Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 48 in total

  1. Raj, M., Razali N,, Sulaiman, S.
    JUMMEC, 2009;12(1):27-30.
    The objectives of this study were: (1) to detect group B streptococcus (GBS) carriers among antenatal patients during pregnancy ( 35 to 37 weeks) in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and (2) to give antibiotic prophylaxis during the intrapartum period for the GBS carrier patients. The aim is to prevent early onset of GBS infection in newborn. This pilot study was carried out from 1st July 2005 to 31st August 2005. It is a prospective study involving 56 pregnant women who were seen at the antenatal clinic in the UMMC between 35 to 37 weeks gestation. High vaginal swab and low vaginal together with endoanal swab were taken for culture and sensitivity. The antibiotic prophylaxis was started early in the intrapartum period for patients with positive culture for GBS. GBS was detected in 18 patients which contributes to about 32% of the study population. The proper choice of antibiotic is important in successful disease prevention.

    Study site: Obstretic and gynaecological clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
  2. Md Latar IL, Razali N
    Int J Reprod Med, 2014;2014:301452.
    PMID: 25763396 DOI: 10.1155/2014/301452
    Objective. To study the predictors for desire for multiple pregnancies and the influence of providing information regarding the maternal and fetal complications associated with multiple pregnancies on their preference for multiple pregnancies. Methods. Couples attending an infertility clinic were offered to fill up a questionnaire separately. Following this, they were handed a pamphlet with information regarding the risks associated with multiple pregnancies. The patients will then be required to answer the question on the number of pregnancies desired again. Results. Two hundred fifty three out of 300 respondents completed the questionnaires adequately. A higher proportion of respondents, 60.3% of females and 57.9% of males, prefer singleton pregnancy. Patients who are younger than 35 years, with preexisting knowledge of risks associated with multiple pregnancies and previous treatment for infertility, have decreased desire for multiple pregnancies. However, for patients who are older than 35, with longer duration of infertility, and those patients who have preexisting knowledge of the increased risk, providing further information regarding the risks did not change their initial preferences. Conclusion. Providing and reinforcing knowledge on the risks to mother and fetus associated with multiple pregnancies did not decrease the preference for multiple pregnancies in patients.
  3. Nadaraja RND, Sthaneshwar P, Razali N
    Malays J Pathol, 2018 Apr;40(1):33-39.
    PMID: 29704382 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Hyperandrogenism remains as one of the key features in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and can be assessed clinically or determined by biochemical assays. Hirsutism is the most common clinical manifestation of hyperandrogenism. The clinical assessment is subjected to wide variability due to poor interobserver agreement and multiple population factors such as ethnic variation, cosmetic procedures and genetic trait. The difficulty in resolving the androgen excess biochemically is due to a lack of consensus as to which serum androgen should be measured for the diagnosis of PCOS. The aim of the study was to compare and establish the diagnostic cut off value for different androgen biomarker for the diagnosis of PCOS.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 312 patients classified to PCOS (n = 164) and non PCOS (n = 148) cohorts were selected from the Laboratory Information System (LIS) based on serum total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) from the period of 1st April 2015 to 31st March 2016. PCOS was diagnosed based on Rotterdam criteria. Clinical hyperandrogenism and ultrasound polycystic ovarian morphology were obtained from the clinical records. The other relevant biochemical results such as serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and albumin were also obtained from LIS. Free androgen index (FAI), calculated free testosterone (cFT) and calculated bioavailable testosterone (cBT) were calculated for these patients. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed for serum TT, SHBG, FAI, cFT, cBT and LH: FSH ratio to determine the best marker to diagnose PCOS.

    RESULTS: All the androgen parameters (except SHBG) were significantly higher in PCOS patients than in control (p<0.0001). The highest area under curve (AUC) curve was found for cBT followed by cFT and FAI. TT and LH: FSH ratio recorded a lower AUC and the lowest AUC was seen for SHBG. cBT at a cut off value of 0.86 nmol/L had the highest specificity, 83% and positive likelihood ratio (LR) at 3.79. This is followed by FAI at a cut off value of 7.1% with specificity at 82% and cFT at a cut off value of 0.8 pmol/L with specificity at 80%. All three calculated androgen indices (FAI, cFT and cBT) showed good correlation with each other. Furthermore, cFT, FAI and calculated BT were shown to be more specific with higher positive likelihood ratio than measured androgen markers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Based on our study, the calculated testosterone indices such as FAI, cBT and cFT are useful markers to distinguish PCOS from non-PCOS. Owing to ease of calculation, FAI can be incorporated in LIS and can be reported with TT and SHBG. This will be helpful for clinician to diagnose hyperandrogenism in PCOS.

  4. Mat Razali N, Cheah BH, Nadarajah K
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Jul 23;20(14).
    PMID: 31340492 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20143597
    Transposable elements (TEs) are agents of genetic variability in phytopathogens as they are a source of adaptive evolution through genome diversification. Although many studies have uncovered information on TEs, the exact mechanism behind TE-induced changes within the genome remains poorly understood. Furthermore, convergent trends towards bigger genomes, emergence of novel genes and gain or loss of genes implicate a TE-regulated genome plasticity of fungal phytopathogens. TEs are able to alter gene expression by revamping the cis-regulatory elements or recruiting epigenetic control. Recent findings show that TEs recruit epigenetic control on the expression of effector genes as part of the coordinated infection strategy. In addition to genome plasticity and diversity, fungal pathogenicity is an area of economic concern. A survey of TE distribution suggests that their proximity to pathogenicity genes TEs may act as sites for emergence of novel pathogenicity factors via nucleotide changes and expansion or reduction of the gene family. Through a systematic survey of literature, we were able to conclude that the role of TEs in fungi is wide: ranging from genome plasticity, pathogenicity to adaptive behavior in evolution. This review also identifies the gaps in knowledge that requires further elucidation for a better understanding of TEs' contribution to genome architecture and versatility.
  5. Razali N, Aziz AA, Junit SM
    Genes Nutr, 2010 Dec;5(4):331-41.
    PMID: 21189869 DOI: 10.1007/s12263-010-0187-5
    Tamarindus indicaL. (T. indica) or locally known as asam jawa belongs to the family of Leguminosae. The fruit pulp had been reported to have antioxidant activities and possess hypolipidaemic effects. In this study, we attempted to investigate the gene expression patterns in human hepatoma HepG2 cell line in response to treatment with low concentration of the fruit pulp extracts. Microarray analysis using Affymetrix Human Genome 1.0 S.T arrays was used in the study. Microarray data were validated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Amongst the significantly up-regulated genes were those that code for the metallothioneins (MT1M, MT1F, MT1X) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTA1, GSTA2, GST02) that are involved in stress response. APOA4, APOA5, ABCG5 and MTTP genes were also significantly regulated that could be linked to hypolipidaemic activities of the T. indica fruit pulp.
  6. Halim SA, Razali N, Mohd N
    Data Brief, 2020 Dec;33:106535.
    PMID: 34026955 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2020.106535
    Pellet mixed with 5 wt% and 10 wt% of binders was tested. The pelleting process was performed using a pellet mill operated at 100 °C and at 50 MPa. The physical and chemical characteristics including hardness, high heating value and proximate analysis of pellet produces were obtained using durometer and through thermographic analysis and the results were reported in this paper. Bulk and unit density were determined according to ASABE standard. The dataset presented here are the data of palm kernel shell pellet prepared using two types of binder; (1) sago starch and (2) sodium acetate. The pelletization of palm kernel shell aimed to increase the density and strength of the palm kernel shell pellet and consequently provide better thermal degradation characteristics.
  7. Razali N, Abdul Aziz A, Lim CY, Mat Junit S
    PeerJ, 2015;3:e1292.
    PMID: 26557426 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1292
    The leaf extract of Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica) had been reported to possess high phenolic content and showed high antioxidant activities. In this study, the effects of the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of the T. indica on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, H2O2-induced ROS production and gene expression patterns were investigated in liver HepG2 cells. Lipid peroxidation and ROS production were inhibited and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was enhanced when the cells were treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that 207 genes were significantly regulated by at least 1.5-fold (p < 0.05) in cells treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. The expression of KNG1, SERPINC1, SERPIND1, SERPINE1, FGG, FGA, MVK, DHCR24, CYP24A1, ALDH6A1, EPHX1 and LEAP2 were amongst the highly regulated. When the significantly regulated genes were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, "Lipid Metabolism, Small Molecule Biochemistry, Hematological Disease" was the top biological network affected by the leaf extract, with a score of 36. The top predicted canonical pathway affected by the leaf extract was the coagulation system (P < 2.80 × 10(-6)) followed by the superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis (P < 2.17 × 10(-4)), intrinsic prothrombin pathway (P < 2.92 × 10(-4)), Immune Protection/Antimicrobial Response (P < 2.28 × 10(-3)) and xenobiotic metabolism signaling (P < 2.41 × 10(-3)). The antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica also altered the expression of proteins that are involved in the Coagulation System and the Intrinsic Prothrombin Activation Pathway (KNG1, SERPINE1, FGG), Superpathway of Cholesterol Biosynthesis (MVK), Immune protection/antimicrobial response (IFNGR1, LEAP2, ANXA3 and MX1) and Xenobiotic Metabolism Signaling (ALDH6A1, ADH6). In conclusion, the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica inhibited lipid peroxidation and ROS production, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and significantly regulated the expression of genes and proteins involved with consequential impact on the coagulation system, cholesterol biosynthesis, xenobiotic metabolism signaling and antimicrobial response.
  8. Khaleghi S, Aziz AA, Razali N, Junit SM
    Genes Nutr, 2011 Nov;6(4):413-27.
    PMID: 21484159 DOI: 10.1007/s12263-011-0216-z
    In this study, the effects of low and high concentrations of the Anacardium occidentale shoot extracts on gene expression in liver HepG2 cells were investigated. From MTT assays, the concentration of the shoot extracts that maintained 50% cell viability (IC(50)) was 1.7 mg/ml. Cell viability was kept above 90% at both 0.4 mg/ml and 0.6 mg/ml of the extracts. The three concentrations were subsequently used for the gene expression analysis using Affymetrix Human Genome 1.0 S.T arrays. The microarray data were validated using real-time qRT-PCR. A total of 246, 696 and 4503 genes were significantly regulated (P 
  9. Azmi NS, Mohamad N, Razali NA, Zamli AKT, Sapiai NA
    Med J Malaysia, 2021 03;76(2):264-266.
    PMID: 33742643
    Septic arthritis (SA) occurrence for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is rare. Pain, fever, swelling or loss of TMJ function are the typical presentation. The more common diagnosis for these presentations is internal derangement, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, TMJ septic arthritis is a challenging diagnosis and at risk of delayed diagnosis. We present a case of TMJ septic arthritis in a 46 year old Malay female with underlying hypertension and hypercholestrolemia, which was diagnosed as internal derangement in the initial presentation. The initial radiograph was normal. Arthrocentesis procedure had temporarily relieved the symptoms before progressive facial swelling developed after a week. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) brain revealed left TMJ abscess formation with left condylar erosion. Patient subsequently improved after wound debridement, left condylectomy and antimicrobial therapy.
  10. Razali N, Mohd Nahwari SH, Sulaiman S, Hassan J
    J Obstet Gynaecol, 2017 Jul;37(5):595-600.
    PMID: 28286995 DOI: 10.1080/01443615.2017.1283304
    Labour induction and augmentation with Prostaglandin and Oxytocin are well established as standard practice worldwide. They are safe when used judiciously, but may be associated with maternal and neonatal morbidities. Other safer alternatives have been studied including dates consumption during late pregnancy with various outcomes. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the effect of date fruit consumption during late pregnancy on the onset of labour and need for induction or augmentation of labour. A total of 154 nulliparous women with an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy were randomly allocated to either dates-consumer (77) or control group (77). The women in the dates-consumer group had significantly less need for augmentation of labour and longer intervention to delivery interval. There was no significant difference in the onset of spontaneous labour. Dates consumption reduces the need for labour augmentation but does not expedite the onset of labour. Impact statement • Dates fruit consumption during late pregnancy has been shown to positively affect the outcome of labour and delivery. In this study, date consumption reduced the need for labour augmentation with oxytocin but did not expedite the onset of labour. Therefore, dates consumption in late pregnancy is a safe supplement to be considered as it reduced the need for labour intervention without any adverse effect on the mother and child. This further supports the finding of earlier studies.
  11. Razali N, Dewa A, Asmawi MZ, Mohamed N, Manshor NM
    J Integr Med, 2020 Jan;18(1):46-58.
    PMID: 31882255 DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2019.12.003
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate vasorelaxant and vasoconstriction effects of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum (ZOVR) on live rats and isolated aortic rings of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs).

    METHODS: Extracts of ZOVR were subjected to in-vivo antihypertensive screening using noninvasive blood pressures in SHRs. The most potent extract, ZOVR petroleum ether extract (ZOP) was then fractionated using n-hexane, chloroform and water. Isolated thoracic aortic rings were harvested and subjected to vascular relaxation studies of n-hexane fraction of ZOP (HFZOP) with incubation of different antagonists such as Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 µmol/L), indomethacin (10 µmol/L), methylene blue (10 µmol/L), atropine (1 µmol/L), glibenclamide (10 µmol/L), prazosin (0.01 µmol/L), and propranolol (1 µmol/L).

    RESULTS: During the screening of various ZOVR extracts, ZOP produced the most reduction in blood pressures of SHRs and so did HFZOP. HFZOP significantly decreased phenylephrine-induced contraction and enhanced acetylcholine-induced relaxation. L-NAME, indomethacin, methylene blue, atropine, and glibenclamide significantly potentiated the vasorelaxant effects of HFZOP. Propranolol and prazosin did not alter the vasorelaxant effects of HFZOP. HFZOP significantly suppressed the Ca2+-dependent contraction and influenced the ratio of the responses to phenylephrine in Ca2+-free medium.

    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that ZOP may exert an antihypertensive effect in the SHR model. Its possible vascular relaxation mechanisms involve nitric oxide and prostacyclin release, activation of cGMP-KATP channels, stimulation of muscarinic receptors, and transmembrane calcium channel or Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Possible active compounds that contribute to the vasorelaxant effects are 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol and 6-shogaol.

  12. Mustapa Kamal Basha MA, Majid HA, Razali N, Yahya A
    PLoS One, 2020;15(6):e0233890.
    PMID: 32542014 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0233890
    BACKGROUND: Allergic conditions and respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common causes of morbidity and mortality in childhood. The relationship between vitamin D status in pregnancy (mothers), early life (infants) and health outcomes such as allergies and RTIs in infancy is unclear. To date, studies have shown conflicting results.

    OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to gather and appraise existing evidence on the associations between serum vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy and at birth and the development of eczema, wheezing, and RTIs in infants.

    DATA SOURCES: PubMed, MEDLINE, ProQuest, Scopus, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and Academic Search Premier databases were searched systematically using specified search terms and keywords.

    STUDY SELECTION: Articles on the associations between serum vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy and at birth and eczema, wheezing, and RTIs among infants (1-year-old and younger) published up to 31 March 2019 were identified, screened and retrieved.

    RESULTS: From the initial 2678 articles screened, ten met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. There were mixed and conflicting results with regards to the relationship between maternal and cord blood vitamin D concentrations and the three health outcomes-eczema, wheezing and RTIs-in infants.

    CONCLUSION: Current findings revealed no robust and consistent associations between vitamin D status in early life and the risk of developing eczema, wheezing and RTIs in infants. PROSPERO registration no. CRD42018093039.

  13. Razali N, Mat Junit S, Ariffin A, Ramli NS, Abdul Aziz A
    PMID: 26683054 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0963-2
    Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica) or locally known as "asam jawa" belongs to the family Leguminosae. T. indica seeds as by-products from the fruits were previously reported to contain high polyphenolic content. However, identification of their bioactive polyphenols using recent technologies is less well researched but nonetheless important. Hence, it was the aim of this study to provide further information on the polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities as well as to identify and quantify its bioactive polyphenols.
  14. Razali N, Agarwal R, Agarwal P, Kapitonova MY, Kannan Kutty M, Smirnov A, et al.
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2015 Feb 15;749:73-80.
    PMID: 25481859 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.11.029
    Steroid-induced ocular hypertension (SIOH) is associated with topical and systemic use of steroids. However, SIOH-associated anterior and posterior segment morphological changes in rats have not been described widely. Here we describe the pattern of intraocular pressure (IOP) changes, quantitative assessment of trabecular meshwork (TM) and retinal morphological changes and changes in retinal redox status in response to chronic dexamethasone treatment in rats. We also evaluated the responsiveness of steroid-pretreated rat eyes to 5 different classes of antiglaucoma drugs that act by different mechanisms. Up to 80% of dexamethasone treated animals achieved significant and sustained IOP elevation. TM thickness was significantly increased and number of TM cells was significantly reduced in SIOH rats compared to the vehicle-treated rats. Quantitative assessment of retinal morphology showed significantly reduced thickness of ganglion cell layer (GCL) and inner retina (IR) in SIOH rats compared to vehicle-treated rats. Estimation of retinal antioxidants including catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione showed significantly increased retinal oxidative stress in SIOH animals. Furthermore, steroid-treated eyes showed significant IOP lowering in response to treatment with 5 different drug classes. This indicated the ability of SIOH eyes to respond to drugs acting by different mechanisms. In conclusion, SIOH was associated with significant morphological changes in TM and retina and retinal redox status. Additionally, SIOH eyes also showed IOP lowering in response to drugs that act by different mechanisms of action. Hence, SIOH rats appear to be an inexpensive and noninvasive model for studying the experimental antiglaucoma drugs for IOP lowering and neuroprotective effects.
  15. Agarwal R, Iezhitsa I, Agarwal P, Abdul Nasir NA, Razali N, Alyautdin R, et al.
    Drug Deliv, 2016 May;23(4):1075-91.
    PMID: 25116511 DOI: 10.3109/10717544.2014.943336
    Topical route of administration is the most commonly used method for the treatment of ophthalmic diseases. However, presence of several layers of permeation barriers starting from the tear film till the inner layers of cornea make it difficult to achieve the therapeutic concentrations in the target tissue within the eye. In order to circumvent these barriers and to provide sustained and targeted drug delivery, tremendous advances have been made in developing efficient and safe drug delivery systems. Liposomes due to their unique structure prove to be extremely beneficial drug carriers as they can entrap both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. The conventional liposomes had several drawbacks particularly their tendency to aggregate, the instability and leakage of entrapped drug and susceptibility to phagocytosis. Due to this reason, for a long time, liposomes as drug delivery systems did not attract much attention of researchers and clinicians. However, over recent years development of new generation liposomes has opened up new approaches for targeted and sustained drug delivery using liposomes and has rejuvenated the interest of researchers in this field. In this review we present a summary of current literature to understand the anatomical and physiological limitation in achieving adequate ocular bioavailability of topically applied drugs and utility of liposomes in overcoming these limitations. The recent developments related to new generation liposomes are discussed.
  16. Manshor NM, Dewa A, Asmawi MZ, Ismail Z, Razali N, Hassan Z
    Int J Vasc Med, 2013;2013:456852.
    PMID: 23878738 DOI: 10.1155/2013/456852
    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth has been traditionally used to treat hypertension. The study aimed to investigate the vascular reactivity of water extract (WOS) and water : methanolic (1 : 1) extract (WMOS) of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and AT1 receptors blocker in the mechanisms of antihypertensive mediated by α 1-adrenergic receptor and EDNO and PGI2 releases in the SHR aortic rings. SHR (230-280 g) were divided into four groups: control, WOS, WMOS, and losartan. After being fed orally for 14 days, the aorta was harvested and subjected to PE (10(-9) to 10(-5) M) and ACh (10(-9) to 10(-5) M) with and without L-NAME (100 µM) and indomethacin (10 µM), respectively. WOS, WMOS, and losartan significantly reduced the contractile responses to PE intact suggesting the importance of endothelium in vasorelaxation. Losartan significantly enhanced the ACh-induced vasorelaxation. L-NAME significantly inhibited the ACh-induced relaxation in all groups. Indomethacin enhanced ACh-induced vasorelaxation in WMOS. Collectively, Orthosiphon stamineus leaves extract reduced vasoconstriction responses by the alteration of α 1-adrenergic and AT1 receptors activities. The involvement of EDNO releases was clearly observed in this plant. In WOS, PGI2 releases might not participate in the ACh-induced vasorelaxation. However, in WMOS, enhancement of vasorelaxation possibly due to continuous release of PGI2.
  17. Razali N, Md Latar IL, Chan YK, Omar SZ, Tan PC
    PMID: 26773246 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2015.12.017
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the uterotonic effect of carbetocin compared with oxytocin in emergency cesarean delivery.

    STUDY DESIGN: Participants were randomized to intravenous bolus injection of 100mcg carbetocin or 10IU oxytocin after cesarean delivery of the baby. The primary outcome is any additional uterotonic which may be administered by the blinded provider for perceived inadequate uterine tone with or without hemorrhage in the first 24hours after delivery. Secondary outcomes include operating time, perioperative blood loss, change in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, blood transfusion and reoperation for postpartum hemorrhage.

    RESULTS: Additional uterotonic rates were 107/276 (38.8%) vs. 155/271 (57.2%) [RR 0.68 95% CI 0.57-0.81 p<0.001; NNTb 6 95% CI 3.8-9.8], mean operating time 45.9±16.0 vs. 44.5±13.1minutes p=0.26, mean blood loss 458±258 vs. 446±281ml p=0.6, severe postpartum hemorrhage (≥1000ml) rates 15/276 (5.4%) vs. 10/271 (3.7%) p=0.33 and blood transfusion rates 6/276 (2.2%) vs. 10/271 (3.7%); p=0.30 for carbetocin and oxytocin arms respectively. There was only one case of re-operation (oxytocin arm). In the cases that needed additional uterotonic 98% (257/262) was started intraoperatively and in 89% (234/262) the only additional uterotonic administered was an oxytocin infusion over 6hours.

    CONCLUSION: Fewer women in the carbetocin arm needed additional uterotonics but perioperative blood loss, severe postpartum hemorrhage, blood transfusion and operating time were not different.

  18. Manshor NM, Razali N, Jusoh RR, Asmawi MZ, Mohamed N, Zainol S, et al.
    Int J Cardiol Hypertens, 2020 Mar;4:100024.
    PMID: 33447753 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijchy.2020.100024
    Introduction: Labisia pumila has been reported to possess activities including antioxidant, anti-aging and anti-cancer but there is no report on its vasorelaxant effects.

    Objective: This study aims to fractionate water extract of Labisia pumila, identify the compound(s) involved and elucidate the possible mechanism(s) of its vasorelaxant effects.

    Methods: Water extract of Labisia pumila was subjected to liquid-liquid extraction to obtain ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions. In SHR aortic ring preparations, water fraction (WF-LPWE) was established as the most potent fraction for vasorelaxation. The pharmacological mechanisms of the vasorelaxant effect of WF-LPWE were investigated with and without the presence of various inhibitors. The cumulative dose-response curves of potassium chloride (KCl)-induced contractions were conducted to study the possible mechanisms of WF-LPWE in reducing vasoconstriction.

    Results: WF-LPWE produced dose-dependent vasorelaxant effect in endothelium-denuded aortic ring and showed non-competitive inhibition of dose-response curves of PE-induced contraction, and at its higher concentrations reduced KCl-induced contraction. 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) significantly inhibited vasorelaxant effect of WF-LPWE. WF-LPWE significantly reduced the release of intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) from the intracellular stores and suppressed the calcium chloride (CaCal2)-induced contraction. Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), methylene blue, indomethacin and atropine did not influence the vasorelaxant effects of WF-LPWE.

    Conclusion: WF-LPWE exerts its vasorelaxant effect independently of endothelium and possibly by inhibiting the release of calcium from intracellular calcium stores, receptor-operated calcium channels and formation of inositol 1,4,5- triphosphate. WF-LPWE vasorelaxant effect may also mediated via nitric oxide-independent direct involvement of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/ cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathways.

  19. Mat Razali N, Hisham SN, Kumar IS, Shukla RN, Lee M, Abu Bakar MF, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Feb 22;22(4).
    PMID: 33671736 DOI: 10.3390/ijms22042183
    Proper management of agricultural disease is important to ensure sustainable food security. Staple food crops like rice, wheat, cereals, and other cash crops hold great export value for countries. Ensuring proper supply is critical; hence any biotic or abiotic factors contributing to the shortfall in yield of these crops should be alleviated. Rhizoctonia solani is a major biotic factor that results in yield losses in many agriculturally important crops. This paper focuses on genome informatics of our Malaysian Draft R. solani AG1-IA, and the comparative genomics (inter- and intra- AG) with four AGs including China AG1-IA (AG1-IA_KB317705.1), AG1-IB, AG3, and AG8. The genomic content of repeat elements, transposable elements (TEs), syntenic genomic blocks, functions of protein-coding genes as well as core orthologous genic information that underlies R. solani's pathogenicity strategy were investigated. Our analyses show that all studied AGs have low content and varying profiles of TEs. All AGs were dominant for Class I TE, much like other basidiomycete pathogens. All AGs demonstrate dominance in Glycoside Hydrolase protein-coding gene assignments suggesting its importance in infiltration and infection of host. Our profiling also provides a basis for further investigation on lack of correlation observed between number of pathogenicity and enzyme-related genes with host range. Despite being grouped within the same AG with China AG1-IA, our Draft AG1-IA exhibits differences in terms of protein-coding gene proportions and classifications. This implies that strains from similar AG do not necessarily have to retain similar proportions and classification of TE but must have the necessary arsenal to enable successful infiltration and colonization of host. In a larger perspective, all the studied AGs essentially share core genes that are generally involved in adhesion, penetration, and host colonization. However, the different infiltration strategies will depend on the level of host resilience where this is clearly exhibited by the gene sets encoded for the process of infiltration, infection, and protection from host.
  20. Mahmood RI, Abbass AK, Razali N, Al-Saffar AZ, Al-Obaidi JR
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2021 Aug 01;184:636-647.
    PMID: 34174302 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.06.144
    The second most predominant cancer in the world and the first among women is breast cancer. We aimed to study the protein abundance profiles induced by lectin purified from the Agaricus bisporus mushroom (ABL) and conjugated with CaCO3NPs in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and orbitrap mass spectrometry techniques were used to reveal the protein abundance pattern induced by lectin. Flow cytometric analysis showed the accumulation of ABL-CaCO3NPs treated cells in the G1 phase than the positive control. Thirteen proteins were found different in their abundance in breast cancer cells after 24 h exposure to lectin conjugated with CaCO3NPs. Most of the identified proteins were showing a low abundance in ABL-CaCO3NPs treated cells in comparison to the positive and negative controls, including V-set and immunoglobulin domain, serum albumin, actin cytoplasmic 1, triosephosphate isomerase, tropomyosin alpha-4 chain, and endoplasmic reticulum chaperone BiP. Hornerin, tropomyosin alpha-1 chain, annexin A2, and protein disulfide-isomerase were up-regulated in comparison to the positive. Bioinformatic analyses revealed the regulation changes of these proteins mainly affected the pathways of 'Bcl-2-associated athanogene 2 signalling pathway', 'Unfolded protein response', 'Caveolar-mediated endocytosis signalling', 'Clathrin-mediated endocytosis signalling', 'Calcium signalling' and 'Sucrose degradation V', which are associated with breast cancer. We concluded that lectin altered the abundance in molecular chaperones/heat shock proteins, cytoskeletal, and metabolic proteins. Additionally, lectin induced a low abundance of MCF-7 cancer cell proteins in comparison to the positive and negative controls, including; V-set and immunoglobulin domain, serum albumin, actin cytoplasmic 1, triosephosphate isomerase, tropomyosin alpha-4 chain, and endoplasmic reticulum chaperone BiP.
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