Micellar properties of binary mixed surfactants of a surface active mixed copper(II) chelate, [Cu(C12-tmed)(acac)Cl] (where C12-tmed is N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-dodecylethylenediamine) with three common surfactants, viz. sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12E8), were investigated by surface tensiometry, ESR, and UV-visible absorption techniques. The surface tension data were treated with Rubingh's method for mixed micelle formation and Rosen's method for mixed monolayer formation at the aqueous solution/air interface. It was found that in the mixed micelle there is strong attractive interaction between cationic copper surfactant and anonic dodecyl sulfate while there is almost ideal mixing between copper surfactant and CTAB and C12E8. From the ESR and UV-visible studies, a mixed block-type arrangement of head groups is proposed. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press
The rich corporate life of the medical student and the medical students' societies at our medical school (at the present National University of Singapore) is generally unappreciated by its graduates and regrettably, even more unknown to the medical student of today. The present generation of medical students of NUS do not know of their rich history. We have published documentation of student activities from the founding of the medical school in 1905 till the establishment of the then University of Malaya in 1950, reviewed herein. Materials presented after 1950 were gathered from personal communications from key players in the students' societies and from editors of the medical students' publications.
The Medical Alumni is unique in being the oldest alumni association with medical, dental and pharmacy graduates from our seminal medical school, that has now evolved into the faculties of medicine in 2 countries, namely Malaysia and Singapore. Founded in 1923, the medical alumni association has undergone several name changes with its evolution and activism. After the Japanese Occupation, it was given its present name in 1947, comprising 3 branches working under a common Constitution operating in 2 separate countries. It is also unique in being the only association recognised by the Registrar of Societies with membership in 2 countries. Following the development of medical professional and academic bodies, the medical alumni wound down its medico-political activities to concentrate on providing social and mutual support for its members and its alma mater.
Six alkaloids belonging to the methyl chanofruticosinate group, viz., prunifolines A-F, in addition to six other known methyl chanofruticosinate alkaloids, were isolated from the leaf extract of Kopsia arborea. The structures were determined using NMR and MS analysis and comparison with known related compounds.
[structure: see text] A new indole alkaloid, arboflorine, possessing a novel pentacyclic carbon skeleton and incorporating a third nitrogen atom was obtained from the Malayan Kopsia arborea. The structure was established by spectroscopic analysis, and a possible biogenetic pathway from a preakuammicine-type precursor is presented.
The diagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis should be entertained in all patients with unexplained fever associated with hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly with or without anomalies in liver function tests and haemogram. It should be considered as a possible cause of septic shock especially in patients with typical risk factors such as advanced age, diabetes, alcoholism or immunosuppression. Prompt therapy could be life saving in an otherwise potentially fatal condition. It is therefore appropriate to initiate anti-tuberculosis treatment as soon as such a diagnosis is suspected and not await final confirmation.
Tocotrienols have been reported to possess anticancer effects other than anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. This study explored the potential synergism of antiproliferative effects induced by individual alkaloid extracts of Ficus fistulosa, Ficus hispida and Ficus schwarzii combined with δ- and γ-tocotrienols against human brain glioblastoma (U87MG), lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells. Cell viability and morphological results demonstrated that extracts containing a mixture of alkaloids from the leaves and bark of F. schwarzii inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells, whereas the alkaloid extracts of F. fistulosa inhibited the proliferation of both U87MG and HT-29 cells and showed synergism in combined treatments with either δ- or γ-tocotrienol resulting in 2.2-34.7 fold of reduction in IC50 values of tocotrienols. The observed apoptotic cell characteristics in conjunction with the synergistic antiproliferative effects of Ficus species-derived alkaloids and tocotrienols assuredly warrant future investigations towards the development of a value-added chemotherapeutic regimen against cancers.
This study aimed to evaluate dry powder inhaler naive asthmatic patients' perception and preference of the Accuhaler, a multidose dry powder inhaler and the pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI). After the first instruction, 66.7% of 48 patients enrolled in the study could demonstrate the correct use of the Accuhaler. When the patients were asked to compare the pMDI and the Accuhaler after using the Accuhaler to administer salmeterol for 4 weeks, the Accuhaler scored significantly better than the pMDI for the following features: knowing how many doses are left, presence of an attached cover, taste, instruction for use, attractiveness, ease of use, ease of holding, shape, and comfortable mouthpiece. The pMDI scored better to the Accuhaler in terms of size. More patients preferred the Accuhaler than the pMDI; the presence of a dose counter and perceived ease of use were the main reasons cited for their preference for the Accuhaler.
Study site: Asthma Clinic, University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Cryptococcal infection uncommonly presents with pulmonary manifestations and even more rarely so as massive bilateral effusions. Pleural involvement is usually associated with underlying pulmonary parenchymal lesions and is unusual while on antifungal therapy. We report a patient with cryptococcal meningitis who, while on intravenous 5-flucytosine and amphotericin B, developed life-threatening bilateral massive pleural effusions with evidence of spontaneous resolution, consistent with prior hypothesis of antigenic stimulation as the cause of pleural involvement.