Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 168 in total

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  1. Ahmed N, Shihabudin M.T, Ab Rahman S
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Hamstring tendon (HT) and bone patellar tendon bone (BPTB) are the commonly used
    autograft in an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery. The BPTB is said to have more incidence of
    anterior knee pain compared to HT. The study aimed to compare the severity of knee pain during Islamic
    prayer kneeling. Methods: A cross sectional cohort analysis of patients undergoing ACL reconstruction surgery
    using BPTB with HT autografts was conducted to determine differences in postoperative pain while kneeling
    and ability to pray in normal position. Kneeling during prayer and the ability to sit while performing prayer
    were assessed at 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th month. Results: There were no significant differences in mean pain score
    while kneeling at 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th month. The mean difference of patient’s ability to perform normal
    prayers for BPTB (3.56+1.16) and HT (3.30+1.05) was found insignificant. The average number of patients in
    both groups was able to pray between 3 to 4 months post operatively as full range of motion of knee is
    allowed within this period. Total 49 patients (BPTB 23, HT 26) out of 60 were able to pray normally within 4
    months post-operation. Mostly delayed due to anterior knee pain. Conclusion: There is no different in term of
    knee pain during kneeling while performing Islamic prayer between those who had their ACL reconstructed
    either using BPTB or HT autograft.
  2. Ahmed N, Shihabudin M.T., Ab Rahman S
    MyJurnal
    Hamstring tendon (HT) and bone patellar tendon bone (BPTB) are the commonly used autograft in an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery. The BPTB is said to have more incidence of anterior knee pain compared to HT. The study aimed to compare the severity of knee pain during Islamic prayer kneeling. Methods: A cross sectional cohort analysis of patients undergoing ACL reconstruction surgery using BPTB with HT autografts was conducted to determine differences in postoperative pain while kneeling and ability to pray in normal position. Kneeling during prayer and the ability to sit while performing prayer were assessed at 3rd, 4th, 5thand 6thmonth. Results:There were no significant differences in mean pain score while kneeling at 3rd, 4th, 5thand 6thmonth. The mean difference of patient’s ability to perform normal prayers for BPTB (3.56+1.16) and HT (3.30+1.05) was found insignificant. The average number of patients in both groups was able to pray between 3 to 4 months post operatively as full range of motion of knee is allowed within this period. Total 49 patients (BPTB 23, HT 26) out of 60 were able to pray normally within 4 months post-operation. Mostly delayed due to anterior knee pain. Conclusion: There is no different in term of knee pain during kneeling while performing Islamic prayer between those who had their ACL reconstructed either using BPTB or HT autograft.
  3. Rahman, S., Shaari, R., Hassan, R.
    MyJurnal
    A 48 years old Malay lady with a case of painless soft fluctuant swelling of left parotid gland is reported. The lesion was found to be a cystic lesion through the pre operative examinations and investigations. The cyst was completely excised, taking care not to injure the lower division of the facial nerve. Post recovery was uneventful with no defect of the facial nerve functions. The histologic picture confirmed that the cyst was lymphoepithelial cyst which is so called “branchial cyst”. Through the literature reviews of parotid lymphoepitelial cyst the discussions on prevalence, origin, diagnosis, histological finding, investigation and the modes of treatment are made. The ultra sound was found to be valuable in the pre operative evaluation of the parotid swelling furthermore it is non-invasive, harmless, painless and relatively quick.
  4. Ab Rahman S, Shokri AA, Narhari P, Sharifudin, MA
    MyJurnal
    The WOMAC questionnaire is used extensively in the assessment of knee osteoarthritis but not as an indicator of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We aimed to assess if the WOMAC score can be used as an assessment tool to indicate TKA in primary knee osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods:Patients with primary knee osteoarthritis Kellgren and Lawrence grades 3 or 4 were assessed separately by either one of two arthroplasty surgeons for indications to undergo TKA and evaluated using the WOMAC score. Patients who had received any form of intra-articular knee injection within six months before assessment were excluded. Patients were divided into two groups; indicated for TKA, and for non-surgical treatment. The mean WOMAC score of patients from both groups was compared using Independent t-test. The accuracy at different cut-off points in the score indicated for TKA was determined using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve plotted on sensitivity and 1-specificity graph. Results:The study included 74 patients with a mean age of 62.5 years (SD=8.26). There was a significant difference in the total WOMAC score (p
  5. Naznin, M, Abdul Rahman, S., Ariff, O., Ahmad Mansur, M, Kasule, O.H.
    MyJurnal
    Background: The approach to the teaching of ethics and professionalism in the Faculty of Medicine (FM) of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) is unique. A specifically designed package is incorporated designated as the Islamic Input into the Medical Programme (IIMP). The IIMP spans over the entire 5 years of the medical programme. In the Faculty of Allied Health Sciences (FAHS) students do not go through a similar Islamic Input module but exposed to ethical issues specific to health sciences. Method: The aim of this study is to assess the impact of the teaching of ethics through the IIMP. A cross-sectional study was conducted in medical and allied health sciences faculties of IIUM. In total 259 students volunteered and were allocated to 4 groups, Years 2 and 5 students of FM and Years 2 and 4 of FAHS. A set of questionnaire consisting of 20 vignettes related to medical ethics was distributed to all students. An independent t-test was used to compare the mean total scores between the groups. Results: A significant difference (p < 0.05) was seen between the mean total scores for the Year 2 and Year 5 students of FM; Year 2 students of FM and Year 2 students of FAHS; and between the Year 5 students of FM and Year 4 students of FAHS. Also there was significant difference between the two medical and allied health sciences groups as a whole. Discussion: This study suggests that the IIMP of the IIUM has a positive impact on the medical students when dealing with ethical issues. The Year 5 medical students were expected to have obtained a higher mean total score. The probable reason for the lower mean total score include the teaching-learning approach utilized which is mainly lecture with minimal small group approach. Also the allocation of marks for medical ethics in summative assessment in the IIUM medical curriculum is minimal compared to the core medical subjects which would have some influence on the weight given by students. Conclusion: The Medical Faculty of IIUM believes that the approach to the teaching of medical ethics by incorporating the Islamic Input module is effective, practical and relevant. However the teaching-learning method and the assessment will have to be re-addressed to achieve greater impact.
  6. Ahmed, Y., Rahman, S., Akhtar, P., Islam, F., Rahman, M., Yaakob, Z.
    MyJurnal
    General phytochemical screening of the leaves of Saurauia roxburghii (Actinidiaceae) revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, O-glycosides, terpenoids, carbohydrates, steroids, reducing sugar, tannins, phlobatannins and saponin are present in this plant whereas cardiac glycosides are absent. Two steroid compounds were isolated from the n-hexane extract of the leaves from S. roxburghii. Based on the spectral evidence IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR, structures were determined to be stigmasterol (1) and β-sitosterol (2) This is the first report so far of occurrence and details spectroscopic description of these compounds from S. roxburghii.
  7. Shahar S, Earland J, Abd Rahman S
    Singapore Med J, 2001 May;42(5):208-13.
    PMID: 11513058
    To evaluate the social and health functions of rural elderly Malays.
  8. Shahar S, Earland J, Rahman SA
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2000 Jun;9(2):122-9.
    PMID: 24394398
    A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out on 350 elderly Malays aged 60 and above from 11 randomly selected villages in a rural area on the east coast of Malaysia. The findings indicated that the mean intakes of energy and of all of the nutrients investigated were below the Malaysian Recommended Dietary Allowances, except for protein and vitamin C. With respect to dietary habits, almost all of the subjects reported that they had breakfast (99.3%), lunch (97.9%) and dinner (90.4%) daily or almost daily (5-6 times/week). However, approximately half of the subjects, especially women, had particular beliefs and prohibitions about specific foods. Most of the subjects usually ate their meals at home, particularly dinner, with 99.3% always having dinner in their own home. Thus, although the rural elderly Malays studied had regular meal intakes, the dietary intake was inadequate. There is a need to plan community-based intervention programmes in order to prevent the subsequent consequences of malnutrition that lead to increased morbidity and mortality.
  9. Othman NH, Rahman SA
    Med J Malaysia, 1990 Dec;45(4):275-80.
    PMID: 2152046
    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX), a rare inherited lipid storage disease is due to a defect in bile acid metabolism. Involvement of five members of a family is presented. The clinical features, laboratory and pathologic findings are discussed. Tendinous and tuberous xanthomatosis, bilateral cataracts, cerebral impairment and raised serum cholestanol are the salient features. We believe this is the first report of CTX in Malaysia.
  10. Moy FM, Abdul Rahman S
    Malays J Nutr, 2002 Mar;8(1):63-73.
    PMID: 22692440 MyJurnal
    A cross sectional study on Type 2 diabetes patients seeking treatment in the Primary Health Care outpatient clinic of the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur was undertaken. Two hundred and thirty-three subjects participated. They were asked questions on biodata and dietary intake using face-to-face interview techniques. Dietary intake was assessed using the 24-hour dietary recall. Anthropometric measurements including weight and height were taken and Body Mass Index (BMI) was computed to establish the extent of obesity. Of the 196 subjects, 66.8% were overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) with 15.8% obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). The mean BMI of males and females were 25.9±4.3 kg/m2 and 27.2±4.7 kg/m2 respectively. The findings from the dietary survey showed that the mean energy intake of the subjects only achieved about 72% of the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for Malaysia while protein intake of all subjects was adequate. The macronutreint contribution to the total calorie was consistent with the recommendation of the Malaysian Diabetic Association for a healthy diet for diabetes patients. The male subjects were found to meet the RDA requirements for all nutrients while the female subjects did not have sufficient intake of calcium, vitamin A and niacin. No consistent pattern in energy and nutrient intake was observed among different age groups. On the other hand, the Malay subjects seemed to have lower energy and all nutrient intake (except vitamin A and vitamin C) compared to the Chinese and Indian subjects. The Indian subjects seemed to have the highest intake of calcium compared to the others. Advice needs to be given to those who did not have adequate nutrient intake as well as those who need to reduce their weight.

    Study site: Primary health care clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
  11. Shaikh Abdul Rahman S, Aziz Z
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2020 Oct;45(5):946-958.
    PMID: 31925959 DOI: 10.1111/jcpt.13106
    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widely used worldwide for health maintenance, disease prevention and treatment. The objective of the study was to identify adverse drug reactions (ADR) associated with the use of CAM in Malaysia and factors which are associated with the more serious reactions.

    METHODS: All ADR associated with the use of CAM products (including health supplements) submitted to the Malaysian Centre for ADR Monitoring, National Pharmaceutical Regulatory Agency over a 15-year period were reviewed and analysed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of serious ADR.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: From a total of 74 997 reports in the database, 930 (1.2%) involved CAM products, and 242 (26%) were serious with 36 deaths. About a third of the reports involved used CAM products for health maintenance. Most (78.1%) of the ADR reports implicated unregistered products with 16.7% confirmed to contain adulterants which were mainly dexamethasone. Of the 930 reports, the ADR involved skin and appendages disorders (18.4%) followed by liver and biliary system disorders (13.7%). The odds of someone experiencing serious ADR increased if the CAM products were used for chronic illnesses (odds ratio [OR] 1.99, confidence interval [CI] 1.46-2.71), having concurrent diseases (OR 1.51, CI 1.04-2.19) and taking concurrent drugs (OR 1.44, CI 1.03-2.02).

    WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of serious ADR associated with CAM products is high. Factors identified with serious ADR included ethnicity, CAM users with pre-existing diseases, use of CAM for chronic illnesses and concomitant use of CAM products with other drugs. The findings could be useful for planning strategies to institute measures to ensure safe use of CAM products.

  12. Eshkoor S, Ismail P, Rahman S, Moin S, Adon M
    Balkan J. Med. Genet., 2013 Dec;16(2):45-52.
    PMID: 24778563 DOI: 10.2478/bjmg-2013-0031
    The ageing process is influenced by many internal and external factors. The toxic substances in the environment can cause genomic damages to cells, which increase the risk of early ageing. Furthermore, the cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) gene polymorphism is a susceptibility factor and may enhance the risk of DNA damage in cells. The current study was carried out to show whether occupational exposure could cause genotoxicity in cells carrying the CYP1A2 gene polymorphism, thus enhancing the likelihood of early ageing. This study was conducted on mechanical workshop workers and a control group by collecting buccal cells from their mouths. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) was used to identify the CYP1A2 gene polymorphism in the cells. In addition, three extra methods including micronuclei (MN) test, comet assay and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) were applied to determine the effects of gene polymorphisms on DNA damage and ageing from occupational exposure. The results showed that DNA damage in the cells carrying the mutated genotype was higher than the wild genotype. In addition, the difference in MN frequency (p = 0.001) and relative telomere length (p = 0.002) between workers and controls was significant (p <0.05) in the mutated genotype. The findings indicated a possible protective effect of gene polymorphism against early ageing, which was characterized by lack of a significant influence of CYP1A2 gene polymorphism on genetic material in the subjects (p >0.05). It was concluded that the CYP1A2 gene could be a contributing factor to prevent early ageing from occupational exposure.
  13. Chong SK, Dee CF, Abdul Rahman S
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2013;8(1):174.
    PMID: 23590803 DOI: 10.1186/1556-276X-8-174
    Silicon/zinc oxide (Si/ZnO) core-shell nanowires (NWs) were prepared on a p-type Si(111) substrate using a two-step growth process. First, indium seed-coated Si NWs (In/Si NWs) were synthesized using a plasma-assisted hot-wire chemical vapor deposition technique. This was then followed by the growth of a ZnO nanostructure shell layer using a vapor transport and condensation method. By varying the ZnO growth time from 0.5 to 2 h, different morphologies of ZnO nanostructures, such as ZnO nanoparticles, ZnO shell layer, and ZnO nanorods were grown on the In/Si NWs. The In seeds were believed to act as centers to attract the ZnO molecule vapors, further inducing the lateral growth of ZnO nanorods from the Si/ZnO core-shell NWs via a vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. The ZnO nanorods had a tendency to grow in the direction of [0001] as indicated by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy analyses. We showed that the Si/ZnO core-shell NWs exhibit a broad visible emission ranging from 400 to 750 nm due to the combination of emissions from oxygen vacancies in ZnO and In2O3 structures and nanocrystallite Si on the Si NWs. The hierarchical growth of straight ZnO nanorods on the core-shell NWs eventually reduced the defect (green) emission and enhanced the near band edge (ultraviolet) emission of the ZnO.
  14. Fasahat P, Rahman S, Ratnam W
    J Genet, 2014 Apr;93(1):279-92.
    PMID: 24840849
    Starch accumulates in plants as granules in chloroplasts of source organs such as leaves (transitory starch) or in amyloplasts of sink organs such as seeds, tubers and roots (storage starch). Starch is composed of two types of glucose polymers: the essentially linear polymer amylose and highly branched amylopectin. The amylose content of wheat and rice seeds is an important quality trait, affecting the nutritional and sensory quality of two of the world's most important crops. In this review, we focus on the relationship between amylose biosynthesis and the structure, physical behaviour and functionality of wheat and rice grains. We briefly describe the structure and composition of starch and then in more detail describe what is known about the mechanism of amylose synthesis and how the amount of amylose in starch might be controlled. This more specifically includes analysis of GBSS alleles, the relationship between waxy allelic forms and amylose, and related quantitative trait loci. Finally, different methods for increasing or lowering amylose content are evaluated.
  15. Mohd Nawi, N. S. A., Rahmad, A. A., Abdul Hamid, K., Rahman, S., Osman, S. S., Surat, S., et al.
    MyJurnal
    The connectivity patterns among the DMN nodes when the brain is resting are still in great debate. Among the unknowns is whether a dominant node exists in the network and if any, how does it influences the other nodes. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) was utilized in data acquisition on 25 healthy male and female participants. The DMN nodes selected were posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), bilateral inferior parietal cortex (IPL) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Fully connected causal models were constructed comprising four DMN nodes. The time invariant covariance of the random fluctuations between nodes was then estimated to obtain the effective connectivity (EC) between the DMN nodes. The EC values among the DMN nodes were averaged over the participants using Bayesian Parameter Averaging (BPA). All the DMN nodes have self-inhibitory dynamics. All connections between nodes were significant (P > 0.9) with a condition for any of the two nodes, one node inhibited the others. The PCC which exhibited the highest signal intensity was in fact inhibited by others. Inter-hemispheric RIPC to LIPC connections acted the same way, with excitatory LIPC to RIPC and inhibitory RIPC to LIPC connections. The results also showed a stronger mPFC to RIPC connection in the right hemisphere (as compared to mPFC to LIPC connection in the left hemisphere) and a weaker PCC to RIPC connection in the right hemisphere (as compared to PCC to LIPC connection in the left hemisphere). PCC can be regarded as a dominant node among the four nodes, being connected to all other nodes in different ways. All the four nodes were significantly activated and connected to each other even though the brain was in a state of resting.
  16. Bin Abdul Rahman S, Tan Boon Ann, Subbiah M, Loh Sow Khin, Baker Y
    Stud Fam Plann, 1974 May;5(5):158-9.
    PMID: 4828069 DOI: 10.2307/1965315
  17. Hardee JG, Rahman SB, Ann TB
    Stud Fam Plann, 1973 May;4(5):111-3.
    PMID: 4710478 DOI: 10.2307/1964727
  18. Ab-Rahman S, Sulaiman AR, Muzaffar T
    Trauma Case Rep, 2016 Apr;3:32-35.
    PMID: 29942842 DOI: 10.1016/j.tcr.2016.05.004
    Irreducible dislocation of the interphalangeal joint (IPJ) big toe is a rare injury Hitori et al. (2006) . We report a case of the right big toe IPJ dislocation following a trauma. The problem was diagnosed and managed at other medical centers with standard treatment of closed manual reduction and splint. The right big toe was splinted accordingly and the patient was referred to our orthopedic outpatient clinic. At the clinic, a repeat plain radiograph was ordered due to high suspicion of the irreducible IPJ.
    Study site: orthopedic clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
  19. Majumder AA, D'Souza U, Rahman S
    Indian J Med Sci, 2004 Sep;58(9):369-80.
    PMID: 15470278
    Most medical schools, especially in South-East Asia, currently are experiencing difficulties in providing the right quality and quantity of educational experiences as the curricula have failed to respond to the needs of the community and country. The pedagogic shift from traditional approach to a need-based approach requires a fundamental change of the roles and commitments of educators, planners and policymakers. Teachers of health professional education in the region are to be well-informed of the trends and innovations and utilize these to increase relevance and quality of education to produce competent human resources for the region. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (i) to discuss innovative strategies and emerging trends, which have been successfully adopted by educators around the world for the reorientation of medical education to overcome existing traditions of educational planning, review and development and (ii) to highlight their implications and importance to initiate need-based reforms of medical training in South-East Asia.
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