Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 86 in total

  1. KoohiKamali S, Tan CP, Ling TC
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:475027.
    PMID: 22593688 DOI: 10.1100/2012/475027
    In this study, the methanolysis process of sunflower oil was investigated to get high methyl esters (biodiesel) content using sodium methoxide. To reach to the best process conditions, central composite design (CCD) through response surface methodology (RSM) was employed. The optimal conditions predicted were the reaction time of 60 min, an excess stoichiometric amount of alcohol to oil ratio of 25%w/w and the catalyst content of 0.5%w/w, which lead to the highest methyl ester content (100%w/w). The methyl ester content of the mixture from gas chromatography analysis (GC) was compared to that of optimum point. Results, confirmed that there was no significant difference between the fatty acid methyl ester content of sunflower oil produced under the optimized condition and the experimental value (P ≥ 0.05). Furthermore, some fuel specifications of the resultant biodiesel were tested according to American standards for testing of materials (ASTM) methods. The outcome showed that the methyl ester mixture produced from the optimized condition met nearly most of the important biodiesel specifications recommended in ASTM D 6751 requirements. Thus, the sunflower oil methyl esters resulted from this study could be a suitable alternative for petrol diesels.
  2. Ren P, Ling TC, Mo KH
    J Hazard Mater, 2022 02 15;424(Pt B):127457.
    PMID: 34653858 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127457
    In this study, municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA) was pretreated with CO2 via slurry carbonation (SC) and dry carbonation coupled with subsequent water washing (DCW). Both the treated MSWIFAs were then used as cement replacement in cement pastes by weight of 10%, 20% and 30% to investigate the influence on hydration mechanisms, physico-mechanical characteristics and leaching properties. The results showed that carbonates formed on the surface of SC-MSWIFA particles were finer (primarily 20-50 nm calcite) than those from the corresponding DCW-MSWIFA (mostly 130-200 nm vaterite). Hence, SC-MSWIFA blended cement pastes led to shorter setting time and higher early compressive strength than the DCW-MSWIFA pastes. In contrast, the presence of vaterite-rich DCW-MSWIFA in the blended cement pastes could accelerate the cement hydration after 24 h. Both the CO2-pretreated MSWIFA can replace cement up to 30% without sacrificing the long-term strength and mechanical properties of cement pastes, demonstrating excellent performance as a supplementary cementitious material. Moreover, volume stability in terms of expansion and lead leaching of CO2-pretreated MSWIFA cement pastes were far below the regulatory limits.
  3. Chaudhry MT, Ling TC, Hussain SA, Manzoor A
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:684501.
    PMID: 24987743 DOI: 10.1155/2014/684501
    A rise in inlet air temperature may lower the rate of heat dissipation from air cooled computing servers. This introduces a thermal stress to these servers. As a result, the poorly cooled active servers will start conducting heat to the neighboring servers and giving rise to hotspot regions of thermal stress, inside the data center. As a result, the physical hardware of these servers may fail, thus causing performance loss, monetary loss, and higher energy consumption for cooling mechanism. In order to minimize these situations, this paper performs the profiling of inlet temperature sensitivity (ITS) and defines the optimum location for each server to minimize the chances of creating a thermal hotspot and thermal stress. Based upon novel ITS analysis, a thermal state monitoring and server relocation algorithm for data centers is being proposed. The contribution of this paper is bringing the peak outlet temperatures of the relocated servers closer to average outlet temperature by over 5 times, lowering the average peak outlet temperature by 3.5% and minimizing the thermal stress.
  4. Ng EP, Goh JY, Ling TC, Mukti RR
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2013;8(1):120.
    PMID: 23497184 DOI: 10.1186/1556-276X-8-120
    Nanoporous materials such as Mobil composite material number 41 (MCM-41) are attractive for applications such as catalysis, adsorption, supports, and carriers. Green synthesis of MCM-41 is particularly appealing because the chemical reagents are useful and valuable. We report on the eco-friendly synthesis of MCM-41 nanoporous materials via multi-cycle approach by re-using the non-reacted reagents in supernatant as mother liquor after separating the solid product. This approach was achieved via minimal requirement of chemical compensation where additional fresh reactants were added into the mother liquor followed by pH adjustment after each cycle of synthesis. The solid product of each successive batch was collected and characterized while the non-reacted reagents in supernatant can be recovered and re-used to produce subsequent cycle of MCM-41. The multi-cycle synthesis is demonstrated up to three times in this research. This approach suggests a low cost and eco-friendly synthesis of nanoporous material since less waste is discarded after the product has been collected, and in addition, product yield can be maintained at the high level.
  5. Hii SL, Tan JS, Ling TC, Ariff AB
    Enzyme Res, 2012;2012:921362.
    PMID: 22991654
    The use of pullulanase (EC has recently been the subject of increased applications in starch-based industries especially those aimed for glucose production. Pullulanase, an important debranching enzyme, has been widely utilised to hydrolyse the α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in starch, amylopectin, pullulan, and related oligosaccharides, which enables a complete and efficient conversion of the branched polysaccharides into small fermentable sugars during saccharification process. The industrial manufacturing of glucose involves two successive enzymatic steps: liquefaction, carried out after gelatinisation by the action of α-amylase; saccharification, which results in further transformation of maltodextrins into glucose. During saccharification process, pullulanase has been used to increase the final glucose concentration with reduced amount of glucoamylase. Therefore, the reversion reaction that involves resynthesis of saccharides from glucose molecules is prevented. To date, five groups of pullulanase enzymes have been reported, that is, (i) pullulanase type I, (ii) amylopullulanase, (iii) neopullulanase, (iv) isopullulanase, and (v) pullulan hydrolase type III. The current paper extensively reviews each category of pullulanase, properties of pullulanase, merits of applying pullulanase during starch bioprocessing, current genetic engineering works related to pullulanase genes, and possible industrial applications of pullulanase.
  6. Anarjan N, Tan CP, Nehdi IA, Ling TC
    Food Chem, 2012 Dec 1;135(3):1303-9.
    PMID: 22953858 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.05.091
    Astaxanthin colloidal particles were produced using solvent-diffusion technique in the presence of different food grade surface active compounds, namely, Polysorbate 20 (PS20), sodium caseinate (SC), gum Arabic (GA) and the optimum combination of them (OPT). Particle size and surface charge characteristics, rheological behaviour, chemical stability, colour, in vitro cellular uptake, in vitro antioxidant activity and residual solvent concentration of prepared colloidal particles were evaluated. The results indicated that in most cases the mixture of surface active compounds lead to production of colloidal particles with more desirable physicochemical and biological properties, as compared to using them individually. The optimum combination of PS20, SC and GA could produce the astaxanthin colloidal particles with small particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), conductivity and higher zeta potential, mobility, cellular uptake, colour intensity and in vitro antioxidant activity. In addition, all prepared astaxanthin colloidal particles had significantly (p<0.05) higher cellular uptake than pure astaxanthin powder.
  7. Kaliyavaradhan SK, Ling TC, Guo MZ, Mo KH
    J Environ Manage, 2019 Jul 01;241:383-396.
    PMID: 31028969 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.03.017
    The exponential growth of waste generation is posing serious environmental issues and thus requires urgent management and recycling action to achieve green sustainable development. Controlled low-strength material (CLSM) is a highly flowable cementitious backfill material with self-consolidating properties. The CLSM efficiency during construction and final performance at the site depends on its plastic properties. Plastic properties are responsible for workability, pumpability, stability, and lateral pressure on adjacent soils. This paper presents a critical review to date on the use of waste materials and/or by-products and their impacts on the plastic properties of the CLSM. Extensive previous studies demonstrated that the basic properties and content of waste materials as well as the amount of water in the mix design, play a dominant role in determining the plastic properties of CLSM. The discussed plastic properties of CLSM include flowability, bleeding, segregation, and hardening time, which are found to be inter-related. Proper mix design adjustment to accommodate the use of waste materials is possible to produce sustainable CLSM with acceptable plastic properties. Additionally, the discussion and analysis presented in this paper could provide a basis for future research advances and the development of sustainable CLSM prepared with waste materials.
  8. Chew FN, Tan WS, Ling TC, Tey BT
    Electrophoresis, 2009 Sep;30(17):3017-3023.
    PMID: 19685471 DOI: 10.1002/elps.200900246
    Mechanical and non-mechanical breakages of bacterial cells are usually the preliminary steps in intracellular protein purification. In this study, the recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) was purified from intact Escherichia coli cells using preparative PAGE. In this purification process, cells disruption step is not needed. The cellular content of E. coli was drifted out electrically from cells and the negatively charged GFP was further electroeluted from polyacrylamide gel column. SEM investigation of the electrophoresed cells revealed substantial structural damage at the cellular level. This integrated purification technique has successfully recovered the intracellular GFP with a yield of 82% and purity of 95%.
  9. Mehdizadeh H, Jia X, Mo KH, Ling TC
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Jul 01;280:116914.
    PMID: 33774540 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116914
    Recently, the use of accelerated carbonation curing has attracted wide attention as a promising method to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and improve the mechanical properties of cement-based materials. However, the diffusion mechanism of CO2 in the matrix and the content of hydration products are the key factors that restrict the carbonation reaction rate. To understand the combined behavior of hydration and carbonation reactions, this paper investigates the influence of cement hydration induced by water-to-cement ratio (w/c) (ranging from 0.25 to 0.45) on microstructure and microhardness properties of cement paste. The experimental results demonstrated that carbonation only occurred at the surface layer of cement paste samples and carbonation efficiency was significantly influenced by greater hydration due to higher w/c. The carbonation depth of the sample with 0.45 w/c was about 6 times higher than that of sample with 0.25 w/c after 28 days of CO2 curing. XRD results revealed that calcite-type calcium carbonate is the main carbonation product and consumption of clinker phases (C2S and C3S) during the hydration enhanced the calcite precipitation in the pores of the surface layer. According to FTIR, with increasing w/c, the position of Si-O-Si stretching bond of the carbonated surface changed from Q2 to Q3, confirming the formation of amorphous silica-rich gel, along with the appearance of CO32- bonds related to calcite. In overall, the micro-mechanical analysis in this study showed that the carbonation significantly improved the surface microhardness of cement paste samples, while the refinement of capillary pores due to carbonation also decreased the negative impact of large pores formed in the matrix of cement paste prepared with high w/c.
  10. Phong WN, Show PL, Chow YH, Ling TC
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2018 Sep;126(3):273-281.
    PMID: 29673987 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2018.03.005
    Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) has been suggested as a promising separation tool in the biotechnological industry. This liquid-liquid extraction technique represents an interesting advance in downstream processing due to several advantages such as simplicity, rapid separation, efficiency, economy, flexibility and biocompatibility. Up to date, a range of biotechnological products have been successfully recovered from different sources with high yield using ATPS-based strategy. In view of the important potential contribution of the ATPS in downstream processing, this review article aims to provide latest information about the application of ATPS in the recovery of various biotechnological products in the past 7 years (2010-2017). Apart from that, the challenges as well as the possible future work and outlook of the ATPS-based recovery method have also been presented in this review article.
  11. Jong WYL, Show PL, Ling TC, Tan YS
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2017 Jul;124(1):91-98.
    PMID: 28319022 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2017.02.008
    Amauroderma rugosum is a wild mushroom species widely distributed in tropics and is classified under the class of Basidiomycetes. Basidiomycetes are well-known for their abilities of producing lignocellulolytic enzymes such as lignin peroxidase (LiP), laccase (Lac) and manganese peroxidase (MnP). Different factors such as nutrient sources, incubation period and agitation affect the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes. The A. rugosum produced LiP in the medium supplemented with potato dextrose broth (PDB), 0.5% yeast and 1.0% saw dust at 26.70±3.31 U/mL. However, the LiP activity was increased to 106.32±5.32 U/mL when supplemented with 150 μm of copper (CuSO4). The aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is a simple, rapid and low cost method for primary extraction and recovery of LiP. A total of 25 systems made from five different molecular weights of polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (K2HPO4) were tested. PEG 600 produced the highest top phase purification factor (PFT) of 1.33±0.62 with yield of 72.18±8.50%. The optimization of the ATPS parameters, such as volume ratio VR, pH and crude enzyme loading are the factors controlling the phase partition. Our results showed that significant improvement (PFT of 6.26±2.87 with yield of 87.31±3.14%) of LiP recovery can be achieved by optimized the parameters.
  12. Jiang Y, Ling TC, Mo KH, Shi C
    J Environ Manage, 2019 Jul 15;242:440-449.
    PMID: 31071620 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.04.098
    In light of concerns relating to improper waste disposal and resources preservation, reclamation of the discarded glass in construction materials had been extensively carried out since 1963. In the past decade, although more than 100 papers associated with the use of glass powder (GP) in the micron level scale were published, comprehensive review of all practical applications in cement-based materials and construction products is not available. This paper therefore provides a summary of the body of knowledge on the interaction and effects of using GP in cement-based and extended construction materials. This review concludes that GP is an innovative and promising eco-supplementary cementitious material. Beyond that, use of GP is demonstrated to be potentially beneficial as a precursor in geopolymer and suitable for manufacturing eco-cement, artificial lightweight aggregate and composite phase change material. The multiple applications of GP are seen as an important step towards waste glass recycling as a sustainable construction material and for the overall betterment of the industry.
  13. Meng Y, Ling TC, Mo KH, Tian W
    Sci Total Environ, 2019 Jun 25;671:827-837.
    PMID: 30947055 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.411
    Carbonation for the curing of cement-based materials has been gaining increased attention in recent years, especially in light of emerging initiatives to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Carbonation method or CO2 curing is founded on the basis of the reaction between CO2 and cement products to form thermally stable and denser carbonate, which not only improves the physical and mechanical properties of cement-based materials, but also has the ability to utilize and store CO2 safely and permanently. This study aims to assess the effect of CO2 curing technology on the high-temperatures performance of cement blocks. Upon molding, dry-mix cement blocks were cured under statically accelerated carbonation condition (20% CO2 concentration with 70% relative humidity) for 28 days, followed by exposure to elevated temperatures of 300 °C to 800 °C in order to comprehensively study the principal phase changes and decompositions of cement hydrates. The results indicated that CO2 curing improved the performance of cement blocks, such as enhancement in the residual compressive strength and reducing the sorptivity. At 600 °C, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a denser microstructure while thermal analisis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also clearly demonstrated that higher amounts of calcium carbonate were present in the cement blocks after CO2 curing, suggesting better high-temperature performance compared to natural cured cement blocks. In general, an improved high-temperature performance, specifically at 600 °C of the dry-mixed cement blocks was demonstrated by adopting the CO2 curing technology. This confirms the potential of utilizing CO2 curing technology in not only improving quality of cement blocks, new avenue for storing of CO2 in construction material can be realized at the same time.
  14. Cheah WY, Show PL, Chang JS, Ling TC, Juan JC
    Bioresour Technol, 2015 May;184:190-201.
    PMID: 25497054 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.11.026
    The unceasing rise of greenhouse gas emission has led to global warming and climate change. Global concern on this phenomenon has put forward the microalgal-based CO2 sequestration aiming to sequester carbon back to the biosphere, ultimately reducing greenhouse effects. Microalgae have recently gained enormous attention worldwide, to be the valuable feedstock for renewable energy production, due to their high growth rates, high lipid productivities and the ability to sequester carbon. The photosynthetic process of microalgae uses atmospheric CO2 and CO2 from flue gases, to synthesize nutrients for their growth. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the efficiency of CO2 biosequestration by microalgae species, factors influencing microalgal biomass productions, microalgal cultivation systems, the potential and limitations of using flue gas for microalgal cultivation as well as the bio-refinery approach of microalgal biomass.
  15. Tan CH, Show PL, Chang JS, Ling TC, Lan JC
    Biotechnol Adv, 2015 Nov 1;33(6 Pt 2):1219-27.
    PMID: 25728066 DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2015.02.013
    Microalgae have caught the world's attention for its potential to solve one of the world's most pressing issues-sustainable green energy. Compared to biofuels supplied by oil palm, rapeseed, soybean and sugar cane, microalgae alone can be manipulated to generate larger amounts of biodiesel, bioethanol, biohydrogen and biomass in a shorter time. Apart from higher productivity, microalgae can also grow using brackish water on non-arable land, greatly reducing the competition with food and cash crops. Hence, numerous efforts have been put into the commercialisation of microalgae-derived biofuel by both the government and private bodies. This paper serves to review conventional and novel methods for microalgae culture and biomass harvest, as well as recent developments in techniques for microalgal biofuel production.
  16. Tan CH, Show PL, Ooi CW, Ng EP, Lan JC, Ling TC
    Biotechnol J, 2015 Jan;10(1):31-44.
    PMID: 25273633 DOI: 10.1002/biot.201400301
    Microbial lipases are popular biocatalysts due to their ability to catalyse diverse reactions such as hydrolysis, esterification, and acidolysis. Lipases function efficiently on various substrates in aqueous and non-aqueous media. Lipases are chemo-, regio-, and enantio-specific, and are useful in various industries, including those manufacturing food, detergents, and pharmaceuticals. A large number of lipases from fungal and bacterial sources have been isolated and purified to homogeneity. This success is attributed to the development of both conventional and novel purification techniques. This review highlights the use of these techniques in lipase purification, including conventional techniques such as: (i) ammonium sulphate fractionation; (ii) ion-exchange; (iii) gel filtration and affinity chromatography; as well as novel techniques such as (iv) reverse micellar system; (v) membrane processes; (vi) immunopurification; (vi) aqueous two-phase system; and (vii) aqueous two-phase floatation. A summary of the purification schemes for various bacterial and fungal lipases are also provided.
  17. Zulkurnain M, Lai OM, Latip RA, Nehdi IA, Ling TC, Tan CP
    Food Chem, 2012 Nov 15;135(2):799-805.
    PMID: 22868161 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.04.144
    The formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters in refined palm oil during deodorisation is attributed to the intrinsic composition of crude palm oil. Utilising D-optimal design, the effects of the degumming and bleaching processes on the reduction in 3-MCPD ester formation in refined palm oil from poor-quality crude palm oil were studied relative to the palm oil minor components that are likely to be their precursors. Water degumming remarkably reduced 3-MCPD ester formation by up to 84%, from 9.79 mg/kg to 1.55 mg/kg. Bleaching with synthetic magnesium silicate caused a further 10% reduction, to 0.487 mg/kg. The reduction in 3-MCPD ester formation could be due to the removal of related precursors prior to the deodorisation step. The phosphorus content of bleached palm oil showed a significant correlation with 3-MCPD ester formation.
  18. Show PL, Tan CP, Shamsul Anuar M, Ariff A, Yusof YA, Chen SK, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2012 Jul;116:226-33.
    PMID: 22061444 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.09.131
    An extractive fermentation technique was developed using a thermoseparating reagent to form a two-phase system for simultaneous cell cultivation and downstream processing of extracellular Burkholderia cepacia lipase. A 10% (w/w) solution of ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO) with a molecular mass of 3900 g/mol and pH 8.5, a 200 rpm speed, and 30 °C were selected as the optimal conditions for lipase production (55 U/ml). Repetitive batch fermentation was performed by continuous replacement of the top phase every 24h, which resulted in an average cell growth mass of 4.7 g/L for 10 extractive batches over 240 h. In scaling-up the process, a bench-scale bioreactor was tested under the conditions that had been optimized in flasks. The production rate and recovery yield were higher in the bioreactor compared to fermentation performed in flasks.
  19. Mehrnoush A, Tan CP, Hamed M, Aziz NA, Ling TC
    Food Chem, 2011 Sep 1;128(1):158-64.
    PMID: 25214343 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.03.012
    This study investigated the possible relationship between the encapsulation variables, namely serine protease content (9-50mg/ml, X1), Arabic gum (0.2-10%(w/w), X2), maltodextrin (2-5%(w/w), X3) and calcium chloride (1.3-5.5%(w/w), X4) on the enzymatic properties of encapsulated serine protease. The study demonstrated that Arabic gum, maltodextrin and calcium chloride, as coating agents, protected serine protease from activity loss during freeze-drying. The overall optimum region resulted in a suitable freeze drying condition with a yield of 92% for the encapsulated serine protease, were obtained using 29.5mg/ml serine protease content, 5.1%(w/w) Arabic gum, 3.5%(w/w) maltodextrin and 3.4%(w/w) calcium chloride. It was found that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and calcium chloride improved the serine protease activity, and Arabic gum was the most effective amongst the examined coating agents. Thus, Arabic gum should be considered as potential protection in freeze drying of serine protease.
  20. Ho CW, Tan WS, Chong FC, Ling TC, Tey BT
    J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2009 Apr;19(4):416-23.
    PMID: 19421000
    Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) is an important serological marker used in the diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. In the current study, a fast and efficient preparative purification protocol for truncated HBcAg from Escherichia coli disruptate was developed. The recombinant HBcAg was first captured by anion exchange expanded bed adsorption chromatography integrated with a cell disruption process. This online capture process has shortened the process time and eliminated the "hold-up" period that may be detrimental to the quality of target protein. The eluted product from the expanded bed adsorption chromatography was subsequently purified using size-exclusion chromatography. The results showed that this novel purification protocol achieved a recovery yield of 45.1% with a product purity of 88.2%, which corresponds to a purification factor of 4.5. The recovered HBcAg is still biologically active as shown by ELISA test.
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