CONCLUSION: This review will be the first to summarize the expression of LGMN in common cancers, as well as its roles in tumorigenesis and metastasis. This review also discusses the current developments and future prospects of targeting LGMN through the development of DNA vaccines, azopeptides, small molecule inhibitors and LGMN activated prodrugs, highlighting the potential of LGMN as a target for cancer therapeutics.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: ARPE-19 cells were pre-treated with LUT, ZEA, or both for 24 h before 200 μM H2O2 challenge. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. DICER1 and Alu RNA were quantified by western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively.
RESULTS: H2O2 increased cell Alu RNA expression and decreased cell viability of ARPE-19, but had no significant impact on the DICER1 protein level. LUT, alone and in combination with ZEA pre-treatment, prior to H2O2 challenge significantly improved cell viability of ARPE-19 and reduced the level of Alu RNA compared to the negative control.
CONCLUSIONS: These results support the use of LUT alone, and in combination with ZEA, in AMD prevention and treatment. This study is also the first to report LUT modulating effects on Alu RNA.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study design with mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches was employed and data collection was carried out primarily using self-administered questionnaire.
RESULTS: Approximately half (52.5%, n = 74) of all respondents (n = 141) reported having personally encountered at least one case of academic dishonesty involving their peers. The results also revealed the significantly higher prevalence of various forms of academic misconduct among healthcare academics compared to their non-healthcare counterparts. Although respondents were generally conscious of the negative implications associated with academic dishonesty, more than half of all cases of misconduct were not reported due to the indifferent attitude among academics. Low levels of self-discipline and integrity were found to be the major factors leading to academic misdeeds and respondents opined that university managements should be more proactive in addressing this issue.
CONCLUSIONS: The outcome of this study should serve as a clarion call for all relevant stakeholders to start making immediate amends in order to improve the current state of affairs in academia.
METHODS: By utilizing a panel of breast cancer cells and mammospheres culture as cell-based screening platforms, we performed high-throughput chemical library screens to identify agents that are effective against breast CSCs and non-CSCs. The hit molecules were paired with conventional chemotherapy to evaluate the combinatorial treatment effects on breast CSCs and non-CSCs.
RESULTS: We identified a total of 193 inhibitors that effectively targeting both breast CSCs and non-CSCs. We observed that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) synergized conventional chemotherapeutic agents (i.e., doxorubicin and cisplatin) in targeting breast CSCs and non-CSCs simultaneously. Further analyses revealed that quisinostat, a potent inhibitor for class I and II HDACs, potentiated doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in both breast CSCs and non-CSCs derived from the basal-like (MDA-MB-468 and HCC38), mesenchymal-like (MDA-MB-231), and luminal-like breast cancer (MCF-7). It was also observed that the basal-like breast CSCs and non-CSCs were more sensitive to the co-treatment of quisinostat with doxorubicin compared to that of the luminal-like breast cancer subtype.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study demonstrates the potential of HDACi as therapeutic options, either as monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapeutics against refractory breast cancer.