Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 43 in total

  1. Samad SA, Rahman HA
    Singapore Med J, 1999 Aug;40(8):513-8.
    PMID: 10572490
    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively detect Aspergillus antigens in sera obtained from immunocompromised host using an in-house modified double antibody sandwich ELISA.
  2. Rasit AH, Sharaf I, Rahman HA
    Med J Malaysia, 2001 Jun;56 Suppl C:86-8.
    PMID: 11814259
    Ewing's sarcoma is a rare malignant tumor of the foot in children. We report a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the talus in a four-year-old Chinese girl to highlight the initial difficulty in diagnosis and the clinical course of the disease. She was initially diagnosed as osteomyelitis of the talus and died eight months after presentation with pleural and spinal metastases. To the best of our knowledge, Ewing's sarcoma of the talus in a young child has never been reported in Malaysia.
  3. Mansor N, Ahmad N, Rahman HA
    PLoS One, 2020;15(10):e0240842.
    PMID: 33119620 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0240842
    INTRODUCTION: The increasing trend of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among the young population is a significant public health problem. This study aimed to determine the level of knowledge on STIs among students in higher education institutions and its predicting factors, in Melaka.

    METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 students from higher education institutions in Melaka aged between 18 to 30 years old. Multistage sampling of the institutions was performed. Valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire in the national language, Bahasa Malaysia, was used as to collect data on sociodemographic, personal background, knowledge on STIs and sources of information for STIs. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS software version 25.

    RESULTS: The response rate for this study was 88%. The mean knowledge score was 24.1 ±5.1 out of 38. HIV was the most known STIs while gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis and chlamydial infections were among the least known STIs. Oral intercourse was the least known sexual activity that could transmit STIs. Higher proportion of respondents had correct knowledge on control and preventive measures of STIs (between 78% and 95%) compared to correct knowledge on sign and symptoms of STIs (between 8.5% and 67.8%). More than 90% of the respondents were unaware that a person infected with STIs could be symptom free. Four variables were identified as the determinants of the knowledge on STIs, which were level of education, place of stay, history of sexual and reproductive health education and involvement in STIs awareness programs (F (4,445) = 11.405, p <0.001, R2 = 0.093).

    CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge on STIs among students in higher education institutions was unsatisfactory. The existing sexual education programs can be strengthened by delivering more information on other STIs rather than focusing on HIV only. The future program should focus on students of diploma and/or skill certificate and staying off-campus.

  4. Abdul Wahid NA, Suhaila J, Rahman HA
    Infect Dis Model, 2021;6:997-1008.
    PMID: 34466760 DOI: 10.1016/j.idm.2021.08.003
    Climate change is one of the critical determinants affecting life cycles and transmission of most infectious agents, including malaria, cholera, dengue fever, hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), and the recent Corona-virus pandemic. HFMD has been associated with a growing number of outbreaks resulting in fatal complications since the late 1990s. The outbreaks may result from a combination of rapid population growth, climate change, socioeconomic changes, and other lifestyle changes. However, the modeling of climate variability and HFMD remains unclear, particularly in statistical theory development. The statistical relationship between HFMD and climate factors has been widely studied using generalized linear and additive modeling. When dealing with time-series data with clustered variables such as HFMD with clustered states, the independence principle of both modeling approaches may be violated. Thus, a Generalized Additive Mixed Model (GAMM) is used to investigate the relationship between HFMD and climate factors in Malaysia. The model is improved by using a first-order autoregressive term and treating all Malaysian states as a random effect. This method is preferred as it allows states to be modeled as random effects and accounts for time series data autocorrelation. The findings indicate that climate variables such as rainfall and wind speed affect HFMD cases in Malaysia. The risk of HFMD increased in the subsequent two weeks with rainfall below 60 mm and decreased with rainfall exceeding 60 mm. Besides, a two-week lag in wind speeds between 2 and 5 m/s reduced HFMD's chances. The results also show that HFMD cases rose in Malaysia during the inter-monsoon and southwest monsoon seasons but fell during the northeast monsoon. The study's outcomes can be used by public health officials and the general public to raise awareness, and thus, implement effective preventive measures.
  5. Munchar J, Rahman HA, Zawawi MM
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2001 Nov;13(11):1385-7.
    PMID: 11692068
    Localized giant pseudopolyposis is an interesting but unusual manifestation of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The purpose of this report is to present a case of localized giant pseudopolyposis complicating an ulcerative colitis, and review other cases reported in the literature. The clinical and pathological findings are described. The authors also discuss the possible aspect of proper management in this type of lesion.
  6. Iranagh JA, Rahman HA, Motalebi SA
    Nutr Res Pract, 2016 Jun;10(3):352-8.
    PMID: 27247733 DOI: 10.4162/nrp.2016.10.3.352
    Nutrition is a determinant factor of health in elderly people. Independent living in elderly people can be maintained or enhanced by improvement of nutritional behavior. Hence, the present study was conducted to determine the impact of Health Belief Model (HBM)-based intervention on the nutritional behavior of elderly women.
  7. Iranagh JA, Rahman HA, Motalebi SA
    Nutr Res Pract, 2016 Aug;10(4):471.
    PMID: 27462397 DOI: 10.4162/nrp.2016.10.4.471
    [This corrects the article on p. 352 in vol. 10, PMID: 27247733.].
  8. Najafi-Sharjabad F, Rahman HA, Hanafiah M, Syed Yahya SZ
    Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res, 2014 Feb;19(7 Suppl 1):S19-27.
    PMID: 25949248
    BACKGROUND: In Malaysia, contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) during past three decades has been steady, with only 34% of women practicing modern contraception. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with modern contraceptive practices with a focus on spousal communication and perceived social support among married women working in the university.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out using self-administered structured questionnaire. The association between variables were assessed using Chi-square test, independent sample t-test, and logistic regression.
    RESULTS: Overall, 36.8% of women used modern contraceptive methods. Significant association was found between contraceptive practice and ethnicity (P = 0.003), number of pregnancies (P < 0.001), having child (P = 0.003), number of children (P < 0.001), positive history of mistimed pregnancy (P = 0.006), and experience of unwanted pregnancy (P = 0.003). The final model showed Malay women were 92% less likely to use modern contraception as compared to non-Malay women. Women who discussed about family planning with their spouses were more likely to practice modern contraception than the women who did not [odds ratio (OR): 2.2, Confidence Interval (CI): 1.3-3.7]. Those women with moderate (OR: 4.9, CI: 1.6-10.8) and strong (OR: 14, CI: 4.5-26.4) perception of social support for contraceptive usage were more likely to use modern contraception than the women with poor perception of social support.
    CONCLUSION: Spousal communication regarding family planning would be an effective way to motivate men for supporting and using contraceptives. Family planning education initiatives should target both men and women, particularly high-risk cases, for promoting healthy timing and spacing of pregnancies. Ethnic disparities need to be considered in planning reproductive health programs.
    KEYWORDS: Contraceptive practices; family planning; social support; spousal communication
    Study site: married female staff in a university, Malaysia
  9. Parsa P, Kandiah M, Mohd Zulkefli NA, Rahman HA
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2008 Apr-Jun;9(2):221-7.
    PMID: 18712963
    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the knowledge and practices of 425 female secondary school teachers from 20 selected secondary schools in Selangor, Malaysia on breast cancer screening (BCS). A self-administered, structured questionnaire was used for data collection. This study showed moderate to low knowledge on breast cancer (BC) and BCS among teachers. Only 19%, 25% and 13.6% eligible women performed breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography respectively, on a regular basis. Level of breast cancer knowledge was significantly associated with BSE (p<0.001). Having heard/ read about BCS, and regular visit with a physician were associated with BCS behaviors (P<0.05). There was no association between BCS behaviors (P>0.05) and age, family history of breast cancer, marital status or having health insurance. Efforts are needed to increase knowledge and remove misconceptions about breast cancer and screening practices among Malaysian women.
  10. Ab-Rahman HA, Rahim H, AbuBakar S, Wong PF
    Int J Med Sci, 2016;13(3):179-86.
    PMID: 26941578 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.13680
    Hemophagocytosis, a phenomenon of which activated macrophages phagocytosed hematopoietic elements was reportedly observed in severe dengue patients. In the present study, we investigated whether markers of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) can be used as differential diagnostic markers of severe dengue. Two hundred and eight confirmed dengue patients were recruited for the study. Sandwich ELISA was used to determine serum ferritin, soluble CD163 (sCD163), and soluble CD25 (sCD25) levels. The population of circulating CD163 (mCD163) monocytes was determined using flow cytometry. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was plotted to determine the predictive validity of the biomarkers. Serum ferritin and sCD163 were found significantly increased in severe dengue patients compared to dengue fever patients (P = 0.003). A fair area under ROC curves (AUC) at 0.72 with a significant P value of 0.004 was observed for sCD163. sCD25 and mCD163 levels were not significantly different between severe dengue and dengue fever patients. Our findings suggest that in addition to serum ferritin, sCD163 can differentiate severe dengue from that of dengue fever patients. Hence, sCD163 level can be considered for use as a predictive marker for impending severe dengue.
    Study site: Infectious disease ward (ID ward) of University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  11. Singh B, Bobogare A, Cox-Singh J, Snounou G, Abdullah MS, Rahman HA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 1999 Apr;60(4):687-92.
    PMID: 10348249
    A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that uses Plasmodium genus-specific primers for the initial PCR (nest 1) amplification and either genus- or species-specific primers for the nest 2 amplifications was tested on laboratory and field samples. With in vitro cultured Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood samples, it was capable of detecting six parasites/microl of blood using DNA prepared from 25-microl blood spots on filter paper. The assay was evaluated on fingerprick blood samples collected on filter paper from 129 individuals living in a malaria-endemic area in Malaysia. Malaria prevalence by genus-specific nested PCR was 35.6% (46 of 129) compared with 28.7% (37 of 129) by microscopy. The nested PCR detected seven more malaria samples than microscopy in the first round of microscopic examination, malaria in three microscopically negative samples, six double infections identified as single infections by microscopy and one triple infection identified as a double infection by microscopy. The nested PCR assay described is a sensitive technique for collecting accurate malaria epidemiologic data. When coupled with simple blood spot sampling, it is particularly useful for screening communities in remote regions of the world.
  12. Cox-Singh J, Zakaria R, Abdullah MS, Rahman HA, Nagappan S, Singh B
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2001 6 27;64(1-2):28-31.
    PMID: 11425158
    Dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) alleles were typed in 67 Malaysian Plasmodium falciparum isolates. The isolates were collected from two geographically distinct locations: 51 from Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, where sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SDX/PYR) is used to treat uncomplicated malaria and 16 from Peninsular Malaysia where in vivo resistance to SDX/PYR has been reported. A total of seven dhps alleles were identified with no significant difference in allele frequency between the 2 populations. Two of the dhps alleles described here have not been previously reported. Four dhfr alleles were detected in 67 P. falciparum isolates. Eighty-seven percent of the isolates from the Peninsula, where clinical SDX/PYR failure has been reported, had dhfr alleles with triple point mutations while all of the isolates from Sabah had dhfr alleles with 2 or less point mutations. The difference in dhfr allele frequency between the two populations was highly significant. There was no correlation between in vitro PYR response and accumulation of dhfr point mutations.
  13. Osman NH, Jailani RF, Rahman HA, Hamid NA
    Ann Coloproctol, 2021 Dec 03.
    PMID: 34856655 DOI: 10.3393/ac.2021.00584.0083
    Purpose: Intestinal fibrosis is a common complication of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the possible involvement of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been scarcely investigated. This systematic review aims to search through research papers that are focusing on messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression profile in EMT in fistula or in intestinal fibrosis.

    Methods: Electronic exploration was performed until April 24, 2019 through PubMed, Ovid, Science Direct, and Scopus databases with the terms of "fistula" OR "intestinal fibrosis" AND "epithelial-mesenchymal transition". Two independent reviewers scrutinized the suitability of the title and abstract before examining the full text that met the inclusion criteria. For each study, the sample types that were used, methods for analysis, and genes expressed were identified. The list of genes was further analyzed using DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway.

    Results: There were 896 citations found; however, only 3 studies fulfilled the requirements. Among the EMT-related genes, 5 were upregulated genes at mRNA level while 6 were at protein level. However, only 2 downregulated genes were found at each mRNA and protein level. Of the 4 inflammation-related genes found, 3 genes were upregulated at mRNA level and 1 at protein level. These genes were confirmed to be involved in the development of inflammatory induced fibrosis and fistula through EMT. Results from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis were consistent with the process of EMT, confirmed by the western blot protein analysis.

    Conclusion: Many significant genes which are involved in the process of EMT in fistula and intestinal fibrosis have been identified. With high-end technology many more genes could be identified. These genes will be good molecular targets in the development of biomarkers for precision drug targeting in the future treatment of intestinal fibrosis and fistula.

  14. Jarrar M, Rahman HA, Minai MS, AbuMadini MS, Larbi M
    Int J Health Plann Manage, 2018 Apr;33(2):e464-e473.
    PMID: 29380909 DOI: 10.1002/hpm.2491
    BACKGROUND: The shortage of nursing staff is a national and international issue. Inadequate number of hospital nurse staff leads to poor health care services. Yet the effects of patient-centeredness between the relationships of nursing shortage on the quality of care (QC) and patient safety (PS) have not been explored. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effects of patient-centeredness on the relationship of nursing shortage on the QC and PS in the Medical and Surgical Wards, in Malaysian private hospitals.

    METHOD: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on 12 private hospitals. Data was gathered, through a self- administered questionnaire, from 652 nurses, with a 61.8% response rate. Stratified simple random sampling was used to allow all nurses to participate in the study. Hayes PROCESS macro-regression analyses were conducted to explore the mediating effects of patient-centeredness on the relationships of hospital nurse staffing on the QC and PS.

    RESULTS: Patient-centeredness mediated the relationships of hospital nurse staffing on both the QC (F = 52.73 and P = 0.000) and PS (F = 31.56 and P = 0.000).

    CONCLUSION: Patient-centeredness helps to mitigate the negative associations of nursing shortage on the outcomes of care. The study provides a guide for hospital managers, leaders, decision-makers, risk managers, and policymakers to maintain adequate staffing level and instill the culture of patient-centeredness in order to deliver high quality and safer care.

  15. Shafaghi K, Shariff ZM, Taib MN, Rahman HA, Mobarhan MG, Jabbari H
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2014;23(2):225-31.
    PMID: 24901091 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.11
    OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school children aged 12 to 14 years in the city of Mashhad, Iran and its association with parental body mass index.
    METHODS: A total of 1189 secondary school children (579 males and 610 females) aged 12- 14 years old were selected through a stratified multistage random sampling. All adolescents were measured for weight and height. Household socio-demographic information and parental weight and height were self-reported by parents. Adolescents were classified as overweight or obese based on BMI-for age Z-score. Multivariable logistic Regression (MLR) determined the relationship between parental BMI and adolescent overweight and obesity.
    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school children in Mashhad was 17.2% and 11.9%, respectively. A higher proportion of male (30.7%) than female (27.4%) children were overweight or obese. BMI of the children was significantly related to parental BMI (p<0.001), gender (p= 0.02), birth order (p<0.01), parents' education level (p<0.001), father's employment status (p<0.001), and family income (p<0.001). MLR showed that the father's BMI was significantly associated with male BMI (OR: 2.02) and female BMI (OR: 1.59), whereas the mother's BMI was significantly associated with female BMI only (OR: 0.514).
    CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of overweight/obesity among the research population compared with previous studies in Iran could be related to the changing lifestyle of the population. The strong relationship with parental BMI was probably related to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. Strategies to address childhood obesity should consider the interaction of these factors.
  16. Rahman HA, Harun SW, Arof H, Irawati N, Musirin I, Ibrahim F, et al.
    J Biomed Opt, 2014 May;19(5):057009.
    PMID: 24839996 DOI: 10.1117/1.JBO.19.5.057009
    An enhanced dental cavity diameter measurement mechanism using an intensity-modulated fiber optic displacement sensor (FODS) scanning and imaging system, fuzzy logic as well as a single-layer perceptron (SLP) neural network, is presented. The SLP network was employed for the classification of the reflected signals, which were obtained from the surfaces of teeth samples and captured using FODS. Two features were used for the classification of the reflected signals with one of them being the output of a fuzzy logic. The test results showed that the combined fuzzy logic and SLP network methodology contributed to a 100% classification accuracy of the network. The high-classification accuracy significantly demonstrates the suitability of the proposed features and classification using SLP networks for classifying the reflected signals from teeth surfaces, enabling the sensor to accurately measure small diameters of tooth cavity of up to 0.6 mm. The method remains simple enough to allow its easy integration in existing dental restoration support systems.
  17. Soon HK, Saad HA, Taib MN, Rahman HA, Mun CY
    PMID: 23691640
    A twelve-week controlled intervention trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of combined physical activity and dietary intervention on obesity and metabolic risk factors among employees of Universiti Putra Malaysia. Participants consisted of adults aged 25-55 years with no reported chronic diseases but with abdominal obesity. They were assigned to either a combined physical activity and dietary intervention group or a control group. The final sample consisted of 56 participants, with an equal number of 28 for each study group. No significant group effect was observed for any variable except for hip circumference (HC) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). There was a significant increase in HC (p=0.007) and reduction in FPG (p=0.02) in the intervention group compared to the control group. In the intervention group, HC (p=0.002), triglycerides (TG) (p=0.0001), total cholesterol (TC) (p=0.0001), LDL cholesterol (LDLC) (p=0.0001) and FPG (p=0.005) were significantly reduced, while waist circumference (WC) (p=0.025) and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (p=0.027) were significantly reduced in the control group. No significant change in steps/day or calorie intake'was observed in either group. Taken together, these data indicate that the combined physical activity and dietary intervention was not effective at improving diet or physical activity level. However, the intervention was effective in improving FPG among participants with abdominal obesity. The significant increase in HC in the interventions group warrants further study. These findings will be useful to further improve group-based intervention for the prevention and management of obesity.
  18. Rahman HA, Che Ani AI, Harun SW, Yasin M, Apsari R, Ahmad H
    J Biomed Opt, 2012 Jul;17(7):071308.
    PMID: 22894469 DOI: 10.1117/1.JBO.17.7.071308
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of intensity modulated fiber optic displacement sensor scanning system for the imaging of dental cavity. Here, we discuss our preliminary results in the imaging of cavities on various teeth surfaces, as well as measurement of the diameter of the cavities which are represented by drilled holes on the teeth surfaces. Based on the analysis of displacement measurement, the sensitivities and linear range for the molar, canine, hybrid composite resin, and acrylic surfaces are obtained at 0.09667 mV/mm and 0.45 mm; 0.775 mV/mm and 0.4 mm; 0.5109 mV/mm and 0.5 mm; and 0.25 mV/mm and 0.5 mm, respectively, with a good linearity of more than 99%. The results also show a clear distinction between the cavity and surrounding tooth region. The stability, simplicity of design, and low cost of fabrication make it suitable for restorative dentistry.
  19. Abidin EZ, Semple S, Omar A, Rahman HA, Turner SW, Ayres JG
    BMC Public Health, 2011 Aug 08;11:634.
    PMID: 21824403 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-634
    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of data describing the exposure of Malaysian schoolchildren to Secondhand Smoke (SHS). The aim of this study is to identify factors influencing schoolchildren's exposures to SHS in Malaysia.

    METHOD: This cross-sectional study was carried out to measure salivary cotinine concentrations among 1064 schoolchildren (10-11 years) attending 24 schools in Malaysia following recent partial smoke-free restrictions. Parents completed questionnaires and schoolchildren provided saliva samples for cotinine assay.

    RESULTS: The geometric mean (GM) salivary cotinine concentrations for 947 non-smoking schoolchildren stratified by household residents' smoking behaviour were: for children living with non-smoking parents 0.32 ng/ml (95% CI 0.28-0.37) (n = 446); for children living with a smoker father 0.65 ng/ml (95% CI 0.57-0.72) (n = 432); for children living with two smoking parents 1.12 ng/ml (95% CI 0.29-4.40) (n = 3); for children who live with an extended family member who smokes 0.62 ng/ml (95% CI 0.42-0.89) (n = 33) and for children living with two smokers (father and extended family member) 0.71 ng/ml (95% CI 0.40-0.97) (n = 44). Parental-reported SHS exposures showed poor agreement with children's self-reported SHS exposures. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that cotinine levels were positively associated with living with one or more smokers, urban residence, occupation of father (Armed forces), parental-reported exposure to SHS and education of the father (Diploma/Technical certificate).

    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to characterise exposures to SHS using salivary cotinine concentrations among schoolchildren in Malaysia and also the first study documenting SHS exposure using salivary cotinine as a biomarker in a South-East Asian population of schoolchildren. Compared to other populations of similarly aged schoolchildren, Malaysian children have higher salivary cotinine concentrations. The partial nature of smoke-free restrictions in Malaysia is likely to contribute to these findings. Enforcement of existing legislation to reduce exposure in public place settings and interventions to reduce exposure at home, especially to implement effective home smoking restriction practices are required.

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