Displaying all 16 publications

  1. Misron, L.H., Misron, K., Misron, S.N.F.
    Sleep disorder including insomnia is one of the complications of general anaesthesia. It is not uncommon and it is temporary but majority remains unnoticed and untreated. The effect of insomnia ranges from mild to severe, influencing both physical and mental health. Surgeon and anaesthetist need to identify this complication so that an appropriate treatment can be delivered. In complicated case, psychiatrist involvement is crucial. The treatment is symptomatic and temporary. We reported a case of distressful sleep disorder as a sequelae of general anaesthesia for mastoidectomy surgery. Subsequently after symptomatic treatment, he recovered completely and regained his normal sleep pattern.
  2. Kamalden TMIT, Misron K
    PMID: 34226993 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-021-06980-6
    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the clinical trends of malignant otitis externa (MOE) and classify MOE based on the findings related to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the temporal bone and 99-Tech3-Phase Bone Scintigraphy (TPBS). We also reconstruct a treatment algorithm for MOE in our institution.

    METHODOLOGY: A 10-year retrospective review was carried out on MOE in a single otology institution from January 2011 to December 2020. The MOE was classified based on proposed Tengku's radiological stratification according to HRCT and TBPS findings. Phase I is defined as inflammation limited to the soft tissue in the external auditory canal, without involvement of the bone. Phase II is the inflammation beyond the soft tissue, involving bone, but limited to the mastoid. Phase III is when the inflammation extends medially, involving the petrous temporal bone or temporomandibular joint, with or without parapharyngeal soft tissue involvement. Phase IV refers to inflammation extending medially to involve the nasopharynx, with or without abscess formation. Finally, Phase V is inflammation that further extends to the contralateral base of the skull.

    RESULTS: A sample of 49 patients was involved in this study. Majority of the patients were having Phase III (36.7%) of the disease, followed by Phase V (24.5%), Phase II (18.4%), Phase IV (16.3%), and Phase I (4.1%). A comprehensive treatment algorithm was drafted based on our institution's experience in managing MOE. The mortality rate was low (8.2%), mainly involving patients in advanced phase of the disease (Phases IV and V).

    CONCLUSION: This study has revealed the evidence of progression of MOE based on the proposed radiological stratification. This stratification is simple and practically applicable in clinical settings. We suggest the use of our proposed treatment algorithm as a standard diagnostic and treatment protocol for MOE.

  3. Tengku Kamalden TMI, Misron K
    Med J Malaysia, 2021 08;76(Suppl 4):42-44.
    PMID: 34558558
    Similar to other surgical fraternities, endoscopic ear surgery (EES) faced great challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many elective operations involving EES needed to be postponed, resulting in accumulated cases. Throughout one year during COVID-19, Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor, Malaysia continued to perform various EES procedures. Although EES is an aerosol-generating procedure, it has become evidence that this minimallyinvasive surgical approach offers lesser bony drilling and shorter operative time as compared to open mastoidectomy. Thus, this reduced the risk of viral transmission to the surgeons and operating staffs.
  4. Nor Hisyam CI, Misron K, Mohamad I
    Malays Fam Physician, 2017;12(2):23-25.
    PMID: 29423126 MyJurnal
    A foreign body (FB) in the upper aerodigestive tract is a common clinical problem that presents as as acute emergency. Sharp FB, such as fish bone or chicken bone, commonly lodges in the tonsil, base of tongue, vallecula or pyriform fossa. Dislodgement of a FB into the laryngopharynx is very rare and specifically onto the vocal cord is extremely uncommon. This case report illustrates a rare case of a sharp FB that was dislodged into the airway and stuck on to the right vocal cord, which was removed under local anaesthesia.
  5. Misron K, Balasubramanian A, Mohamad I, Hassan NF
    BMJ Case Rep, 2014;2014.
    PMID: 24663247 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2013-201033
    Bilateral vocal cord paralysis is a known possible complication following thyroid surgery. It owes to the close relationship between the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the thyroid gland. The most feared complication of bilateral vocal cord paralysis is airway compromise. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman who underwent total thyroidectomy for multinodular goitre. The surgery was uneventful. However she developed stridor in the recovery bay needing intubation. We postulate that the cause was attributed to bilateral vocal cord paresis due to the use of the intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM) whose high setting throughout the surgery was overlooked. She made a complete recovery without the need of a tracheostomy. We share our lessons learnt from this case.
  6. Misron K, Mfuko G, Hur YK, Moon IS
    Otol Neurotol, 2021 06 01;42(5):e631-e634.
    PMID: 33741816 DOI: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000003132
    INTRODUCTION: Restoration of hearing in patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS) and poor hearing poses a great challenge. Simultaneous cochlear implantation during surgery for VS removal offers favorable hearing outcome if the cochlear nerve remains intact. Recent refinement of surgical techniques using the endoscope has made it possible to simultaneously restore the hearing and remove the tumor.

    CASE DESCRIPTION: A 62-year-old male had left severe sensorineural hearing loss and a 4 mm intracanalicular VS. We performed simultaneous nonmastoidectomy infrapromontorial VS removal and cochlear implantation in this patient to achieve minimal invasiveness and to provide maximal hearing restoration. The tumor was removed via this corridor while maintaining the integrity of cochlear as well as facial nerves with full insertion of a medium length cochlear implant electrode. After surgery, the patient showed good hearing rehabilitation.

    CONCLUSION: Simultaneous infrapromontorial VS removal and nonmastoidectomy cochlear implantation serves as an option for hearing restoration with minimal invasiveness in small VS removal.

  7. Tengku Kamalden TMI, Misron K, Arumugam PA
    Acta Otolaryngol, 2021 Jul;141(7):678-683.
    PMID: 33908813 DOI: 10.1080/00016489.2021.1916074
    BACKGROUND: With more intracanalicular vestibular schwannoma (ICVS) diagnosed, treatment options are limited either to wait-and-see or surgery. The transpromontorial and infrapromontorial approaches allow direct route to the fundus of internal auditory canal with certain advantages in preserving facial nerve and even cochlear nerve.

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the middle ear corridor approach for ICVS excision.

    METHODOLOGY: All transpromontorial and infrapromontorial approaches for ICVS excision were recruited. The surgeries were performed at an otologic center by a single experienced otologist.

    RESULTS: Three cases of ICVS Koos Type I were included in this review. Two cases were operated with exclusive endoscopic transcanal transpromontorial approach excision of tumor. One case underwent concurrent transcanal excision of ICVS through infrapromontorial approach with cochlear implantation. Two of them developed facial nerve paresis. The last patient recovered fully with viable cochlear nerve enabling hearing restoration with cochlear implant.

    CONCLUSION: The potential of surgery in ICVS via middle ear approach is a safe and direct route with promising outcome. This approach offers removal of the ICVS without interrupting facial and cochlear nerves. Hence, the preservation of facial function and hearing are possible.

  8. Misron K, Hamid SSA, Ahmad A, Ramli RR
    Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol, 2017 Sep;10(3):241-247.
    PMID: 28449554 DOI: 10.21053/ceo.2016.01732
    OBJECTIVES: This case-controlled study aimed to identify the association of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-1031 and TNFβ+ 252 gene polymorphisms between chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and healthy controls. Another purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of these gene polymorphisms with factors related to CRS.

    METHODS: All deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples were genotyped for TNFα-1031 and TNFβ+252 genes by mean of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). The statistical analysis were carried out using chi-square test or Fisher exact test to determine the associations of these gene polymorphisms in CRS. Multiple logistic regression was performed to evaluate the associations of these gene polymorphisms in CRS and its related risk factors.

    RESULTS: The genotype and allele frequencies of TNFα-1031 and TNFβ+252 gene did not show any significant associations between CRS and healthy controls. However, a significantly statistical difference of TNFα-1031 was observed in CRS participants with atopy (P-value, 0.045; odds ratio, 3.66) but not in CRS with asthma or aspirin intolerance.

    CONCLUSION: Although the presence of TNFα-1031 and TNFβ+252 gene polymorphisms did not render any significant associations between CRS and healthy control, this study suggests that TNFα-1031 gene polymorphisms in CRS patients with atopy may be associated with increase susceptibility towards CRS.

  9. Misron K, Mohamad I, Nik Adilah NO, Johan KB
    Malays Fam Physician, 2015;10(3):43-4.
    PMID: 27570610
  10. Lim CC, Misron K, Liew YT, Wong EHC
    BMJ Case Rep, 2019 Nov 04;12(11).
    PMID: 31690691 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2019-232275
    Acoustic neuroma (AN) usually manifests with asymmetric hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness and sense of disequilibrium. About 10% of patients complain of atypical symptoms, which include facial numbness or pain and sudden onset of hearing loss. Patients with atypical symptoms also tend to have larger tumours due to the delay in investigation. We report a particularly interesting case of a patient presented to us with numbness over her right hemifacial region after a dental procedure without significant acoustic and vestibular symptoms. Physical examination and pure tone audiometry revealed no significant findings but further imaging revealed a cerebellopontine angle mass. The changing trends with easier access to further imaging indicate that the presentation of patients with AN are also changing. Atypical symptoms which are persistent should raise clinical suspicion of this pathology among clinicians.
  11. Lamry NA, Misron K, Tengku Kamalden TMI, Mohamad S
    Gulf J Oncolog, 2021 Sep;1(37):91-94.
    PMID: 35152201
    Soft tissue sarcoma, especially synovial sarcoma is extremely rare in infancy. Only few cases were reported, and challenges lies in disease eradication and subsequent adjuvant therapy. Due to particularly small size of head and neck region with important structures are in intimate location with each other, surgical resection is very challenging, in order to ensure total disease resection as well as maintaining function and cosmetic outcome post-operatively. We present an uncommon case of synovial sarcoma of infratemporal fossa diagnosed in a 3-month-old infant. Due to extreme age, it poses difficulty to the managing team with regards to surgical intervention and oncological regimes. Keywords : Synovial sarcoma; infratemporal fossa; infant.
  12. Kamalden TMIT, Yusof ANM, Misron K
    J Int Adv Otol, 2021 Nov;17(6):570-573.
    PMID: 35177397 DOI: 10.5152/iao.2021.21189
    The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of delayed facial nerve paresis after total endoscopic ear surgery. This review also aims to describe the possible contributing factors and its management. This is a retrospective review of all patients who had undergone total endoscopic ear surgery for all otologic cases that required endoscopic intervention in a single otologic center from 2014 up to 2020. The delayed facial nerve paresis is defined as deterioration of facial nerve function 72 hours after total endoscopic ear surgery. A total of 56 patients were included in the study. Delayed facial nerve paresis following total endoscopic ear surgery was observed in 2 patients (3.4%). Facial weakness sets in on day 6 post operation and another one developed at day 16 after the surgery. Both patients were investigated and only one of them showed a higher titer of Varicella zoster virus antibody while another patient showed no raise of titer. Thus, explanation of postoperative edema or mechanical compression is discussed. The incidence of delayed facial nerve paresis following total endoscopic ear surgery is rare. It can occur probably several days after surgery up to 3 weeks. Our 2 cases revealed that virus reactivation may not be the only factor for delayed facial nerve palsy after surgery. The overall prognosis for incomplete delayed facial nerve paresis is very good as both patients recovered well few days after treatment with steroids.
  13. Lim CC, Misron K, Loong SP, Liew YT, Sawali H
    Iran J Otorhinolaryngol, 2019 Sep;31(106):319-322.
    PMID: 31598501
    Introduction: Primary tuberculosis (TB) of the oropharynx and nasopharynx is an extremely rare form of extra-pulmonary TB in children. Primary tuberculosis occurs more likely secondary to pulmonary TB and is more common in immunocompromised patients.

    Case Report: We reported the case of a young male presented with the symptoms of non-specific chronic adenotonsillitis, mild obstructive sleep apnoea, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Subsequently, he underwent adenotonsillectomy and excision of the cervical lymph node with the tissue specimens came back strongly positive for TB. Then, he started using antituberculous medication and recovered well.

    Conclusion: The authors would like to highlight this rare clinical entity in which accurate diagnosis is essential for complete treatment.

  14. Misron K, Tengku Kamalden TMI, Misron LH, Devesahayam PR, Misron SNF
    Cochlear Implants Int, 2021 09;22(5):291-295.
    PMID: 33794747 DOI: 10.1080/14670100.2021.1905975
    INTRODUCTION: Cochlear implant (CI) requires lifelong financial commitments to ensure that the devices always operate optimally.

    OBJECTIVE: We estimated the long-term maintenance costs of CI including repair of speech processors, replacement of damaged parts, and battery requirements.

    RESULTS: Forty-one parents of children who received CIs in Malaysian government hospitals were enrolled. The first 2 years of CI usage were covered by warranty. The cost increased three-fold from by 4 years of CI usage and then doubled by 8 years of usage. About 75% of parents commented that the costs were burdensome.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings will be useful for parents whose children receive CI and will allow medical personnel to counsel the parents about the costs.

  15. Lamry NA, Misron K, Tengku Kamalden TMI, Aziz A, Salim R
    Korean J Fam Med, 2021 Nov;42(6):483-486.
    PMID: 32456405 DOI: 10.4082/kjfm.20.0071
    Malignant otitis externa (MOE) is a rare and potentially life-threatening disease of the ear and temporal bone. Bilateral simultaneous MOE is extremely rare. Due to bilaterally symmetrical facial nerve palsy, it can easily be missed at the initial presentation, causing delay in management. Here, we report a case of bilateral MOE managed aggressively with regular ear toileting, ear packing with a ribbon gauze soaked with topical antimicrobials, and long-term intravenous and oral antibiotics. The patient showed good improvement in pain control, facial nerve status, and ear findings.
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