Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 26 in total

  1. Ng EP, Goh JY, Ling TC, Mukti RR
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2013;8(1):120.
    PMID: 23497184 DOI: 10.1186/1556-276X-8-120
    Nanoporous materials such as Mobil composite material number 41 (MCM-41) are attractive for applications such as catalysis, adsorption, supports, and carriers. Green synthesis of MCM-41 is particularly appealing because the chemical reagents are useful and valuable. We report on the eco-friendly synthesis of MCM-41 nanoporous materials via multi-cycle approach by re-using the non-reacted reagents in supernatant as mother liquor after separating the solid product. This approach was achieved via minimal requirement of chemical compensation where additional fresh reactants were added into the mother liquor followed by pH adjustment after each cycle of synthesis. The solid product of each successive batch was collected and characterized while the non-reacted reagents in supernatant can be recovered and re-used to produce subsequent cycle of MCM-41. The multi-cycle synthesis is demonstrated up to three times in this research. This approach suggests a low cost and eco-friendly synthesis of nanoporous material since less waste is discarded after the product has been collected, and in addition, product yield can be maintained at the high level.
  2. Lee TP, Saad B, Ng EP, Salleh B
    J Chromatogr A, 2012 May 11;1237:46-54.
    PMID: 22444432 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2012.03.031
    Zeolite Linde Type L (LTL) crystals with different length, diameter and particle size (nanosized LTL, rod LTL, cylinder LTL and needle LTL) were synthesized, characterized and were used as sorbent in the micro-solid phase extraction of ochratoxin A (OTA) before the high performance liquid chromatography detection. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of OTA for coffee and cereal were 0.09 ng g(-1) and 0.03 ng g(-1), respectively, while the quantification limits were 0.28 ng g(-1) and 0.08 ng g(-1), respectively. The recoveries of OTA of coffee and cereal spiked at 0.5, 10 and 25 ng g(-1) ranged from 91.7 to 101.0%. The proposed method was applied to forty-five samples of coffee and cereal. The presence of OTA was found in twenty-five samples, ranging from 0.28 to 9.33 ng g(-1).
  3. Ng EP, Itani L, Sekhon SS, Mintova S
    Chemistry, 2010 Nov 15;16(43):12890-7.
    PMID: 20886470 DOI: 10.1002/chem.201001083
    Micro- and macroscopic studies of nucleation and growth processes of MnAlPO-5 nanosized crystals under ionothermal synthesis conditions are reported herein. The samples treated at 150 °C were extracted from the reaction mixture at various stages of crystallization, and characterized by XRD; SEM; thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); (31)P and (27)Al solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR, Raman, UV/Vis, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). The starting raw materials (alumina, manganese, and phosphorous) were dissolved completely in the ionic liquid and transformed into an amorphous solid after 5 h of ionothermal treatment. This amorphous solid then undergoes structural changes over the following 5-25 h, which result in an intermediate phase that consists of octahedral Al species linked to the manganese and phosphate species. The first MnAlPO-5 nuclei on the surface of the intermediate can be observed after 50 h ionoheating. These nuclei further grow, as the surface of the intermediate is in full contact with the ionic liquid, to give crystalline MnAlPO-5 nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 80 nm. The crystals become fully detached from the intermediate and are then liberated as discrete particles after 90 h heating. The transformation process from amorphous to intermediate and then to the crystalline MnAlPO-5 nanoparticles shows that nucleation starts at the solid-liquid interface and continues through surface-to-core reversed-growth until the entire amorphous solid is transformed into discrete nanocrystals.
  4. Tan CH, Show PL, Ooi CW, Ng EP, Lan JC, Ling TC
    Biotechnol J, 2015 Jan;10(1):31-44.
    PMID: 25273633 DOI: 10.1002/biot.201400301
    Microbial lipases are popular biocatalysts due to their ability to catalyse diverse reactions such as hydrolysis, esterification, and acidolysis. Lipases function efficiently on various substrates in aqueous and non-aqueous media. Lipases are chemo-, regio-, and enantio-specific, and are useful in various industries, including those manufacturing food, detergents, and pharmaceuticals. A large number of lipases from fungal and bacterial sources have been isolated and purified to homogeneity. This success is attributed to the development of both conventional and novel purification techniques. This review highlights the use of these techniques in lipase purification, including conventional techniques such as: (i) ammonium sulphate fractionation; (ii) ion-exchange; (iii) gel filtration and affinity chromatography; as well as novel techniques such as (iv) reverse micellar system; (v) membrane processes; (vi) immunopurification; (vi) aqueous two-phase system; and (vii) aqueous two-phase floatation. A summary of the purification schemes for various bacterial and fungal lipases are also provided.
  5. Ng EP, Ahmad NH, Khoerunnisa F, Mintova S, Ling TC, Daou TJ
    Molecules, 2021 Apr 13;26(8).
    PMID: 33924655 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26082238
    Offretite zeolite synthesis in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) is reported. The offretite crystals were synthesized with a high crystallinity and hexagonal prismatic shape after only 72 h of hydrothermal treatment at 180 °C. The CTABr has dual-functions during the crystallization of offretite, viz. as structure-directing agent and as mesoporogen. The resulting offretite crystals, with a Si/Al ratio of 4.1, possess more acid sites than the conventional offretite due to their high crystallinity and hierarchical structure. The synthesized offretite is also more reactive than its conventional counterpart in the acylation of 2-methylfuran for biofuel production under non-microwave instant heating condition, giving 83.5% conversion with 100% selectivity to the desired product 2-acetyl-5-methylfuran. Hence, this amphiphile synthesis approach offers another cost-effective and alternative route for crystallizing zeolite materials that require expensive organic templates.
  6. Cheng SY, Show PL, Juan JC, Ling TC, Lau BF, Lai SH, et al.
    Environ Res, 2020 09;188:109737.
    PMID: 32554270 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109737
    Sustainable wastewater treatment necessitates the application of natural and green material in the approach. Thus, selecting a natural coagulant in leachate treatment is a crucial step in landfill operation to prevent secondary environmental pollution due to residual inorganic coagulant in treated effluent. Current study investigated the application of guar gum in landfill leachate treatment. Central composite design in response surface methodology was used to optimize the performance of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal. Quadratic model developed indicated the optimum COD removal 22.57% at guar gum dosage of 44.39 mg/L, pH 8.56 (natural pH of leachate) and mixing speed 79.27 rpm. Scanning electron microscopy showed that floc was compact and energy-dispersive-x-ray analysis showed that guar gum was capable to adsorb multiple ions from the leachate. Structural characterization using Fourier Transform Infrared analysis demonstrated that hydrogen bonding between guar and pollutant particles was involved in coagulation and flocculation process. Therefore, guar gum coagulant present potential to be an alternative in leachate treatment where pH requirement is not required during treatment. Simultaneously, adsorption by guar gum offers added pollutant removal advantage.
  7. Zhuang D, He N, Khoo KS, Ng EP, Chew KW, Ling TC
    Chemosphere, 2022 Mar;291(Pt 2):132932.
    PMID: 34798100 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132932
    Microalgae is an autotrophic organism with fast growth, short reproduction cycle, and strong environmental adaptability. In recent years, microalgae and the bioactive ingredients extracted from microalgae are regarded as potential substitutes for raw materials in the pharmaceutical and the cosmetics industry. In this review, the characteristics and efficacy of the high-value components of microalgae are discussed in detail, along with the sources and extraction technologies of algae used to obtain high-value ingredients are reviewed. Moreover, the latest trends in biotherapy based on high-value algae extracts as materials are discussed. The excellent antioxidant properties of microalgae derivatives are regarded as an attractive replacement for safe and environmentally friendly cosmetics formulation and production. Through further studies, the mechanism of microalgae bioactive compounds can be understood better and reasonable clinical trials conducted can safely conclude the compliance of microalgae-derived drugs or cosmetics to be necessary standards to be marketed.
  8. Ng ZY, Ajeng AA, Cheah WY, Ng EP, Abdullah R, Ling TC
    J Environ Manage, 2024 Jan 01;349:119445.
    PMID: 37890301 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2023.119445
    Biofertilizers encompass microorganisms that can be applied to plants, subsequently establishing themselves within the plant's rhizosphere or internal structures. This colonization stimulates plant development by enhancing nutrient absorption from the host. While there is growing literature documenting the applications of microalgae-based and bacterial-based biofertilizers, the research focusing on the effectiveness of consortia formed by these microorganisms as short-term plant biofertilizers is notably insufficient. This study seeks to assess the effectiveness of microalgae-bacterial biofertilizers in promoting plant growth and their potential contribution to the circular economy. The review sheds light on the impact of microalgae-bacterial biofertilizers on plant growth parameters, delving into factors influencing their efficiency, microalgae-bacteria interactions, and effects on soil health. The insights from this review are poised to offer valuable guidance to stakeholders in agriculture, including farmers, environmental technologists, and businesses. These insights will aid in the development and investment in more efficient and sustainable methods for enhancing crop yields, aligning with the Sustainable Development Goals and principles of the circular economy.
  9. Chow YH, Yap YJ, Tan CP, Anuar MS, Tejo BA, Show PL, et al.
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2015 Jul;120(1):85-90.
    PMID: 25553974 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2014.11.021
    In this paper, a linear relationship is proposed relating the natural logarithm of partition coefficient, ln K for protein partitioning in poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-phosphate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) to the square of tie-line length (TLL(2)). This relationship provides good fits (r(2) > 0.98) to the partition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in PEG (1450 g/mol, 2000 g/mol, 3350 g/mol, and 4000 g/mol)-phosphate ATPS with TLL of 25.0-50.0% (w/w) at pH 7.0. Results also showed that the plot of ln K against pH for BSA partitioning in the ATPS containing 33.0% (w/w) PEG1450 and 8.0% (w/w) phosphate with varied working pH between 6.0 and 9.0 exhibited a linear relationship which is in good agreement (r(2) = 0.94) with the proposed relationship, ln K = α' pH + β'. These results suggested that both the relationships proposed could be applied to correlate and elucidate the partition behavior of biomolecules in the polymer-salt ATPS. The influence of other system parameters on the partition behavior of BSA was also investigated. An optimum BSA yield of 90.80% in the top phase and K of 2.40 was achieved in an ATPS constituted with 33.0% (w/w) PEG 1450 and 8.0% (w/w) phosphate in the presence of 8.5% (w/w) sodium chloride (NaCl) at pH 9.0 for 0.3% (w/w) BSA load.
  10. Ng HS, Ooi CW, Mokhtar MN, Show PL, Ariff A, Tan JS, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2013 Aug;142:723-6.
    PMID: 23806510 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.05.087
    An extractive bioconversion with Bacillus cereus cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase, EC in aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was investigated for the synthesis and recovery of cyclodextrins (CDs). Optimum condition for the extractive bioconversion of CDs was achieved in ATPS consisted of 7.7% (w/w) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 20,000 and 10.3% (w/w) dextran T500 with volume ratio (VR) of 4.0. Enzymatic conversion of starch occurred mainly in dextran-rich bottom phase whereas the product, CDs was transferred to top phase and a higher partition coefficient of CDs was achieved. Repetitive batch of CDs synthesis was employed by replenishment of the top phase components and addition of starch every 8h. An average total CDs concentration of 13.7 mg/mL, (4.77 mg/mLα-CD, 5.02 mg/mLβ-CD and 3.91 mg/mLγ-CD) was recovered in the top phase of PEG 20,000/dextran T500 ATPS. This study showed the effectiveness of ATPS application in extractive bioconversion of CDs synthesis with B. cereus CGTase.
  11. Chow YH, Yap YJ, Show PL, Juan JC, Anuar MS, Ng EP, et al.
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2016 Nov;122(5):613-619.
    PMID: 27233672 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2016.04.008
    The partitioning behavior of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and phosphate was studied. The parameters of ATPS exhibiting the pronounced effects on the partitioning behavior of IgG include phase composition, PEG molecular weight, and the addition of sodium chloride (NaCl). The accumulation of IgG at the interface of the ATPS increased drastically as the tie-line length (TLL) was increased. This trend was correlated with a linear relationship relating the natural logarithm of interfacial partition coefficient (ln G) to the difference of PEG concentration between the top phase and the bottom phase (Δ[PEG]), and a good fit was obtained. An attempt was made to correlate the natural logarithm of partition coefficient (ln K) to the presence of NaCl with the proposed linear relationship, ln K = α″ ln [Cl(-)] + β″. The proposed relationship, which serves as a better description of the underlying mechanics of the protein partitioning behavior in the polymer-salt ATPS, provides a good fit (r(2) > 0.95) for the data of IgG partitioning. An optimum recovery of 99.97% was achieved in an ATPS (pH 7.5) composed of 14.0% (w/w) PEG 1450, 12.5% (w/w) phosphate and 5.0% (w/w) NaCl.
  12. Tan KH, Cham HY, Awala H, Ling TC, Mukti RR, Wong KL, et al.
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2015 Dec;10(1):956.
    PMID: 26058517 DOI: 10.1186/s11671-015-0956-6
    Lubricant oils take significant part in current health and environmental considerations since they are an integral and indispensable component of modern technology. Antioxidants are probably the most important additives used in oils because oxidative deterioration plays a major role in oil degradation. Zeolite nanoparticles (NPs) have been proven as another option as green antioxidants in oil formulation. The anti-oxidative behavior of zeolite NPs is obvious; however, the phenomenon is still under investigation. Herein, a study of the effect of extra-framework cations stabilized on Linde Type L (LTL) zeolite NPs (ca. 20 nm) on inhibition of oxidation in palm oil-based lubricant oil is reported. Hydrophilic LTL zeolites with a Si/Al ratio of 3.2 containing four different inorganic cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+)) were applied. The oxidation of the lubricant oil was followed by visual observation, colorimetry, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, total acid number (TAN), and rheology analyses. The effect of extra-framework cations to slow down the rate of oil oxidation and to control the viscosity of oil is demonstrated. The degradation rate of the lubricant oil samples is decreased considerably as the polarizability of cation is increased with the presence of zeolite NPs. More importantly, the microporous zeolite NPs have a great influence in halting the steps that lead to the polymerization of the oils and thus increasing the lifetime of oils.
  13. Lin YK, Show PL, Yap YJ, Tan CP, Ng EP, Ariff AB, et al.
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2015 Dec;120(6):684-9.
    PMID: 26111602 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2015.04.013
    Purification of cyclodextrin glycosyl transferase (CGTase) from Bacillus cereus using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-potassium phosphates aqueous two-phase flotation (ATPF) system was studied in this paper. The effects of varying PEG molecular weight, tie-line length (TLL) value, volume ratio (VR), pH value, crude concentration and gas nitrogen flotation time were investigated. The optimal condition for purification of CGTase was attained at 18.0% (w/w) PEG 8000, 7.0% (w/w) potassium phosphates, VR of 3.0, 20% (w/w) crude load at pH 7, and 80 min nitrogen flotation time at a flow rate of 5 L/min. With this optimal condition, purification factor (PFT) of 21.8 and a yield (YT) of 97.1% were attained. CGTase was successfully purified in a single downstream processing step using the ATPF.
  14. Cheng SY, Show PL, Juan JC, Chang JS, Lau BF, Lai SH, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2021 Jan;262:127829.
    PMID: 32768754 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127829
    Recent trend to recover value-added products from wastewater calls for more effective pre-treatment technology. Conventional landfill leachate treatment is often complex and thus causes negative environmental impacts and financial burden. In order to facilitate downstream processing of leachate wastewater for production of energy or value-added products, it is pertinent to maximize leachate treatment performance by using simple yet effective technology that removes pollutants with minimum chemical added into the wastewater that could potentially affect downstream processing. Hence, the optimization of coagulation-flocculation leachate treatment using multivariate approach is crucial. Central composite design was applied to optimize operating parameters viz. Alum dosage, pH and mixing speed. Quadratic model indicated that the optimum COD removal of 54% is achieved with low alum dosage, pH and mixing speed of 750 mgL-1, 8.5 and 100 rpm, respectively. Optimization result showed that natural pH of the mature landfill leachate sample is optimum for alum coagulation process. Hence, the cost of pH adjustment could be reduced for industrial application by adopting optimized parameters. The inherent mechanism of pollutant removal was elucidated by FTIR peaks at 3853 cm-1 which indicated that hydrogen bonds play a major role in leachate removal by forming well aggregated flocs. This is concordance with SEM image that the floc was well aggregated with the porous linkages and amorphous surface structure. The optimization of leachate treatment has been achieved by minimizing the usage of alum under optimized condition.
  15. Choo MY, Oi LE, Daou TJ, Ling TC, Lin YC, Centi G, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Jul 11;13(14).
    PMID: 32664579 DOI: 10.3390/ma13143104
    Nickel-based catalysts play an important role in the hydrogen-free deoxygenation for the production of biofuel. The yield and quality of the biofuel are critically affected by the physicochemical properties of NiO supported on nanosized zeolite Y (Y65, crystal size of 65 nm). Therefore, 10 wt% NiO supported on Y65 synthesized by using impregnation (IM) and deposition-precipitation (DP) methods were investigated. It was found that preparation methods have a significant effect on the deoxygenation of triolein. The initial rate of the DP method (14.8 goil·h-1) was 1.5 times higher than that of the IM method (9.6 goil·h-1). The DP-Y65 showed the best deoxygenation performance with a 80.0% conversion and a diesel selectivity of 93.7% at 380 °C within 1 h. The outstanding performance from the DP method was due to the smaller NiO particle size (3.57 ± 0.40 nm), high accessibility (H.F value of 0.084), and a higher Brönsted to Lewis acidity (B/L) ratio (0.29), which has improved the accessibility and deoxygenation ability of the catalyst. The NH4+ released from the decomposition of the urea during the DP process increased the B/L ratio of zeolite NaY. As a result, the pretreatment to convert Na-zeolite to H-zeolite in a conventional zeolite synthesis can be avoided. In this regard, the DP method offers a one-pot synthesis to produce smaller NiO-supported nanosized zeolite NaY with a high B/L ratio, and it managed to produce a higher yield with selectivity towards green diesel via deoxygenation under a hydrogen-free condition.
  16. Tang MS, Ng EP, Juan JC, Ooi CW, Ling TC, Woon KL, et al.
    Nanotechnology, 2016 Aug 19;27(33):332002.
    PMID: 27396920 DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/27/33/332002
    It is known that carbon nanotubes show desirable physical and chemical properties with a wide array of potential applications. Nonetheless, their potential has been hampered by the difficulties in acquiring high purity, chiral-specific tubes. Considerable advancement has been made in terms of the purification of carbon nanotubes, for instance chemical oxidation, physical separation, and myriad combinations of physical and chemical methods. The aqueous two-phase separation technique has recently been demonstrated to be able to sort carbon nanotubes based on their chirality. The technique requires low cost polymers and salt, and is able to sort the tubes based on their diameter as well as metallicity. In this review, we aim to provide a review that could stimulate innovative thought on the progress of a carbon nanotubes sorting method using the aqueous two-phase separation method, and present possible future work and an outlook that could enhance the methodology.
  17. Lin YK, Show PL, Yap YJ, Ariff A, Annuar MSBM, Lai OM, et al.
    Front Chem, 2018;6:448.
    PMID: 30345267 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2018.00448
    An extractive bioconversion conducted on soluble starch with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) enzyme in ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO)/potassium phosphates liquid biphasic system (LBS) to extract gamma-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) was examined. A range of EOPO (with potassium phosphates) molecular weights was screen to investigate the effect of the latter on the partioning efficency of CGTase and γ-CD. The results show that the optimal top phase γ-CD yield (74.4%) was reached in 35.0% (w/w) EOPO 970 and 10.0% (w/w) potassium phosphate with 2.0% (w/w) sodium chloride. A theoretical explanation for the effect of NaCl on γ-CD was also presented. After a 2 h bioconversion process, a total of 0.87 mg/mL concentration of γ-CD was produced in the EOPO/ phosphates LBS top phase. After the extraction of top phase from LBS, four continuous repetitive batches were successfully conducted with relative CGTase activity of 1.00, 0.86, 0.45, and 0.40 respectively.
  18. Yu KL, Lau BF, Show PL, Ong HC, Ling TC, Chen WH, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2017 Dec;246:2-11.
    PMID: 28844690 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.08.009
    Algal biomass is known as a promising sustainable feedstock for the production of biofuels and other valuable products. However, since last decade, massive amount of interests have turned to converting algal biomass into biochar. Due to their high nutrient content and ion-exchange capacity, algal biochars can be used as soil amendment for agriculture purposes or adsorbents in wastewater treatment for the removal of organic or inorganic pollutants. This review describes the conventional (e.g., slow and microwave-assisted pyrolysis) and newly developed (e.g., hydrothermal carbonization and torrefaction) methods used for the synthesis of algae-based biochars. The characterization of algal biochar and a comparison between algal biochar with biochar produced from other feedstocks are also presented. This review aims to provide updated information on the development of algal biochar in terms of the production methods and the characterization of its physical and chemical properties to justify and to expand their potential applications.
  19. Chow YH, Yap YJ, Anuar MS, Tejo BA, Ariff A, Show PL, et al.
    PMID: 23911538 DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.034
    A relationship is proposed for the interfacial partitioning of protein in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-phosphate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). The relationship relates the natural logarithm of interfacial partition coefficient, ln G to the PEG concentration difference between the top and bottom phases, Δ[PEG], with the equation ln G=AΔ[PEG]+B. Results showed that this relationship provides good fits to the partition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in ATPS which is comprised of phosphate and PEG of four different molecular weight 1450g/mol, 2000g/mol, 3350g/mol and 4000g/mol, with the tie-line length (TLL) in the range of 44-60% (w/w) at pH 7.0. The decrease of A values with the increase of PEG molecular weight indicates that the correlation between ln G and Δ[PEG] decreases with the increase in PEG molecular weight and the presence of protein-polymer hydrophobic interaction. When temperature was increased, a non-linear relationship of ln G inversely proportional to temperature was observed. The amount of proteins adsorbed at the interface increased proportionally with the amount of BSA loaded whereas the partition coefficient, K remained relatively constant. The relationship proposed could be applied to elucidate interfacial partitioning behaviour of other biomolecules in polymer-salt ATPS.
  20. Appaturi JN, Maireles-Torres P, Alomar TS, AlMasoud N, El-Bahy ZM, Ling TC, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2023 Jun 29;16(13).
    PMID: 37445026 DOI: 10.3390/ma16134713
    Acetylation of glycerol to yield monoacetin (MAT), diacetin (DAT), and triacetin (TAT) over NiO-supported CeO2 (xNiO/CeO2) catalysts is reported. The catalysts were synthesized utilizing a sol-gel technique, whereby different quantities of NiO (x = 9, 27, and 45 wt%) were supported onto the CeO2 substrate, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) served as a porogen. The utilization of EDX elemental mapping analysis confirmed the existence of evenly distributed Ni2+ ion and octahedral NiO nanoparticles on the CeO2 surface through the DRS UV-Vis spectroscopy. The most active catalyst is 27NiO/CeO2 based on TAT selectivity in the glycerol acetylation with ethanoic acid, attaining 97.6% glycerol conversion with 70.5% selectivity to TAT at 170 °C with a 1:10 glycerol/ethanoic acid molar ratio for 30 min using a non-microwave instant heating reactor. The 27NiO/CeO2 is reusable without significant decline in catalytic performance after ten consecutive reaction cycles, indicating high structure stability with accessible active acidity.
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