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  1. Hossain N, Mahlia TMI, Saidur R
    Biotechnol Biofuels, 2019;12:125.
    PMID: 31139255 DOI: 10.1186/s13068-019-1465-0
    Background: Microalgae have been experimented as a potential feedstock for biofuel generation in current era owing to its' rich energy content, inflated growth rate, inexpensive culture approaches, the notable capacity of CO2 fixation, and O2 addition to the environment. Currently, research is ongoing towards the advancement of microalgal-biofuel technologies. The nano-additive application has been appeared as a prominent innovation to meet this phenomenon.

    Main text: The main objective of this study was to delineate the synergistic impact of microalgal biofuel integrated with nano-additive applications. Numerous nano-additives such as nano-fibres, nano-particles, nano-tubes, nano-sheets, nano-droplets, and other nano-structures' applications have been reviewed in this study to facilitate microalgae growth to biofuel utilization. The present paper was intended to comprehensively review the nano-particles preparing techniques for microalgae cultivation and harvesting, biofuel extraction, and application of microalgae-biofuel nano-particles blends. Prospects of solid nano-additives and nano-fluid applications in the future on microalgae production, microalgae biomass conversion to biofuels as well as enhancement of biofuel combustion for revolutionary advancement in biofuel technology have been demonstrated elaborately by this review. This study also highlighted the potential biofuels from microalgae, numerous technologies, and conversion processes. Along with that, the study recounted suitability of potential microalgae candidates with an integrated design generating value-added co-products besides biofuel production.

    Conclusions: Nano-additive applications at different stages from microalgae culture to end-product utilization presented strong possibility in mercantile approach as well as positive impact on the environment along with valuable co-products generation into the near future.

  2. Mahbubul IM, Saidur R, Amalina MA, Elcioglu EB, Okutucu-Ozyurt T
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2015 Sep;26:361-9.
    PMID: 25616639 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2015.01.005
    Improving dispersion stability of nanofluids through ultrasonication has been shown to be effective. Determining specific conditions of ultrasonication for a certain nanofluid is necessary. For this purpose, nanofluids of varying nanoparticle concentrations were prepared and studied to find out a suitable and rather mono-dispersed concentration (i.e., 0.5 vol.%, determined through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses). This study aims to report applicable ultrasonication conditions for the dispersion of Al2O3 nanoparticles within H2O through the two-step production method. The prepared samples were ultrasonicated via an ultrasonic horn for 1-5h at two different amplitudes (25% and 50%). The microstructure, particle size distribution (PSD), and zeta potentials were analyzed to investigate the dispersion characteristics. Better particle dispersion, smaller aggregate sizes, and higher zeta potentials were observed at 3 and 5h of ultrasonication duration for the 50% and 25% of sonicator power amplitudes, respectively.
  3. Mahbubul IM, Elcioglu EB, Saidur R, Amalina MA
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2017 Jul;37:360-367.
    PMID: 28427644 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2017.01.024
    Nanofluids are promising in many fields, including engineering and medicine. Stability deterioration may be a critical constraint for potential applications of nanofluids. Proper ultrasonication can improve the stability, and possibility of the safe use of nanofluids in different applications. In this study, stability properties of TiO2-H2O nanofluid for varying ultrasonication durations were tested. The nanofluids were prepared through two-step method; and electron microscopies, with particle size distribution and zeta potential analyses were conducted for the evaluation of their stability. Results showed the positive impact of ultrasonication on nanofluid dispersion properties up to some extent. Ultrasonication longer than 150min resulted in re-agglomeration of nanoparticles. Therefore, ultrasonication for 150min was the optimum period yielding highest stability. A regression analysis was also done in order to relate the average cluster size and ultrasonication time to zeta potential. It can be concluded that performing analytical imaging and colloidal property evaluation during and after the sample preparation leads to reliable insights.
  4. Mohsin M, Zhang J, Saidur R, Sun H, Sait SM
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Aug;26(22):22494-22511.
    PMID: 31161545 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-05564-6
    In this study, we proposed integrated tools to evaluate the wind power potential, economic viability, and prioritize 15 proposed sites for the installation of wind farms. Initially, we used modified Weibull distribution model coupled with power law to assess the wind power potential. Secondly, we employed value cost method to estimate per unit cost ($/kWh) of proposed sites. Lastly, we used Fuzzy Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (F-TOPSIS) to rank the best alternatives. The results indicate that Pakistan has enormous wind power potential that cost varies from 0.06 $/kWh to 0.58 $/kWh; thus, sites S12, S13, S14, and S15 are considered as the most economic viable locations for the installation of wind power project, while remaining sites are considered to be less important, due to other complexities. The further analysis using Fuzzy-TOPSIS method reveals that site S13 is the most optimal location followed by S12, S14, and S14 for the development of wind power project. We proposed that government should formulate wind power policy for the implementation of wind power projects in order to meet energy demand of the country.
  5. Bakthavatchalam B, Habib K, Saidur R, Shahabuddin S, Saha BB
    Nanotechnology, 2020 Mar 20;31(23):235402.
    PMID: 32097901 DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/ab79ab
    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are a contemporary class of nanoparticles that have a prominent thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. There have been numerous studies on the enhancement of thermophysical properties of nanofluids. However, there is only limited research on thermal and stability analysis of MWCNT nanofluids with various kinds of solvents or base fluids, namely propylene glycol, ethanol, ethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, methanol and water. This paper reports the enhancement of thermophysical properties and stability of MWCNTs with six different base fluids in the presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate surfactant with a mass concentration of 0.5 wt%. Thermal and dispersion stabilities were determined using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and Zeta potential, along with a visual inspection method to evaluate the agglomeration or sedimentation of MWCNT nanoparticles over a period of one month. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were utilized to identify the molecular components and light absorption of the formulated nanofluids at their maximum wavenumber (4500 cm-1) and wavelength (800 nm). In addition, thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, viscosity and density with a peak temperature of 200 °C were also experimentally evaluated. The TGA results illustrated that MWCNT/ethylene glycol nanofluid achieved maximum thermal stability at 140 °C and it revealed a maximum zeta potential value of -61.8 mV. Thus, ethylene glycol solution was found to be the best base liquid to homogenize with MWCNTs for acquiring an enhanced thermophysical property and a long-term stability.
  6. Gabris MA, Jume BH, Rezaali M, Shahabuddin S, Nodeh HR, Saidur R
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2018 Sep;25(27):27122-27132.
    PMID: 30022389 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-2749-9
    This work presents the synthesis of the novel silica-cyanopropyl functionalized magnetic graphene oxide (MGO/SiO2-CN) hybrid nanomaterial derived by sol-gel method as a cheap efficient magnetic sorbent for the removal of extremely hazardous lead ions from aqueous media. The integration of the magnetic property, the carbon substrate, and the nitrile (-C ≡ N) containing organic grafted silica matrix promoted the adsorption capability against lead ions along with its simple synthesis recovery and low cost. The prepared nanocomposite was comprehensively characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Adsorption of lead was found to be pH dependent because of the charged nature of both analyte and adsorbent surface. Adsorption experiments were conducted under the optimum conditions, and the obtained experimental data from atomic absorption spectroscopy were analyzed using the popular isothermal models namely Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms as well as kinetically studied and evaluated for adsorption standard free energy (E). The experimental results have demonstrated the enhanced adsorption capability of the proposed sorbent nanocomposite for lead ion removal with the maximum adsorption capacity of 111.11 mg/g at pH 5.0. The proposed mechanism of lead adsorption was mainly attributed to the complexation of lead positive ions with the grafted -C ≡ N bond. The synergistic effect of the combination of three components (i.e., the magnetic graphene oxide matrix, the triple bond containing organic moiety, and the inorganic porous silica framework) excelled the adsorption capability and proved to be a good candidate as adsorbent for the removal of lead ions.
  7. Mukheem A, Muthoosamy K, Manickam S, Sudesh K, Shahabuddin S, Saidur R, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2018 Sep 10;11(9).
    PMID: 30201852 DOI: 10.3390/ma11091673
    Many wounds are unresponsive to currently available treatment techniques and therefore there is an immense need to explore suitable materials, including biomaterials, which could be considered as the crucial factor to accelerate the healing cascade. In this study, we fabricated polyhydroxyalkanoate-based antibacterial mats via an electrospinning technique. One-pot green synthesized graphene-decorated silver nanoparticles (GAg) were incorporated into the fibres of poly-3 hydroxybutarate-co-12 mol.% hydroxyhexanoate (P3HB-co-12 mol.% HHx), a co-polymer of the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) family which is highly biocompatible, biodegradable, and flexible in nature. The synthesized PHA/GAg biomaterial has been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), elemental mapping, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). An in vitro antibacterial analysis was performed to investigate the efficacy of PHA/GAg against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strain 12,600 ATCC and gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain 8739 ATCC. The results indicated that the PHA/GAg demonstrated significant reduction of S. aureus and E. coli as compared to bare PHA or PHA- reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in 2 h of time. The p value (p < 0.05) was obtained by using a two-sample t-test distribution.
  8. Bakthavatchalam B, Habib K, Saidur R, Aslfattahi N, Yahya SM, Rashedi A, et al.
    Nanomaterials (Basel), 2021 Jan 27;11(2).
    PMID: 33513770 DOI: 10.3390/nano11020320
    Since technology progresses, the need to optimize the thermal system's heat transfer efficiency is continuously confronted by researchers. A primary constraint in the production of heat transfer fluids needed for ultra-high performance was its intrinsic poor heat transfer properties. MXene, a novel 2D nanoparticle possessing fascinating properties has emerged recently as a potential heat dissipative solute in nanofluids. In this research, 2D MXenes (Ti3C2) are synthesized via chemical etching and blended with a binary solution containing Diethylene Glycol (DEG) and ionic liquid (IL) to formulate stable nanofluids at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 wt%. Furthermore, the effect of different temperatures on the studied liquid's thermophysical characteristics such as thermal conductivity, density, viscosity, specific heat capacity, thermal stability and the rheological property was experimentally conducted. A computational analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of ionic liquid-based 2D MXene nanofluid (Ti3C2/DEG+IL) in hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems. A 3D numerical model is developed to evaluate the thermal efficiency, electrical efficiency, heat transfer coefficient, pumping power and temperature distribution. The simulations proved that the studied working fluid in the PV/T system results in an enhancement of thermal efficiency, electrical efficiency and heat transfer coefficient by 78.5%, 18.7% and 6%, respectively.
  9. Das L, Habib K, Saidur R, Aslfattahi N, Yahya SM, Rubbi F
    Nanomaterials (Basel), 2020 Jul 14;10(7).
    PMID: 32674465 DOI: 10.3390/nano10071372
    In recent years, solar energy technologies have developed an emerging edge. The incessant research to develop a power source alternative to fossil fuel because of its scarcity and detrimental effects on the environment is the main driving force. In addition, nanofluids have gained immense interest as superior heat transfer fluid in solar technologies for the last decades. In this research, a binary solution of ionic liquid (IL) + water based ionanofluids is formulated successfully with two dimensional MXene (Ti3C2) nano additives at three distinct concentrations of 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20 wt % and the optimum concentration is used to check the performance of a hybrid solar PV/T system. The layered structure of MXene and high absorbance of prepared nanofluids have been perceived by SEM and UV-vis respectively. Rheometer and DSC are used to assess the viscosity and heat capacity respectively while transient hot wire technique is engaged for thermal conductivity measurement. A maximum improvement of 47% in thermal conductivity is observed for 0.20 wt % loading of MXene. Furthermore, the viscosity is found to rise insignificantly with addition of Ti3C2 by different concentrations. Conversely, viscosity decreases substantially as the temperature increases from 20 °C to 60 °C. However, based on their thermophysical properties, 0.20 wt % is found to be the optimum concentration. A comparative analysis in terms of heat transfer performance with three different nanofluids in PV/T system shows that, IL+ water/MXene ionanofluid exhibits highest thermal, electrical, and overall heat transfer efficiency compared to water/alumina, palm oil/MXene, and water alone. Maximum electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency are recorded as 13.95% and 81.15% respectively using IL + water/MXene, besides that, heat transfer coefficients are also noticed to increase by 12.6% and 2% when compared to water/alumina and palm oil/MXene respectively. In conclusion, it can be demonstrated that MXene dispersed ionanofluid might be great a prospect in the field of heat transfer applications since they can augment the heat transfer rate considerably which improves system efficiency.
  10. Reza MS, Ahmed A, Caesarendra W, Abu Bakar MS, Shams S, Saidur R, et al.
    Bioengineering (Basel), 2019 Apr 16;6(2).
    PMID: 30995765 DOI: 10.3390/bioengineering6020033
    To evaluate the possibilities for biofuel and bioenergy production Acacia Holosericea, which is an invasive plant available in Brunei Darussalam, was investigated. Proximate analysis of Acacia Holosericea shows that the moisture content, volatile matters, fixed carbon, and ash contents were 9.56%, 65.12%, 21.21%, and 3.91%, respectively. Ultimate analysis shows carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen as 44.03%, 5.67%, and 0.25%, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results have shown that maximum weight loss occurred for this biomass at 357 °C for pyrolysis and 287 °C for combustion conditions. Low moisture content (<10%), high hydrogen content, and higher heating value (about 18.13 MJ/kg) makes this species a potential biomass. The production of bio-char, bio-oil, and biogas from Acacia Holosericea was found 34.45%, 32.56%, 33.09% for 500 °C with a heating rate 5 °C/min and 25.81%, 37.61%, 36.58% with a heating rate 10 °C/min, respectively, in this research. From Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy it was shown that a strong C-H, C-O, and C=C bond exists in the bio-char of the sample.
  11. Rashid B, Anwar A, Shahabuddin S, Mohan G, Saidur R, Aslfattahi N, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2021 Aug 04;14(16).
    PMID: 34442891 DOI: 10.3390/ma14164370
    The MXenes are a novel family of 2-D materials with promising biomedical activity, however, their anticancer potential is still largely unexplored. In this study, a comparative cytotoxicity investigation of Ti3C2 MXenes with polypropylene glycol (PPG), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface-modified 2-D Ti3C2 MXene flakes has been conducted towards normal and cancerous human cell lines. The wet chemical etching method was used to synthesize MXene followed by a simple chemical mixing method for surface modification of Ti3C2 MXene with PPG and PEG molecules. SEM and XRD analyses were performed to examine surface morphology and elemental composition, respectively. FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to confirm surface modification and light absorption, respectively. The cell lines used to study the cytotoxicity of MXene and surface-modified MXenes in this study were normal (HaCaT and MCF-10A) and cancerous (MCF-7 and A375) cells. These cell lines were also used as controls (without exposure to study material and irradiation) to measure their baseline cell viability under the same lab environment. The surface-modified MXenes exhibited a sharp reduction in cell viability towards both normal (HaCaT and MCF-10A) and cancerous (MCF-7 and A375) cells but cytotoxicity was more pronounced towards cancerous cell lines. This may be due to the difference in cell metabolism and the occurrence of high pre-existing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within cancerous cells. The highest toxicity towards both normal and cancerous cell lines was observed with PEGylated MXenes followed by PPGylated and bare MXenes. The normal cell's viability was barely above 70% threshold with 250 mg/L PEGylated MXene concentration whereas PPGylated and bare MXene were less toxic towards normal cells, even at 500 mg/L concentration. Moreover, the toxicity was found to be directly related to the type of cell lines. In general, the HaCaT cell line exhibited the lowest toxicity while toxicity was highest in the case of the A375 cell line. The photothermal studies revealed high photo response for PEGylated MXene followed by PPGylated and bare MXenes. However, the PPGylated MXene's lower cytotoxicity towards normal cells while comparable toxicity towards malignant cells as compared to PEGylated MXenes makes the former a relatively safe and effective anticancer agent.
  12. Mukheem A, Shahabuddin S, Akbar N, Miskon A, Muhamad Sarih N, Sudesh K, et al.
    Nanomaterials (Basel), 2019 Apr 21;9(4).
    PMID: 31010071 DOI: 10.3390/nano9040645
    The present research focused on the fabrication of biocompatible polyhydroxyalkanoate, chitosan, and hexagonal boron nitride incorporated (PHA/Ch-hBN) nanocomposites through a simple solvent casting technique. The fabricated nanocomposites were comprehensively characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FT-IR), field emission scanning electroscope (FESEM), and elemental mapping and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The antibacterial activity of nanocomposites were investigated through time-kill method against multi drug resistant (MDR) microbes such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) K1 strains. In addition, nanocomposites have examined for their host cytotoxicity abilities using a Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay against spontaneously immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cell lines. The results demonstrated highly significant antibacterial activity against MDR organisms and also significant cell viability as compared to the positive control. The fabricated PHA/Ch-hBN nanocomposite demonstrated effective antimicrobial and biocompatibility properties that would feasibly suit antibacterial and biomedical applications.
  13. Thakur AK, Sathyamurthy R, Velraj R, Lynch I, Saidur R, Pandey AK, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2021 Jul 15;290:112668.
    PMID: 33895445 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112668
    The SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread globally and has severely impacted public health and the economy. Hand hygiene, social distancing, and the usage of personal protective equipment are considered the most vital tools in controlling the primary transmission of the virus. Converging evidence indicated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and its persistence over several days, which may create secondary transmission of the virus via waterborne and wastewater pathways. Although, researchers have started focusing on this mode of virus transmission, limited knowledge and societal unawareness of the transmission through wastewater may lead to significant increases in the number of positive cases. To emphasize the severe issue of virus transmission through wastewater and create societal awareness, we present a state of the art critical review on transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and the potential remedial strategies to effectively control the viral spread and safeguard society. For low-income countries with high population densities, it is suggested to identify the virus in large scale municipal wastewater plants before following up with one-to-one testing for effective control of the secondary transmission. Ultrafiltration is an effective method for wastewater treatment and usually more than 4 logs of virus removal are achieved while safeguarding good protein permeability. Decentralized wastewater treatment facilities using solar-assisted disinfestation methods are most economical and can be effectively used in hospitals, isolation wards, and medical centers for reducing the risk of transmission from high local concentration sites, especially in tropical countries with abundant solar energy. Disinfection with chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, benzalkonium chloride, and peracetic acid have shown potential in terms of virucidal properties. Biological wastewater treatment using micro-algae will be highly effective in removal of virus and can be incorporated into membrane bio-reaction to achieve excellent virus removal rate. Though promising results have been shown by initial research for inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater using physical, chemical and biological based treatment methods, there is a pressing need for extensive investigation of COVID-19 specific disinfectants with appropriate concentrations, their environmental implications, and regular monitoring of transmission. Effective wastewater treatment methods with high virus removal capacity and low treatment costs should be selected to control the virus spread and safeguard society from this deadly virus.
  14. Akinpelu AA, Chowdhury ZZ, Shibly SM, Faisal ANM, Badruddin IA, Rahman MM, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Feb 19;22(4).
    PMID: 33669883 DOI: 10.3390/ijms22042090
    This study deals with the preparation of activated carbon (CDSP) from date seed powder (DSP) by chemical activation to eliminate polyaromatic hydrocarbon-PAHs (naphthalene-C10H8) from synthetic wastewater. The chemical activation process was carried out using a weak Lewis acid of zinc acetate dihydrate salt (Zn(CH3CO2)2·2H2O). The equilibrium isotherm and kinetics analysis was carried out using DSP and CDSP samples, and their performances were compared for the removal of a volatile organic compound-naphthalene (C10H8)-from synthetic aqueous effluents or wastewater. The equilibrium isotherm data was analyzed using the linear regression model of the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin equations. The R2 values for the Langmuir isotherm were 0.93 and 0.99 for naphthalene (C10H8) adsorption using DSP and CDSP, respectively. CDSP showed a higher equilibrium sorption capacity (qe) of 379.64 µg/g. DSP had an equilibrium sorption capacity of 369.06 µg/g for C10H8. The rate of reaction was estimated for C10H8 adsorption using a pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Elovich kinetic equation. The reaction mechanism for both the sorbents (CDSP and DSP) was studied using the intraparticle diffusion model. The equilibrium data was well-fitted with the pseudo-second order kinetics model showing the chemisorption nature of the equilibrium system. CDSP showed a higher sorption performance than DSP due to its higher BET surface area and carbon content. Physiochemical characterizations of the DSP and CDSP samples were carried out using the BET surface area analysis, Fourier-scanning microscopic analysis (FSEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and Fourier-transform spectroscopic analysis (FTIR). A thermogravimetric and ultimate analysis was also carried out to determine the carbon content in both the sorbents (DSP and CDSP) here. This study confirms the potential of DSP and CDSP to remove C10H8 from lab-scale synthetic wastewater.
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