Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

  1. Salam A
    Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries, 2010 Apr;30(2):105.
    PMID: 20535317 DOI: 10.4103/0973-3930.62602
    Comment on: Vimalavathini R, Agarwal SM, Gitanjali B. Educational program for patients with type-1 diabetes mellitus receiving free monthly supplies of insulin improves knowledge and attitude, but not adherence. Int J Diab Dev Ctries. 2008;28:86–90
  2. Ullah A, Barman A, Ahmed I, Salam A
    J Obstet Gynaecol, 2012 Jan;32(1):37-41.
    PMID: 22185534 DOI: 10.3109/01443615.2011.601697
    In Bangladesh, a number of screening tests for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy are in practice. The objective of this study was to assess the validity and cost-effectiveness of these screening tests. A total of 600 apparently healthy pregnant mothers were included in this study. The validity of the screening tests was calculated against the urine culture as 'gold standard'. Incremental cost-effective ratio between the screening test methods and the least costly method (microscopic urine analysis) was calculated. Bacterial count/oil-immersion field in Gram-stained smear of urine was the most sensitive (91.7%) and specific (97.2%). Incremental cost per additional positive cases of bacterial count, leukocyte esterase and combination of leukocyte esterase and nitrite were US$3, US$25 and US$23, respectively. Gram staining may be the alternative approach to traditional routine urinalysis for the screening of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy in clinical practice in Bangladesh, as well as other developing countries.
  3. Ruslai NH, Salam A
    Pak J Med Sci, 2016 Mar-Apr;32(2):324-8.
    PMID: 27182232 DOI: 10.12669/pjms.322.9248
    Foundational elements of problem based learning (PBL) are triggers, tutors and students. Ineffective triggers are important issues for students' inability to generate appropriate learning issues. The objective of this study was to evaluate PBL triggers and to determine similarities of students' generated learning issues with predetermined faculty objectives.
  4. Harlina H Siraj, Salam A, Roslan R, Hasan NA, Jin TH, Othman MN
    Introduction: Student can be stressed due to different stressors such as academic, financial, health related or loss of close family member or friend, etc. Stress is the bodies’ reaction both neurologically and physiologically to adapt to the new condition. Stress has a negative effect on the academic performance of the students. This study was aimed to explore the stress and stressors and also to determine the association between stress levels and the academic performances in terms of cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of undergraduate medical students. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted among all 234 year-4 medical students of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), session 2011-2012. Sample size comprised of 179 students after fulfilling all inclusion and exclusion criteria. A validated Medical Students’ Stressor Questionnaire (MSSQ) was used to collect the data. Stress level and its association with CGPA of semester-1 examination were analysed. Results: Response rate was 76.49%, where 72% were female and 69% resided in the hostel. Academic Related and Social-related Stressors caused for severe and high stress in 84% and 49% respondents respectively, with insignificant differences between gender and residency. Respondents with a high and severe stress level were observed to have higher CGPA. Conclusion: UKM medical students are highly resourceful to manage their stress well and thus denying the negative effect of stress towards their academic performance. Medical schools should train students exposing various personal and professional developmental activities that able to face the everyday challenges and manage stress well and thereby achieve better academic performance.
  5. Harlina H. Siraj, Salam, A., Juriza, I., Zaleha A. Mahdy, Nabishah, M.
    Introduction: Appropriate professional conduct of clinical teacher is vital in their medicine practice. In UKM medical centre Malaysia, personal and professional development (PPD) of future medical professionals is greatly emphasized. The objective of this study was to determine the medical students' perception about the professional conduct of their clinical teachers at UKM medical centre. Methods: It was an online questionnaire survey conducted among the clinical students enquiring about the professional conduct of their clinical teachers. There were five statements and one open ended question which described students' preference about PPD teaching- learning method, expectation on PPD session, need of teachers training and experience about the excellent and inappropriate professional conduct of clinical teachers. The open ended question described what students had observed regarding the 'doctor-patient relationship' medical ethics and 'student-teacher relationship. A total of 77 questionnaires were returned after complete evaluation. The data were compiled and analysed using SPSS version 20 and the answers to the open ended questions were transcribed. Result: Role modelling was the preferred teaching-learning method for PPD as stated by 38% respondents; subsequent preferred methods were small group (30%), role play (24%), large group (7%) and reflective writing (1%). Majority (67.5%) respondents indicated that professional conduct of their clinical teachers was frequent enough as they had expected while 29.9% claimed that professional conduct was infrequently emphasized. Excellent professional conduct of clinical teachers was witnessed by 73% respondents while 27% indicated that they had never seen excellent conduct. When asked about inappropriate professional behaviours by clinical teachers, 53% indicated to have witnessed. Qualitative data also revealed both positive and negative experiences as reflected in open comments. According to 70% respondents clinical teachers required training to apply PPD in their daily practices. Conclusion: Professional conduct of clinical teachers as perceived by the students was excellent and frequents enough with experience of inappropriate behaviour too. Role modeling was the preferred teaching method while attention needed on reflective assignment. Educators must emphasize on role modelling in their daily practices and curriculum planners should give due importance on training needs of clinical teachers to apply PPD in their daily practices.
  6. Yousif, Emad, Ahmed, Dina S., Ahmed, Ahmed A., Hameed, Ayad S., Yusop, Rahimi M., Redwan, Amamer, et al.
    Science Letters, 2018;12(2):19-27.
    The photodegradation rate constant and surface morphology of poly(vinyl chloride), upon irradiation with ultraviolet light was investigated in the presence of polyphosphates as photostabilizers. Poly(vinyl chloride) photodegradation rate constant was lower for the films containing polyphosphates compared to the blank film. In addition, the surface morphology of the irradiated poly(vinyl chloride) containing polyphosphates, examined by scanning electron microscopy, indicates that the surface was much smoother compared to the blank film.
  7. Bakar SM, Shamim M, Salam A, Sultana SA
    Ir J Med Sci, 2016 Feb;185(1):249-57.
    PMID: 25894278 DOI: 10.1007/s11845-015-1287-4
    BACKGROUND: The anatomy of the vermiform appendix shows variations in its macroscopic dimensions and microscopic features, some of which have potentials of influencing the clinical aspects of the appendix.

    AIM: The aim of this study was to find out some microscopic features of appendix and evaluate the correlation between the microscopic features of the appendix and the age of the subjects and to determine whether these findings should influence the clinical implications of appendix.

    METHODS: In this cross-sectional observational study, thirty adult males' (age from 18 to 67 years) postmortem appendices and adnexa from Bangladeshi victims of road traffic accidents were sectioned at the base, midzone and tip stained with H+E stain and examined under microscope. Measurements were taken at the base, at the midzone and at the tip of the appendix, and the mean of the three measurements was considered as the overall value.

    RESULTS: The overall number of mucosal glands in a section ranged from 42.33 to 130.00 and the number of the germinal centres varied between 2.33 and 10.00. The overall luminal diameter ranged between 1764.58 and 3208.33 µm. The overall luminal diameter in more than 52 % of cases was between 2700.00 and 3299.99 µm with a median value of 2750 µm.

    CONCLUSION: The overall number of mucosal glands showed a tendency towards a positive correlation with age. The overall luminal diameter and the overall number of germinal centres showed a tendency towards a negative correlation with the age. However, none of the tendencies of correlation reached statistically any significant level.

  8. Siraj, Harlina H., Salam, A., Hani Azmina, C.M.N.A., Chong, S.H., Saidatul Akma, S., M. Faiz, K., et al.
    Introduction: Self-awareness and reflective-skill are important components of personal and professional development of medical students.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether self awareness and reflective skill could be improved by direct teaching intervention.

    Method: This was a cross sectional intervention study conducted among 75 third year medical students of UKM Medical Centre Malaysia in 2010. Malaysian Emotional Quotient Inventory (MEQI) was used to measure self-awareness and reflective writing scripts were used to measure the reflective skills of the respondents before and after teaching intervention. Experimental group comprised of 30 students while the control group constituted the rest 45 students selected randomly. The factors contributing to self awareness with gender and learning styles were determined.

    Result: There was no significant improvement observed in self-awareness of the respondents but reflective skills was significantly improved (p=0.007) following intervention. A non-significant relationship between self-awareness and gender (p=0.588) as well as self-awareness and learning styles (p=0.435) was also noticed.

    Conclusion: It is concluded that intervention programs improved students' reflective skills but not their self-awareness. Effectiveness of the intervention programme is an important factor. Continuous effort should be focused to train students in an effective way in order to be more self-reflective, self-regulative as well as self-corrective, to ensure a high level of personal and professional development in their daily practices.
  9. Yousif E, Ahmed DS, Ahmed A, Abdallh M, Yusop RM, Mohammed SA
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Sep;26(25):26381-26388.
    PMID: 31290046 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-05784-w
    A new Schiff base containing 1,2,4-triazole ring system (L) was synthesized and confirmed by 1HNMR, FTIR spectroscopy. The chemical modification of PVC with a new Schiff base (L) was synthesized to produce a homogenous blend (PVC-L). A homogenous blend (PVC-L) was added to copper chloride to produce PVC-L-Cu (II). The PVC films had been irradiated with ultraviolet light for a long period and confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and weight loss; the surface morphology was inspected by scanning electron microscopy.
  10. Yousif E, Ahmed DS, Ahmed AA, Hameed AS, Muhamed SH, Yusop RM, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Apr;26(10):9945-9954.
    PMID: 30739295 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-04323-x
    Although plastic induces environmental damages, almost the consumption of poly(vinyl chloride) never stops increasing. Therefore, this work abstracted by two parts, first, synthesis of Schiff bases 1-4 compounds through the reaction of amino group with appropriate aromatic aldehyde, reaction of PVC with Schiff bases compounds 1-4 in THF to form a new modified PVC-1, PVC-2, PVC-3, and PVC-4. The structures of Schiff bases 1-4 and the modified PVC-1, PVC-2, PVC-3, and PVC-4 have been characterized by different spectroscopic analyses. Second, the influence of introducing 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole as a pendent groups into PVC chain investigated on photostability rules of tests. The modified polymers photostability investigated by observing indices (ICO, Ipo, and IOH), weight loss, UV and morphological studies, and all results obtained indicated that PVC-1, PVC-2, PVC-3 and PVC-4 gave lower growth rate of ICO, IPO, and IOH through UV exposure time. The photostability are given as PVC-4 
  11. Salam A, Siraj HH, Mohamad N, Das S, Rabeya Y
    Iran J Med Sci, 2011 Mar;36(1):1-6.
    PMID: 23365470
    Bedside teaching is a vital component of medical education. It is applicable to any situation where teaching is imparted in the presence of patients. In teaching in the patients' presence, learners have the opportunities to use all of their senses and learn the humanistic aspect of medicine such as role modeling, which is vital but difficult to communicate in words. Unfortunately, bedside teaching has been on the decline. To investigate the reasons for the decline in bedside teaching, its importance and its revival, a review of literature was carried out using PubMed and other data bases. The review revealed that the major concerns of bedside teaching were time constraint, false preceptors' concern about patients' comfort, short stay of patients in hospitals, learner distraction by technology, lack of experience and unrealistic faculty expectation. Whatsoever the reasons, bedside teaching cannot be replaced with anything else. There are newer approaches of effective bedside teaching, and the core focus of all such approaches is educational process. A bedside teacher must learn how to involve patients and learners in the educational processes. Moreover, bedside teaching is the process through which learners acquire the skills of communication by asking patients' permission, establishing ground rules, setting time limit, introducing the team, diagnosing learner, diagnosing patient, conducting focused teaching, using simple language, asking patient if there is any question, closing with encouraging thanks, and giving feedback privately. It is most important to ensure a comfortable environment for all participants, the learner, the patient and the bedside teacher. Ongoing faculty development programs on educational processes and realistic faculty expectations may overcome the problems.
  12. Yousuf R, Rapiaah M, Ahmed SA, Rosline H, Salam A, Selamah S, et al.
    PMID: 18613548
    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and trends in hepatitis B infection among blood donors attending the Transfusion Medicine Unit at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia. A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing the results of HBsAg among blood donors for the years 2000 to 2004. During this period, 44,658 blood donors were studied. We noted that there was a significant difference in the prevalence of hepatitis B infection between regular and first time donors. There was also a decreasing trend noticed in both study groups. The mean prevalence was significantly different between first time (1.83%) and regular donors (0.45%) (p < 0.005). There is a need to improve public awareness programs to lower the incidence of hepatitis B infection in the general population and consequently first time blood donors. Future studies are also required to determine the trends and outcomes of these programs.
  13. Akram A, Salam A, Bashir U, Maarof N, Meerah SM
    J Dent Educ, 2012 Dec;76(12):1691-6.
    PMID: 23225689
    This article describes a new tooth notation system designed to be implemented for educational purposes in dental schools in Malaysia and Pakistan for identification of teeth and subsequently dental communication for wellness of dental patients. Its format is constructed as a lesson plan to present an uncomplicated tooth notation system by first letter of each tooth class (I-incisor, C-canine, P-premolar, and M-molar) to describe and communicate dental information. The new system is a promising and potential educational lesson that is innovative in its contents, easily understandable, and usable in dental charting as indicated by the results of a pilot study. However, further studies are required to investigate the strength of this new system.
  14. Jamil A, Muthupalaniappen L, Md Nor N, Siraj HH, Salam A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 May;23(3):78-85.
    PMID: 27418873 MyJurnal
    Dermatology is a minor module in internal medicine undergraduate curriculum. Limited time is allocated for its teaching. Most graduates are inadequately prepared to diagnose and manage skin diseases. We aimed to identify the core content of a more effective dermatology module.
  15. Al-Azawi KF, Al-Baghdadi SB, Mohamed AZ, Al-Amiery AA, Abed TK, Mohammed SA, et al.
    Chem Cent J, 2016;10:23.
    PMID: 27134648 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-016-0170-3
    BACKGROUND: The acid corrosion inhibition process of mild steel in 1 M HCl by 4-[(2-amino-1, 3, 4-thiadiazol-5-yl)methoxy]coumarin (ATC), has been investigated using weight loss technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). ATC was synthesized, and its chemical structure was elucidated and confirmed using spectroscopic techniques (infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy).

    FINDINGS: The results indicated that inhibition efficiencies were enhanced with an increase in concentration of inhibitor and decreased with a rise in temperature. The adsorption equilibrium constant (K) and standard free energy of adsorption (ΔGads) were calculated. Quantum chemical parameters such as highest occupied molecular orbital energy, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO and ELUMO, respectively) and dipole moment (μ) were calculated and discussed. The results showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in both the EHOMO and μ values but with a decrease in the ELUMO value.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our research show that the synthesized macromolecule represents an excellent inhibitor for materials in acidic solutions. The efficiency of this macromolecule had maximum inhibition efficiency up to 96 % at 0.5 mM and diminishes with a higher temperature degree, which is revealing of chemical adsorption. An inhibitor molecule were absorbed by metal surface and follow Langmuir isotherms low and establishes an efficient macromolecule inhibitor having excellent inhibitive properties due to entity of S (sulfur) atom, N (nitrogen) atom and O (oxygen) atom.

  16. Sharifi-Rad M, Varoni EM, Salehi B, Sharifi-Rad J, Matthews KR, Ayatollahi SA, et al.
    Molecules, 2017 Dec 04;22(12).
    PMID: 29207520 DOI: 10.3390/molecules22122145
    Plants of the genus Zingiber (Family Zingiberaceae) are widely used throughout the world as food and medicinal plants. They represent very popular herbal remedies in various traditional healing systems; in particular, rhizome of Zingiber spp. plants has a long history of ethnobotanical uses because of a plethora of curative properties. Antimicrobial activity of rhizome essential oil has been extensively confirmed in vitro and attributed to its chemical components, mainly consisting of monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as α-zingiberene, ar-curcumene, β-bisabolene and β-sesquiphellandrene. In addition, gingerols have been identified as the major active components in the fresh rhizome, whereas shogaols, dehydrated gingerol derivatives, are the predominant pungent constituents in dried rhizome. Zingiber spp. may thus represent a promising and innovative source of natural alternatives to chemical food preservatives. This approach would meet the increasing concern of consumers aware of the potential health risks associated with the conventional antimicrobial agents in food. This narrative review aims at providing a literature overview on Zingiber spp. plants, their cultivation, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents and biological activities.
  17. Salam A, Zainuddin Z, Latiff AA, Ng SP, Soelaiman IN, Mohamad N, et al.
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2008 Sep;37(9):814-6.
    PMID: 18989506
  18. Umair Khan M, Ahmad A, Hussain K, Salam A, Hasnain ZU, Patel I
    PMID: 26072905 DOI: 10.3352/jeehp.2015.12.27
    In Pakistan, courses in pharmacy practice, which are an essential component of the PharmD curriculum, were launched with the aim of strengthening pharmacy practice overall and enabling pharmacy students to cope with the challenges involved in meeting real-world healthcare needs. Since very little research has assessed the efficacy of such courses, we aimed to evaluate students' perceptions of pharmacy practice courses and their opinions about whether their current knowledge of the topics covered in pharmacy practice courses is adequate for future practice.
  19. Salam A, Mohamad N, Siraj HH, Kamarudin MA, Yaman MN, Bujang SM
    Natl Med J India, 2014 Nov-Dec;27(6):350.
    PMID: 26133346
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