A study was conducted to compare the urinary iodine concentrations in populations from Pahang, Central Malaysia, with those in the capital city Kuala Lumpur, and to compare those of Malays from villages at Batu Talam, Batu Malim, FELDA Sungai Koyan and Hulu Sungai with neighboring aboriginal settlements at Lanai and Buntu. Two hundred and forty urine samples were collected randomly among the population (male 1 1 1 and female 129). The urinary iodine concentrations, measured by the ashing method, among Malays were as follows: Batu Talam 1.1-7.6 micrograms/dl, Batu Malim 1.4-6.6 micrograms/dl, FELDA Sungai Koyan 0.5-6.9 micrograms/dl and Hulu Sungai 0.6-9.9 micrograms/dl. Among aborigines, the urinary iodine levels were 0.1-2.9 micrograms/dl in Lanai and 1.7-6.5 micrograms/dl in Buntu. There was a significant difference in the levels of urinary iodine with regard to gender, but not regarding age. The aborigines had significantly lower iodine levels than Malays (P < 0.001). This difference was also significant with regard to location. The urinary iodine content in Kuala Lumpur was the highest and that in the aboriginal Lanai village was the lowest. Thus, the study showed that the levels of iodine in the urine were influenced by ethnicity and geographic location.
Textile wastewater, one of the most polluted industrial effluents, generally contains substantial amount of dyes and chemicals that will cause increase in the COD, colour and toxicity of receiving water bodies if not properly treated. Current treatment methods include chemical and biological processes; the efficiency of the biological treatment method however, remains uncertain since the discharged effluent is still highly coloured. In this study, granules consisting mixed culture of decolourising bacteria were developed and the physical and morphological characteristics were determined. After the sixth week of development, the granules were 3-10 mm in diameter, having good settling property with settling velocity of 70 m/h, sludge volume index (SVI) of 90 to 130 mL/g, integrity coefficient of 3.7, and density of 66 g/l. Their abilities to treat sterilised raw textile wastewater were evaluated based on the removal efficiencies of COD (initial ranging from 200 to 3,000 mg/L), colour (initial ranging from 450 to 2000 ADMI) of sterilised raw textile wastewater with pH from 6.8 to 9.4. Using a sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment cycle with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h, maximum removal of colour and COD achieved was 90% and 80%, respectively.
Microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) is a process that hydrolysis urea by microbial urease to fill the pore spaces of soil with induced calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) precipitates, which eventually results in improved or solidified soil. This research explored the possibility of using dairy manure pellets (DMP) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) as alternative nutrient sources for Sporosarcina pasteurii cultivation and CaCO3 bioprecipitation. Different concentrations (20-80 g l-1 ) of DMP and POME were used to propagate the cells of S. pasteurii under laboratory conditions. The measured CaCO3 contents for MICP soil specimens that were treated with bacterial cultures grown in DMP medium (60%, w/v) was 15·30 ± 0·04 g ml-1 and POME medium (40%, v/v) was 15·49 ± 0·05 g ml-1 after 21 days curing. The scanning electron microscopy showed that soil treated with DMP had rhombohedral structure-like crystals with smooth surfaces, whilst that of POME entailed ring-like cubical formation with rough surfaces Electron dispersive X-ray analysis was able to identify a high mass percentage of chemical element compositions (Ca, C and O), whilst spectrum from Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the vibration peak intensities for CaCO3 . Atomic force microscopy further showed clear topographical differences on the crystal surface structures that were formed around the MICP treated soil samples. These nutrient sources (DMP and POME) showed encouraging potential cultivation mediums to address high costs related to bacterial cultivation and biocementation treatment.
The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential of magnetic field application as an alternative approach for controlling sludge bulking due to long sludge retention time (SRT) while enhancing nitrification efficiency upon the occurrence. Two sequencing batch reactors, reactor A (SBRA, magnetic field intensity 88.0 mT) and reactor B (SBRB, control) were operated under long SRT to induce the growth of filamentous microorganisms. The effect of magnetic field on nitrification, viz. ammonia-nitrogen (NH4-N) and nitrite removal, as well as biomass properties were studied under the sludge bulking condition. Results indicated that nitrification efficiency of SBRA was consistently higher with 90% NH4-N removal and 74-81% nitrite removal, which could be credited to the enhanced biomass properties of activated sludge due to the induced magnetic field. Metabolism activity and biodegradability of aerobic bacteria were also enhanced through the application of magnetic field, even under long SRT condition. This was evidenced by the average oxygen uptake rate (OUR) in SBRA that was higher with 11.7 ± 1.2 mg/L·h compared to SBRB with 9.5 ± 0.4 mg/L·h. Occurrence of filamentous sludge bulking was likewise minimized.
The developed microbial granules containing photosynthetic pigments had successfully achieved approximately 18-21% of carbon dioxide (CO2) removal in POME for one complete SBR cycle. Also, the granules had reached CO2 removal at 15-29% within 24h and removal of 25% after 5 days. Both results were inconsistent possibly due to the slow mass transfer rate of CO2 from gas to liquid as well as the simultaneous effect of CO2 production and respiration among the microbes. Furthermore, results showed the removal of CO2 from air increases proportionally with the CO2 removed in liquid. The CO2 biofixation of granules attained was approximately 0.23g/L/day for a week. Using the regression model, the removal of CO2 between liquid and gas, CO2 biofixation rate were highly correlated with the treatment time. A statistically significant relationship was obtained between CO2 concentration in liquid, biomass productivity and treatment time for the CO2 biofixation rate of the granules.
Understanding of mass transfer kinetics is important for biosorption of nitrogen compounds from palm oil mill effluent (POME) to gain a mechanistic insight into future biological processes for the treatment of high organic loading wastewater. In this study, the rates of global and sequential mass transfer were determined using the modified mass transfer factor equations for the experiments to remove nitrogen by aerobic granular sludge accumulation in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The maximum efficiencies as high as 97% for the experiment run at [kLa]g value of 1421.8 h-1 and 96% for the experiment run at [kLa]g value of 9.6 × 1037 h-1 were verified before and after the addition of Serratia marcescens SA30, respectively. The resistance of mass transfer could be dependent on external mass transfer that controls the transport of nitrogen molecule along the experimental period of 256 days. The increase in [kLa]g value leading to increased performance of the SBR was verified to contribute to the future applications of the SBR because this phenomenon provides new insight into the dynamic response of biological processes to treat POME.
Biogranulation technology is an emerging biological process in treating various wastewater. However, the development of biogranules requires an extended period of time when treating wastewaters with high oil and grease (O&G) content. A study was therefore conducted to assess the formation of biogranules through bioaugmentation with the Serratia marcescens SA30 strain, in treating real anaerobically digested palm oil mill effluent (AD-POME), with O&G of about 4600 mg/L. The biogranules were developed in a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system under alternating anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The experimental data were assessed using the modified mass transfer factor (MMTF) models to understand the mechanisms of biosorption of O&G on the biogranules. The system was run with variable organic loading rates (OLR) of 0.69-9.90 kg/m3d and superficial air velocity (SAV) of 2 cm/s. After 60 days of being bioaugmented with the Serratia marcescens SA30 strain, the flocculent biomass transformed into biogranules with excellent settleability with improved treatment efficiency. The biogranules showed a compact structure and good settling ability with an average diameter of about 2 mm, a sludge volume index at 5 min (SVI5) of 43 mL/g, and a settling velocity (SV) of 81 m/h after 256 days of operation. The average removal efficiencies of O&G increased from 6 to 99.92%, respectively. The application of the MMTF model verified that the resistance to O&G biosorption is controlled via film mass transfer. This research indicates successful bioaugmentation of biogranules using the Serratia marcescens SA30 strain for enhanced biodegradation of O&G and is capable to treat real AD-POME.
This study was to develop biogranules using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and to evaluate the effect of pineapple wastewater (PW) as a co-substrate for treating real textile wastewater (RTW). The biogranular system cycle was 24 h (2 stages of phase), with an anaerobic phase (17.8 h) followed by an aerobic phase (5.8 h) for every stage of the phase. The concentration of pineapple wastewater was the main factor studied in influencing COD and color removal efficiency. Pineapple wastewater with different concentrations (7, 5, 4, 3, and 0% v/v) makes a total volume of 3 L and causes the OLRs to vary from 2.90 to 0.23 kg COD/m3day. The system achieved 55% of average color removal and 88% of average COD removal at 7%v/v PW concentration during treatment. With the addition of PW, the removal increased significantly. The experiment on the treatment of RTW without any added nutrients proved the importance of co-substrate in dye degradation.
The Malaysian palm oil industry is a major revenue earner and the country is ranked as one of the largest producers in the world. However, growth of the industry is synonymous with a massive production of agro-industrial wastewater. As an environmental protection and public health concern, the highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has become a major attention-grabber. Hence, the industry is targeting for POME pollution abatement in order to promote a greener image of palm oil and to achieve sustainability. At present, most palm oil mills have adopted the ponding system for treatment. Due to the successful POME pollution abatement experiences, Malaysia is currently planning to revise the effluent quality standards towards a more stringent discharge limits. Hence, the current trend of POME research focuses on developing tertiary treatment or polishing systems for better effluent management. Biotechnologically-advanced POME tertiary (polishing) technologies as well as other physicochemical methods are gaining much attention as these processes are the key players to push the industry towards the goal of environmental sustainability. There are still ongoing treatment technologies being researched and the outcomes maybe available in a while. However, the research completed so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the new standards. To this end, the most feasible technology could be the combination of advanced biological processes (bioreactor systems) with extended aeration, followed by solids separation prior to discharge. Chemical dosing is favoured only if effluent of higher quality is anticipated.
Microbial flocs formed from raw textile wastewater in a prototype Aerobic Biofilm Reactor (ABR) system were characterised and studied for their potential use in the treatment of textile wastewater. After 90-100 days of operation, microbial flocs of loose irregular structures were obtained from the reactor with good settling velocity of 33 m/h and sludge volume index (SVI) of 48.2 mL/g. Molecular analysis of the flocs using PCR-amplified 16S rDNA sequence showed 98% homology to those of Bacillus sp, Paenibacillus sp and Acromobacter sp. Detection of Ca(2+)(131 mg/g) and Fe(2+)(131 mg/g) using atomic absorption spectrometer might be implicated with the flocs formation. In addition, presence of Co(2+) and Ni(2+) were indicative of the flocs ability to accumulate at least a fraction of the metals' present in the wastewater. When the flocs were used for the treatment of raw textile wastewater, they showed good removal of COD and colour about 55% and 70% respectively, indicating their potential application.
The present work investigates the feasibility of aerobic granulation for the treatment of low-medium strength domestic wastewater for long-term operation and effects of a static mixer on the properties and removal performances of the aerobic granules formed. The static mixer was installed in a sequential batch reactor to provide higher hydrodynamic shear force in enhancing the formation of the aerobic granules. Aerobic granules were successfully formed in the domestic wastewater, and the granulation treatment system was sustained for a period of 356 days without granules disintegration. Subsequent to the installation, aerobic granules with a low SVI30 of 41.37 mL/gTSS, average diameter 1.11 mm, granular strength with integrity coefficient 10.4% and regular shape with minimum filamentous outgrowth were formed. Mineral concentrations such as Fe, Mg, Ca and Na as well as composition of protein and polysaccharide in tightly bound-extracellular polymeric substance of the aerobic granules were found to be higher under the effect of the static mixer. However, no significant improvement was observed on the TCOD, NH4+-N and TSS removal performance. Good TCOD and TSS removal performance of above 85% and 90%, respectively and moderate NH4+-N removal performance of about 60% were observed throughout the study. Higher simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) efficiency of 56% was observed after the installation of the static mixer, as compared to 21% prior. Therefore, it may be concluded that the installation of the static mixer significantly improved the properties of aerobic granules formation and SND efficiency but not the TCOD, NH4+-N and TSS removal performance.
The physical characteristics, microbial activities and kinetic properties of the granular sludge biomass were investigated under the influence of different hydraulic retention times (HRT) along with the performance of the system in removal of color and COD of synthetic textile wastewater. The study was conducted in a column reactor operated according to a sequential batch reactor with a sequence of anaerobic and aerobic reaction phases. Six stages of different HRTs and different anaerobic and aerobic reaction time were evaluated. It was observed that the increase in HRT resulted in the reduction of organic loading rate (OLR). This has caused a decrease in biomass concentration (MLSS), reduction in mean size of the granules, lowered the settling ability of the granules and reduction of oxygen uptake rate (OUR), overall specific biomass growth rate (ìoverall), endogeneous decay rate (kd) and biomass yield (Yobs, Y). When the OLR was increased by adding carbon sources (glucose, sodium acetate and ethanol), there was a slight increase in the MLSS, the granules mean size, ìoverall, and biomass yield. Under high HRT, increasing the anaerobic to aerobic reaction time ratio caused an increase in the concentration of MLSS, mean size of granules and lowered the SVI value and biomass yield. The ìoverall and biomass yield increased with the reduction in anaerobic/aerobic time ratio. The HRT of 24 h with anaerobic and aerobic reaction time of 17.8 and 5.8 h respectively appear to be the best cycle operation of SBR. Under these conditions, not only the physical properties of the biogranules have improved, the highest removal of color (i.e. 94.1±0.6%) and organics (i.e. 86.5±0.5%) of the synthetic textile dyeing wastewater have been achieved.
The smaller particles that dominate the particle number concentration (PNC) in the ambient air only contribute to a small percentage of particulate matter (PM) mass concentration although present in high particle number concentration. These small particles may be neglected upon assessing the health impacts of the PM. Hence, the knowledge on the particle number concentration size distribution deserves greater attention than the particulate mass concentration. This study investigates the measurement of the particle mass concentrations (PM2.5) and PNC of 0.27 μm
Biogranulation is an effective biological technology suitable for the treatment of various wastewaters. However, the major drawback of this technique is the long start-up period for biogranule development. Hence, the primary focus of this study was on cell surface hydrophobicity which is the main parameter that indicates cell agglomeration during the initial self-immobilization process of aerobic granulation. The effects of sludge concentration and magnetic activated carbon on cell surface hydrophobicity were investigated in this study. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to design, analyze, and optimize the outcome of the study. Experiments were performed at sludge concentration of 1,000-3,000 mg/L and magnetic activated carbon mass of 1-5 g/L with 24 hr of aeration time. The results show that both variables yielded a positive significant effect on the initial development of aerobic granulation with 56% surface hydrophobicity. Interaction effects between variables on the responses were significant with positive estimated interaction effect at all different measured aeration time. The magnetic activated carbon acted as nuclei to induce bacterial attachment and further enhanced the initial process of biogranule development under optimal condition of 1:1.1 (sludge concentration: magnetic activated carbon). PRACTITIONER POINTS: Cell surface hydrophobicity was evaluated Magnetic activated carbon enhanced cell surface hydrophobicity Response surface methodology was employed for analyses Magnetic activate carbon mass and biomass concentration was significant Magnetic activated carbon acted as nuclei to improve biogranulation.
Biogranulation has emerged as a viable alternative biological wastewater treatment approach because of its strong biodegradability potential, toxicity tolerance, and biomass retention features. However, this process requires a long duration for biogranules formation to occur. In this study, magnetic powder activated carbon (MPAC) was used as support material in a sequencing batch reactor to enhance biogranules development for wastewater treatment. Two parallel SBRs (designated R1 and R2) were used, with R1 serving as a control without the presence of MPAC while R2 was operated with MPAC. The biodegradability capacity and biomass properties of MPAC biogranules were compared with a control system. The measured diameter of biogranules for R1 and R2 after 8 weeks of maturation were 2.2 mm and 3.4 mm, respectively. The integrity coefficient of the biogranules in R2 was higher (8.3%) than that of R1 (13.4%), indicating that the addition of MPAC improved the structure of the biogranules in R2. The components of extracellular polymeric substances were also higher in R2 than in R1. Scanning electronic microscopy was able to examine the morphological structures of the biogranules which showed there were irregular formations compacted together. However, there were more cavities situated in R1 biogranules (without MPAC) when compared to R2 biogranules (with MPAC). Dye removal reached 65% and 83% in R1 and R2 in the post-development stage. This study demonstrates that the addition of MPAC could shorten and improve biogranules formation. MPAC acted as the support media for microbial growth during the biogranulation developmental process.
Microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) is a remarkable method that creates sustainable cementitious binding material for use in geotechnical/structural engineering and environmental engineering. This is due to the increasing demand for alternative environmentally friendly technologies and materials that result in minimal or zero carbon footprint. In contrast to the previously published literature, through bibliometric analysis, this review paper focuses on the current prospects and future research trends of MICP technology via the Scopus database and VOSviewer analysis. The objective of the study was to determine the annual publications and citations trend, most contributing countries, the leading journals, prolific authors, productive institutions, funding sponsors, trending author keywords, and research directions of MICP. There were a total of 1058 articles published from 2001 to 2021 on MICP. The result demonstrated that the volume of publications is increasing. China, Construction and Building Materials, Satoru Kawasaki, Nanyang Technological University, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China are the leading country, journal, author, institution, and funding sponsor in terms of total publications. Through the co-occurrence analysis of the author keywords, MICP was revealed to be the most frequently used author keyword with 121 occurrences, a total link strength of 213, and 152 links to other author keywords. Furthermore, co-occurrence analysis of text data revealed that researchers are concentrating on four important research areas: precipitation, MICP, compressive strength, and biomineralization. This review can provide information to researchers that can lead to novel ideas and research collaboration or engagement on MICP technology.
Microbial granular sludge that is capable to treat textile wastewater in a single reactor under intermittent anaerobic and aerobic conditions was developed in this study. The granules were cultivated using mixed sewage and textile mill sludge in combination with anaerobic granules collected from an anaerobic sludge blanket reactor as seed. The granules were developed in a single sequential batch reactor (SBR) system under alternating anaerobic and aerobic condition fed with synthetic textile wastewater. The characteristics of the microbial granular sludge were monitored throughout the study period. During this period, the average size of the granules increased from 0.02 +/- 0.01 mm to 2.3 +/- 1.0 mm and the average settling velocity increased from 9.9 +/- 0.7 m h(-1) to 80 +/- 8 m h(-1). This resulted in an increased biomass concentration (from 2.9 +/- 0.8 g L(-1) to 7.3 +/- 0.9 g L(-1)) and mean cell residence time (from 1.4 days to 8.3 days). The strength of the granules, expressed as the integrity coefficient also improved. The sequential batch reactor system demonstrated good removal of COD and ammonia of 94% and 95%, respectively, at the end of the study. However, only 62% of color removal was observed. The findings of this study show that granular sludge could be developed in a single reactor with an intermittent anaerobic-aerobic reaction phase and is capable in treating the textile wastewater.