Displaying all 11 publications

  1. Samsudin S, Abdullah N
    J Cross Cult Gerontol, 2017 Jun;32(2):223-237.
    PMID: 28493065 DOI: 10.1007/s10823-017-9318-4
    Determining factors that affect healthcare utilization by the elderly is vital for the health system to be more responsive in providing care to this vulnerable group. The main objective of this paper is to identify the effect of the predisposing, enabling, and need factors on doctor visits and in-patient care for the elderly residing in the northern region of Malaysia. A multistage cluster sampling was used in selecting the sample for the study. A total of 1414 respondents aged 60 and over were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. A probit model was used in estimating the utilization equations. At a significance level of 0.05, except for age, all predisposing and enabling factors were not statistically significant in affecting the doctor visits. On the other hand, being a male, smoker, medical insurance holder or had not actively involved in social interaction within the reference period increases the likelihood of being in-patient. Health-related variables remain the most significant factors that determine healthcare utilization, including both doctor visits and in-patient stays, in the area of study, which suggests that government policies to improve population health may influence the level of healthcare use in the future.
  2. Samsudin S, Tan KCH
    Mental health is an integral component to the formation of human capital performance. Human capital with high productivity is the key factor to the growth of a country. Thus, this study aims to investigate the relationship between the level of mental health of undergraduate students in Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM) with their performance. Mental health was measured using the General Health Questionnaire 12-item (GHQ-12) and the performance was based on the Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA). A total of 316 undergraduate students at UUM had answered questionnaires that were distributed. The data were analysed descriptively and the effect of the level of mental health on performance was tested using probit model. Based on GHQ-12, 48% respondents were found to have a good mental health status. A total of 67.21% of the students who obtain CGPA 3.67 and above have a good level of health compared with only 36.08% for those with CGPA under 3.67. Based on the probit model, the level of mental health was found to be significant at 1% level in influencing the CGPA. These findings provide indication to policy makers of the importance of mental health in influencing the students’ performance. Mental health education programs should be implemented or enhanced to raise awareness of the importance of good mental health state among students in higher education institution.
    Keywords: CGPA; GHQ-12; mental health; productivity; Kedah; Malaysia
  3. Samsudin S, Adwan S, Arof H, Mokhtar N, Ibrahim F
    J Digit Imaging, 2013 Apr;26(2):361-70.
    PMID: 22610151 DOI: 10.1007/s10278-012-9483-5
    Standard X-ray images using conventional screen-film technique have a limited field of view that is insufficient to show the full bone structure of large hands on a single frame. To produce images containing the whole hand structure, digitized images from the X-ray films can be assembled using image stitching. This paper presents a new medical image stitching method that utilizes minimum average correlation energy filters to identify and merge pairs of hand X-ray medical images. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated in the experiments involving two databases which contain a total of 40 pairs of overlapping and non-overlapping hand images. The experimental results are compared with that of the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) method. It is found that the proposed method outperforms the NCC method in classifying and merging the overlapping and non-overlapping medical images. The efficacy of the proposed method is further indicated by its average execution time, which is about five times shorter than that of the other method.
  4. Somchit N, Hassim SM, Samsudin SH
    Hum Exp Toxicol, 2002 Jan;21(1):43-8.
    PMID: 12046723
    This current study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity of rat hepatocytes induced by the antifungal drugs, itraconazole and fluconazole. Both antifungal drugs caused dose-dependent cytotoxicity. In vitro incubation of hepatocytes with itraconazole revealed significantly higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage when compared to fluconazole. Phenobarbital pretreated hepatocytes contained significantly higher total cytochrome P450 content than the control hepatocytes. P450 content was reduced approximately 30% for both types of hepatocytes after 6 hours incubation. Interestingly, cytotoxicity of itraconazole was reduced significantly by phenobarbital pretreatment. Phenobarbital did not have any effect on the cytotoxicity induced by fluconazole. These results demonstrate the in vitro toxicity of hepatocytes induced by itraconazole and fluconazole that were expressed in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Phenobarbital plays a role in the cytoprotection of hepatocytes to itraconazole-induced but not fluconazole-induced cytotoxicity in vitro.
  5. Samsudin S, Mohd Hashim S, Nawi A
    Introduction: Osteoporosis has frequently been regards as a disease of women only. However, men are also at risk of developing osteoporosis. We aimed to evaluate the knowledge of osteoporosis among men and its associated factors.
    Materials and method: A cross-sectional study of 245 male patients aged 50 and above was conducted in the primary care clinic, University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre. The research instrument used in this study was a validated self-administered questionnaire which consists of socio-demographic data and 16 items of knowledge of osteoporosis among men.
    Results: The mean score for knowledge was 7.78± 3.32 out of 16 points. Most of the subjects (83 percent) knew the definition of osteoporosis but were not aware that osteoporosis was a silent disease. Only a quarter of subjects (38 percent) recognized family history as a risk factors for osteoporosis. Despite 78 percent of subjects answer correctly regarding importance of calcium intake in their diet however only 7 percent
    of them knew the recommended dosage of daily calcium intake. Knowledge of osteoporosis was found to be significantly associated with education and total monthly household income.
    Conclusion: Findings indicate limited knowledge of osteoporosis among the subjects. Public education of osteoporosis among men is important to increase their knowledge. Meanwhile, primary care doctors should also emphasize and educate men regarding osteoporosis to enhance their knowledge of the disease.
  6. Basri M, Samsudin S, Ahmad MB, Razak CN, Salleh AB
    Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 1999 Sep;81(3):205-17.
    PMID: 15304777
    Lipase from Candida rugosa was immobilized by entrapment on poly(N-vinyl- 2-pyrrolidone-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly[VP-co-HEMA]) hydrogel, and divinylbenzene was the crosslinking agent. The immobilized enzymes were used in the esterification reaction of oleic acid and butanol in hexane. The activities of the immobilized enzymes and the leaching ability of the enzyme from the support with respect to the different compositions of the hydrogels were investigated. The thermal, solvent, and storage stability of the immobilized lipases was also determined. Increasing the percentage of composition of VP from 0 to 90, which corresponds to the increase in the hydrophilicity of the hydrogels, increased the activity of the immobilized enzyme. Lipase immobilized on VP(%):HEMA(%) 90:10 exhibited the highest activity. Lipase immobilized on VP(%):HEMA(%) 50:50 showed the highest thermal, solvent, storage, and operational stability compared to lipase immobilized on other compositions of hydrogels as well as the native lipase.
  7. Folasayo AT, Oluwasegun AJ, Samsudin S, Saudi SN, Osman M, Hamat RA
    PMID: 28208724 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14020159
    This study was done to assess the knowledge, attitudes, risky behaviors and preventive practices related to sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) among health and non-health sciences university students as future healthcare providers in Malaysia. A total of 700 health and non-health sciences university students (255 male; 445 female) aged between 17 and 30 years were surveyed by using a self-administered questionnaire. The majority (86.6%) had heard of STDs, and 50.4% knew STDs could present without symptoms. HIV remains the best known STD (83.6%) by the students, while chlamydia (26%) and trichomoniasis (21.0%) were rarely known. Gender, age group, educational level and faculty type were strongly associated with knowledge level (p-values < 0.05). Most of them (88.8%) were aware that STD screening was important while use of condoms was protective (63.8%). The majority of them strongly felt that treatment should be sought immediately if they (85.5%) and their partners (87.4%) have symptoms. Among the sexually-active students, 66.7% and 18% had sexual intercourse with multiple partners and commercial sex workers, while 17.4% and 9.4% took alcohol and drugs before having sex, respectively. By logistic regression analysis, students aged 24-30 years old (an odds ratio (AOR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.377-0.859) and faculty type (AOR = 5.69, 95% CI = 4.019-8.057) were the significant predictors for the knowledge level. Knowledge on the non-HIV causes of STDs is still lacking, and the risky behavior practiced by the sexually-active students in this study is alarming. There is a need to revisit the existing STD education curriculum in both schools and universities so that appropriate intervention on STDs can be implemented.
  8. Awaisu A, Samsudin S, Amir NA, Omar CG, Hashim MI, Mohamad MH, et al.
    PMID: 20492717 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-10-46
    The purpose of the linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) was to produce a translated version in Malay language which was "conceptually equivalent" to the original U.S. English version for use in clinical practice and research.
  9. Samsudin S, Sakinah SNS, Malina O, Norliza BA, Noh MA, Fairuz A, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2018 03;23(3):327-333.
    PMID: 29356240 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.13033
    OBJECTIVE: The high prevalence of leptospirosis in humans is of great public health concern, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of leptospiral antibodies and distribution of serovars, and to assess the usefulness of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a screening method for leptospiral antibodies in a high-risk healthy community.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 231 market workers and food handlers in wet markets and food premises from two localities in central Malaysia. Respondents' background information was obtained using a questionnaire. Serum samples were tested for leptospiral antibodies using ELISA and microscopic agglutination test (MAT).

    RESULTS: Seroprevalence of leptospirosis among healthy workers was 46.3%. Detection of seropositivity was higher by MAT (46%) than ELISA (15%). We observed high seropositivity among local workers (49%), food handlers (49.5%), females (60.8%) and those aged 34 years and older (46.3%). Local strain LEP175 was the predominant serovar, followed by WHO strain Patoc.

    CONCLUSION: Overall seroprevalence among healthy food handlers and market workers was high in this study. The workplace places susceptible individuals at risk of leptospirosis.

  10. Nozmi N, Samsudin S, Sukeri S, Shafei MN, Wan Mohd WMZ, Idris Z, et al.
    PMID: 29642390 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15040693
    Little is known on the knowledge, attitudes and preventive practices (KAP) of leptospirosis worldwide. This study embarked on assessing the KAP of leptospirosis among rural communities in Malaysia. A total of 444 participants (223 male; 221 female) aged between 18 and 81 years old were surveyed by using a self-administered questionnaire. A majority of participants had poor knowledge level (57.0%), unacceptable attitudes (90.3%) and unacceptable preventive practices (69.1%) on leptospirosis, and only 29.7% knew "rat-urine disease" as leptospirosis. Only 34.2% of the participants knew the bacteria could enter via wound lesions. Ethnicity and income were strongly associated with knowledge level and preventive practices, respectively (p-values < 0.05). As for attitudes, ethnicity, income and education type were significantly associated (p-values < 0.05). Only 36.5% of the participants were willing to see a doctor and did not mind if their house or surrounding area is dirty (59.7%). Surprisingly, only 32.9% had used rubber boots during floods. By logistic regression analysis, ethnicity was the only significant predictor for both knowledge level (an odds ratio (AOR) = 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.222-0.680) and preventive practices (AOR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.204-2.734). Ethnicity (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.239-0.665), income (AOR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.041-2.385) and education type (AOR = 3.69, 95% CI = 1.237-10.986) were strong predictors for attitudes. Among the KAP variables, attitude (AOR = 4.357, 95% CI = 2.613-7.264) was the only predictor for the preventive practices by logistic regression analysis. The KAP elements on leptospirosis are still lacking and poor health seeking behavior and attitudes are of our utmost concern. Thus, effective strategies should be planned to impart knowledge, and develop proactive approaches and good preventive modules on leptospirosis to this leptospirosis-prone community.
  11. Abdullah NM, Mohammad WMZW, Shafei MN, Sukeri S, Idris Z, Arifin WN, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2019 May 22;19(1):628.
    PMID: 31117995 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-6981-0
    BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is still endemic in Malaysia and has been prevalent in Selangor where cases have been underreported. Primarily, this was due to lack of awareness in the urban community in this region. This study determined the knowledge, attitude and preventive practice (KAP) of leptospirosis, and identified the significant predictors influencing KAP among urban community in Hulu Langat, Selangor.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2015 to 2017 using validated questionnaire. Sampling methods included multistage cluster sampling, followed by simple random sampling to obtain 315 respondents. Descriptive analysis was performed to determine the KAP while χ2 and the subsequent logistic regression analysis were carried out to identify associations and predictors between variables.

    RESULTS: Respondents were mainly Malaysian Bumiputra with a mean (Standard Deviation (SD)) age of 32.5 (13.0) years. Of 315 respondents, 80.3% (n = 253) had poor knowledge, 87.0% (n = 274) had good attitude, and 81.3% (n = 256) showed unacceptable practice towards leptospirosis and its prevention. Regression analysis identified age as the sole predictor influencing good knowledge (AOR 2.388; 95% CI = 1.298, 4.396; p = 0.005). Education level (AOR 2.197; 95% CI = 1.109, 4.352; p = 0.024) was also noted as the significant predictor influencing the overall practice.

    CONCLUSIONS: The urban community in Selangor showed a positive attitude in waste management despite having little knowledge regarding the disease itself. The study also discovered inadequacy in preventive practice, hence marking the importance of the proper integration of knowledge and attitude into forming an acceptable practice to reduce transmission of Leptospira among urban population in Malaysia.

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