series of forty-five asymmetrical meta-methoxylated diarylpentanoids have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for their in-vitro anti-cancer potential. Among the forty-five analogs, three compounds (20, 33 and 42) have been identified as lead compounds due to their excellent inhibition against five human cancer cell lines including SW620, A549, EJ28, HT1080 and MCF-7. Structure-activity relationship study on cytotoxicity of tested compounds suggested that the presence of meta-oxygenated phenyl ring played a critical role in enhancing their cytotoxic effects. Compounds 33 and 42 in particular, exhibited strongest cytotoxicity against tested cell lines with the IC50 values ranging from 1.1 to 4.3 μM. Subsequent colony formation assay on SW620 cell line showed that both compounds 33 and 42 possessed strong anti-proliferative activity. In addition, flow cytometry based experiments revealed that these compounds could trigger intracellular ROS production thus inducing G2/M-phase cell arrest and apoptosis. All these results suggested that poly meta-oxygenated diarylpentnoid is a promising scaffold which deserved further modification and investigation in the development of natural product-based anti-cancer drug.
  4. Leong SW, Lim TS, Ismail A, Choong YS
    J. Mol. Recognit., 2018 05;31(5):e2695.
    PMID: 29230887 DOI: 10.1002/jmr.2695
    With the development of de novo binders for protein targets from non-related scaffolds, many possibilities for therapeutics and diagnostics have been created. In this study, we described the use of de novo design approach to create single-chain fragment variable (scFv) for Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi TolC protein. Typhoid fever is a global health concern in developing and underdeveloped countries. Rapid typhoid diagnostics will improve disease management and therapy. In this work, molecular dynamics simulation was first performed on a homology model of TolC protein in POPE membrane bilayer to obtain the central structure that was subsequently used as the target for scFv design. Potential hotspot residues capable of anchoring the binders to the target were identified by docking "disembodied" amino acid residues against TolC surface. Next, scFv scaffolds were selected from Protein Data Bank to harbor the computed hotspot residues. The hotspot residues were then incorporated into the scFv scaffold complementarity determining regions. The designs recapitulated binding energy, shape complementarity, and interface surface area of natural protein-antibody interfaces. This approach has yielded 5 designs with high binding affinity against TolC that may be beneficial for the future development of antigen-based detection agents for typhoid diagnostics.
  5. Leong SW, Chia SL, Abas F, Yusoff K
    Molecules, 2020 Aug 26;25(17).
    PMID: 32858795 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25173877
    In the present study, we investigated the in-vitro anti-cancer potential of six diarylpentanoids against a panel of BRAF- and KRAS-mutated colorectal cancer cell lines including T84, SW620, LoVo, HT29, NCI-H508, RKO, and LS411N cells. Structure-activity relationship study suggested that the insertions of tetrahydro-4H-thiopyran-4-one and brominated phenyl moieties are essential for better cytotoxicity. Among the evaluated analogs, 2e has been identified as the lead compound due to its low IC50 values of approximately 1 µM across all cancer cell lines and high chemotherapeutic index of 7.1. Anti-proliferative studies on LoVo cells showed that 2e could inhibit cell proliferation and colony formations by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest. Subsequent cell apoptosis assay confirmed that 2e is a Bcl-2 inhibitor that could induce intrinsic cell apoptosis by creating a cellular redox imbalance through its direct inhibition on the Bcl-2 protein. Further molecular docking studies revealed that the bromophenyl moieties of 2e could interact with the Bcl-2 surface pocket through hydrophobic interaction, while the tetrahydro-4H-thiopyran-4-one fragment could form additional Pi-sulfur and Pi-alkyl interactions in the same binding site. In all, the present results suggest that 2e could be a potent lead that deserves further modification and investigation in the development of a new Bcl-2 inhibitor.
  6. Leong SW, Abas F, Lam KW, Yusoff K
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 2018 02 01;28(3):302-309.
    PMID: 29292226 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2017.12.048
    A series of thirty-four diarylpentanoids derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Eleven compounds (19, 20, 21, 24, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33 and 34) were found to significantly inhibit α-glucosidase in which compounds 28, 31 and 32 demonstrated the highest activity with IC50 values ranging from 14.1 to 15.1 µM. Structure-activity comparison shows that multiple hydroxy groups are essential for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Meanwhile, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl and furanyl moieties were found to be crucial in improving α-glucosidase inhibition. Molecular docking analyses further confirmed the critical role of both 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl and furanyl moieties as they bound to α-glucosidase active site in different mode. Overall result suggests that diarylpentanoids with both five membered heterocyclic ring and polyhydroxyphenyl moiety could be a new lead design in the search of novel α-glucosidase inhibitor.
  7. Leong SW, Chia SL, Abas F, Yusoff K
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 2020 04 15;30(8):127065.
    PMID: 32127259 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2020.127065
    In the present study, a series of nine stable 3,4,5-methoxylphenyl-containing asymmetrical diarylpentanoids, derivatives of curcuminoids, have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for their in-vitro anti-cancer potential against a panel of BRAF- and KRAS-mutated colorectal cancer cell lines including T84, LoVo and SW620, HT29, RKO and NCI-H508, respectively. Structure-activity relationship study on cytotoxicity of tested compounds suggested that the presence of meta-hydroxyl and adjacent dimethoxyl groups are crucial for enhanced cytotoxicity of diarylpentanoids. Among the evaluated analogs, 8 has been identified as the lead compound due to its highest chemotherapeutic index of 9.9 and nano molar scale cytotoxicity against SW620 and RKO. Colonies formation and cell cycle analyses on 8-treated RKO cells showed that 8 exhibits strong anti-proliferative activity by inducing G2/M-phase cell arrest. Subsequent flow cytometry based annexin-V and DCFHDA studies suggested that 8 could induce apoptosis through intracellular ROS-dependent pathway. Further Western blot studies confirmed that 8 has induced intrinsic apoptosis in RKO cells through the up-regulations of Bad and Bax pro-apoptotic proteins and down-regulations of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL pro-survival proteins. In all, the present results suggest that 8 could be a potent lead which deserves further modification and investigation in the development of small molecule-based anti-colorectal cancer agents.
  8. Leong SW, Lim TS, Tye GJ, Ismail A, Aziah I, Choong YS
    J Biol Phys, 2014 Sep;40(4):387-400.
    PMID: 25011632 DOI: 10.1007/s10867-014-9357-9
    In this work we assessed the suitability of two different lipid membranes for the simulation of a TolC protein from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The TolC protein family is found in many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria including Vibrio cholera and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and acts as an outer membrane channel for expulsion of drug and toxin from the cell. In S. typhi, the causative agent for typhoid fever, the TolC outer membrane protein is an antigen for the pathogen. The lipid environment is an important modulator of membrane protein structure and function. We evaluated the conformation of the TolC protein in the presence of DMPE and POPE bilayers using molecular dynamics simulation. The S. typhi TolC protein exhibited similar conformational dynamics to TolC and its homologues. Conformational flexibility of the protein is seen in the C-terminal, extracellular loops, and α-helical region. Despite differences in the two lipids, significant similarities in the motion of the protein in POPE and DMPE were observed, including the rotational motion of the C-terminal residues and the partially open extracellular loops. However, analysis of the trajectories demonstrated effects of hydrophobic matching of the TolC protein in the membrane, particularly in the lengthening of the lipids and subtle movements of the protein's β-barrel towards the lower leaflet in DMPE. The study exhibited the use of molecular dynamics simulation in revealing the differential effect of membrane proteins and lipids on each other. In this study, POPE is potentially a more suitable model for future simulation of the S. typhi TolC protein.
  9. Leong SW, Abas F, Lam KW, Shaari K, Lajis NH
    Bioorg Med Chem, 2016 08 15;24(16):3742-51.
    PMID: 27328658 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2016.06.016
    In the present study, a series of 2-benzoyl-6-benzylidenecyclohexanone analogs have been synthesized and evaluated for their anti-cholinesterase activity. Among the forty-one analogs, four compounds (38, 39, 40 and 41) have been identified as lead compounds due to their highest inhibition on both AChE and BChE activities. Compounds 39 and 40 in particular exhibited highest inhibition on both AChE and BChE with IC50 values of 1.6μM and 0.6μM, respectively. Further structure-activity relationship study suggested that presence of a long-chain heterocyclic in one of the rings played a critical role in the dual enzymes' inhibition. The Lineweaver-Burk plots and docking results suggest that both compounds could simultaneously bind to the PAS and CAS regions of the enzyme. ADMET analysis further confirmed the therapeutic potential of both compounds based upon their high BBB-penetrating. Thus, 2-benzoyl-6-benzylidenecyclohexanone containing long-chain heterocyclic amine analogs represent a new class of cholinesterase inhibitor, which deserve further investigation for their development into therapeutic agents for cognitive diseases such as Alzheimer.
  10. Loh Q, Leong SW, Tye GJ, Choong YS, Lim TS
    Anal Biochem, 2015 May 15;477:56-61.
    PMID: 25769419 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2015.02.026
    The low presentation efficiency of Fab (fragment antigen binding) fragments during phage display is largely due to the complexity of disulphide bond formation. This can result in the presentation of Fab fragments devoid of a light chain during phage display. Here we propose the use of a coplasmid system encoding several molecular chaperones (DsbA, DsbC, FkpA, and SurA) to improve Fab packaging. A comparison was done using the Fab fragment from IgG and IgD. We found that the use of the coplasmid during phage packaging was able to improve the presentation efficiency of the Fab fragment on phage surfaces. A modified version of panning using the coplasmid system was evaluated and was successful at enriching Fab binders. Therefore, the coplasmid system would be an attractive alternative for improved Fab presentation for phage display.
  11. Flaherty GT, Leong SW, Finn Y, Sulaiman LH, Noone C
    J Travel Med, 2020 Sep 26;27(6).
    PMID: 32634210 DOI: 10.1093/jtm/taaa110
    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the awareness of travellers with diabetes about the health effects of international travel. This study aimed to design and validate a questionnaire to examine the travel health knowledge, attitudes and practices of people living with type 1 diabetes.

    METHODS: A set of 74 items based on a conceptual framework analysis underwent revision and its content validity was established. Items were grouped into three domains. A development study was conducted to establish evidence regarding their factorial structure. A construct validation study was then conducted in which the retained items were tested in an independent sample using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

    RESULTS: Four factors emerged from our development study and were labelled as pre-travel preparation-insect bites, pre-travel preparation-consultation, insulin and glycaemic control and travel risk behaviour. A CFA confirmed the factorial structure identified in the development study in an independent sample. Each factor loading had a significant (P 

  12. Kamarudin N, Hisamuddin N, Ong HM, Ahmad Azmi AF, Leong SW, Abas F, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Aug 21;23(9).
    PMID: 30134576 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092099
    Curcuminoids derived from turmeric rhizome have been reported to exhibit antinociceptive, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We evaluated the peripheral and central antinociceptive activities of 5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (DHHPD), a novel synthetic curcuminoid analogue at 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg (intraperitoneal), through chemical and thermal models of nociception. The effects of DHHPD on the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems were evaluated through the capsaicin- and glutamate-induced paw licking tests. Results showed that DHHPD significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the writhing response produced by the 0.8% acetic acid injection. In addition, 1 and 3 mg/kg of DHHPD significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the licking time spent by each mouse in both phases of the 2.5% formalin test and increased the response latency of mice on the hot-plate. However, the effect produced in the latter was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist. Despite this, DHHPD decreased the licking latency of mice in the capsaicin- and glutamate-induced paw licking tests in a dose response manner. In conclusion, DHHPD showed excellent peripheral and central antinociceptive activities possibly by attenuation of the synthesis and/or release of pro-inflammatory mediators in addition to modulation of the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems without an apparent effect on the opioidergic system.
  13. Yusoh NA, Leong SW, Chia SL, Harun SN, Rahman MBA, Vallis KA, et al.
    ACS Chem. Biol., 2020 02 21;15(2):378-387.
    PMID: 31898884 DOI: 10.1021/acschembio.9b00843
    There is a need to improve and extend the use of clinically approved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi), including for BRCA wild-type triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The demonstration that ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex (RPC) metallointercalators can rapidly stall DNA replication fork progression provides the rationale for their combination alongside DNA damage response (DDR) inhibitors to achieve synergism in cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate use of the multi-intercalator [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ (dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine, PIP = (2-(phenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, Ru-PIP) alongside the PARPi olaparib and NU1025. Cell proliferation and clonogenic survival assays indicated a synergistic relationship between Ru-PIP and olaparib in MDA-MB-231 TNBC and MCF7 human breast cancer cells. Strikingly, low dose Ru-PIP renders both cell lines hypersensitive to olaparib, with a >300-fold increase in olaparib potency in TNBC, the largest nongenetic PARPi enhancement effect described to date. A negligible impact on the viability of normal human fibroblasts was observed for any combination tested. Increased levels of DNA double-strand break (DSB) damage and olaparib abrogation of Ru-PIP-activated pChk1 signaling are consistent with PARPi-facilitated collapse of Ru-PIP-associated stalled replication forks. This results in enhanced G2/M cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and decreased cell motility for the combination treatment compared to single-agent conditions. This work establishes that an RPC metallointercalator can be combined with PARPi for potent synergy in BRCA-proficient breast cancer cells, including TNBC.
  14. Leong SW, Faudzi SM, Abas F, Aluwi MF, Rullah K, Wai LK, et al.
    Molecules, 2014 Oct 09;19(10):16058-81.
    PMID: 25302700 DOI: 10.3390/molecules191016058
    A series of ninety-seven diarylpentanoid derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity through NO suppression assay using interferone gamma (IFN-γ)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Twelve compounds (9, 25, 28, 43, 63, 64, 81, 83, 84, 86, 88 and 97) exhibited greater or similar NO inhibitory activity in comparison with curcumin (14.7 ± 0.2 µM), notably compounds 88 and 97, which demonstrated the most significant NO suppression activity with IC50 values of 4.9 ± 0.3 µM and 9.6 ± 0.5 µM, respectively. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) study revealed that the presence of a hydroxyl group in both aromatic rings is critical for bioactivity of these molecules. With the exception of the polyphenolic derivatives, low electron density in ring-A and high electron density in ring-B are important for enhancing NO inhibition. Meanwhile, pharmacophore mapping showed that hydroxyl substituents at both meta- and para-positions of ring-B could be the marker for highly active diarylpentanoid derivatives.
  15. Velaithan V, Okuda KS, Ng MF, Samat N, Leong SW, Faudzi SM, et al.
    Invest New Drugs, 2017 04;35(2):250.
    PMID: 28185040 DOI: 10.1007/s10637-017-0437-0
  16. Velaithan V, Okuda KS, Ng MF, Samat N, Leong SW, Faudzi SM, et al.
    Invest New Drugs, 2017 04;35(2):166-179.
    PMID: 28058624 DOI: 10.1007/s10637-016-0423-y
    Zebrafish represents a powerful in vivo model for phenotype-based drug discovery to identify clinically relevant small molecules. By utilizing this model, we evaluated natural product derived compounds that could potentially modulate Notch signaling that is important in both zebrafish embryogenesis and pathogenic in human cancers. A total of 234 compounds were screened using zebrafish embryos and 3 were identified to be conferring phenotypic alterations similar to embryos treated with known Notch inhibitors. Subsequent secondary screens using HEK293T cells overexpressing truncated Notch1 (HEK293TΔE) identified 2 compounds, EDD3 and 3H4MB, to be potential Notch antagonists. Both compounds reduced protein expression of NOTCH1, Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and hairy and enhancer of split-1 (HES1) in HEK293TΔE and downregulated Notch target genes. Importantly, EDD3 treatment of human oral cancer cell lines demonstrated reduction of Notch target proteins and genes. EDD3 also inhibited proliferation and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest of ORL-150 cells through inducing p27KIP1. Our data demonstrates the utility of the zebrafish phenotypic screen and identifying EDD3 as a promising Notch antagonist for further development as a novel therapeutic agent.
  17. Hisamuddin N, Shaik Mossadeq WM, Sulaiman MR, Abas F, Leong SW, Kamarudin N, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Jul 18;24(14).
    PMID: 31323775 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24142614
    Curcumin, derived from the rhizome Curcuma longa, has been scientifically proven to possess anti-inflammatory activity but is of limited clinical and veterinary use owing to its low bioavailability and poor solubility. Hence, analogs of curcuminoids with improved biological properties have been synthesized to overcome these limitations. This study aims to provide the pharmacological basis for the use of 5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (DHHPD), a synthetic curcuminoid analog, as an anti-edematogenic and anti-granuloma agent. The carrageenan-induced paw edema and the cotton pellet-induced granuloma assays were used to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of DHHPD in mice. The effects of DHHPD on the histaminergic, serotonergic, and bradykininergic systems were determined by the histamine-, serotonin-, and bradykinin-induced paw edema tests, respectively. DHHPD (0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) evoked significant reductions (p < 0.05) in carrageenan-induced paw edema at different time intervals and granuloma formation (p < 0.0001) by 22.08, 32.57, 37.20, and 49.25%, respectively. Furthermore, DHHPD significantly reduced paw edema (p < 0.05) induced by histamine, serotonin, and bradykinin. The present study suggests that DHHPD exerts anti-edematogenic activity, possibly by inhibiting the synthesis or release of autacoid mediators of inflammation through the histaminergic, serotonergic, and bradykininergic systems. The anti-granuloma effect may be attributed to the suppression of transudative, exudative, and proliferative activities associated with inflammation.
  18. Song DSS, Leong SW, Ng KW, Abas F, Shaari K, Leong CO, et al.
    SLAS Discov, 2019 06;24(5):548-562.
    PMID: 30897027 DOI: 10.1177/2472555219831405
    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency has been associated with a higher risk of developing colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancer, and confers resistance in conventional chemotherapy. In addition to the lack of treatment options that work efficaciously on these MMR-deficient cancer patients, there is a great need to discover new drug leads for this purpose. In this study, we screened through a library of commercial and semisynthetic natural compounds to identify potential synthetic lethal drugs that may selectively target MLH1 mutants using MLH1 isogenic colorectal cancer cell lines and various cancer cell lines with known MLH1 status. We identified a novel diarylpentanoid analogue, 2-benzoyl-6-(2,3-dimethoxybenzylidene)-cyclohexenol, coded as AS13, that demonstrated selective toxicity toward MLH1-deficient cancer cells. Subsequent analysis suggested AS13 induced elevated levels of oxidative stress, resulting in DNA damage where only the proficient MLH1 cells were able to be repaired and hence escaping cellular death. While AS13 is modest in potency and selectivity, this discovery has the potential to lead to further drug development that may offer better treatment options for cancer patients with MLH1 deficiency.
  19. Mohd Faudzi SM, Leong SW, Auwal FA, Abas F, Wai LK, Ahmad S, et al.
    Arch Pharm (Weinheim), 2021 Jan;354(1):e2000161.
    PMID: 32886410 DOI: 10.1002/ardp.202000161
    A new series of pyrazole, phenylpyrazole, and pyrazoline analogs of diarylpentanoids (excluding compounds 3a, 4a, 5a, and 5b) was pan-assay interference compounds-filtered and synthesized via the reaction of diarylpentanoids with hydrazine monohydrate and phenylhydrazine. Each analog was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory ability via the suppression of nitric oxide (NO) on IFN-γ/LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The compounds were also investigated for their inhibitory capability toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), using a modification of Ellman's spectrophotometric method. The most potent NO inhibitor was found to be phenylpyrazole analog 4c, followed by 4e, when compared with curcumin. In contrast, pyrazole 3a and pyrazoline 5a were found to be the most selective and effective BChE inhibitors over AChE. The data collected from the single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of compound 5a were then applied in a docking simulation to determine the potential binding interactions that were responsible for the anti-BChE activity. The results obtained signify the potential of these pyrazole and pyrazoline scaffolds to be developed as therapeutic agents against inflammatory conditions and Alzheimer's disease.
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