Leisure involvement is an essential element in the daily life of the elderly people. Little is known, however, about the perceived leisure constraints among them, especially among the increasing elderly population in Malaysia. This study aims to explore constraints perceived by the elderly that prevent them from actively involved in leisure. In depth interviews were conducted, involving a total of 20 elderly aged 60 years and above with stratification by background characteristics. Each interview was conducted for an average of 15 to 30 minutes and discontinued when a saturation point was achieved. They were purposively selected from two health clinics located in two different districts in the state of Selangor, representing an urban and a rural area. Elderly participation in leisure activities was constrained by many factors. These factors can be divided into individual, family and community factors such as increasing age and related physical deterioration , education level, health status and the existence of chronic illness, absence of family member or friends to perform the activity together and non-conducive environment. The constraints should be endorsed and acknowledged by the relevant agencies and authorities in order to facilitate effective implementation of related policies, strategies and programmes to improve the health of the elderly people. These include the provision of appropriate services and facilities to cater senior citizens from various health and demographic perspectives.
A cross-sectional study was carried out in July-October 2012 in UKM to remeasure, evaluate and compare the changes in health services utilization level among women staff in UKM with a previous study done in 2001 and its influencing factors. The services studied were blood pressure (BP) measurement and Pap smear test. A total of 234 respondents aged between 18 and 55 were selected using stratified random sampling from Bangi, Kuala Lumpur and UKMMC, Malaysia. Data was collected via self-administered questionnaire and was analyzed by using SPSS version 17.0. Majority 85.9% of the respondents were found to have utilized at least one BP measurement which is higher compared to previous study. The Pap smear test, 64.5% of women have had a Pap smear test done also higher compared to previous study. Multivariate analysis shows the factors associated with BP measurement are age (OR 2.7, CI 95% 1.2, 6.3), family history of general health problems (OR 3.4, CI 95% 1.5, 7.6), and health staff influence (OR 5.2, CI 95% 1.1, 25.5). The factors associated with Pap smear test are marital status (OR 62.8, CI 95% 7.2, 546.4), general health problems (OR 2.3, CI 95% 1.2, 4.5), family planning (OR 6.9, CI 95% 3.0, 16.5) and self-interest (OR 3.3, CI 95%, 1.3, 8.6). The level of health services utilization on BP measurement and Pap smear test in 2012 is higher than 2001. For both BP measurement and Pap smear test the determinant factors are differed in the aforesaid years.
The Malaysian Family Life Survey--2 (MFLS-2) was a population-based survey conducted in Peninsular Malaysia in 1988-89. Through detailed birth histories, it attempted to collect information on all pregnancies and their outcomes from ever-married women, as well as socioeconomic and health services-utilization data that might have affected mortality. The survey did not, however, collect information on the causes of infant death. The two objectives of this study were to assess the feasibility of linking all reported deaths among live births of women interviewed in the MFLS-2 to the birth and death certificates kept by the National Registration Department, and to determine the causes of death from the successfully matched death certificates. This information could be used in the development of specific health programs to decrease infant and child mortality. In this study, the success rates for linking survey data to birth and death certificates were 34.5% and 31.8% respectively. Methodological problems faced during the study are discussed, as are the strengths and limitations of record linking as a means of increasing the utility of birth histories for studying the causes of death. Ways to improve linkage rates of survey data with the national birth and death registration are also suggested.
Having children with intellectual disability can be stressful for most parents. Currently there are very few studies focusing on parenting stress among mothers of children with Down syndrome (DS) in Asia. The present study examined the level of parenting stress experienced by Malaysian mothers of children with DS and evaluated the child and maternal factors that contributed to parenting stress based on Hill's ABC-X Model (Hill 1949).
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in research on patient satisfaction with healthcare provider (HCP) communication as a measure of healthcare quality and HCPs' communication competency. This study aimed to determine the levels of patient satisfaction with healthcare provider-patient communication (HCP-PC) and its associated factors at the outpatient clinic at Hospital Kuala Lumpur.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a convenience sample in July 2012 using self-administered questionnaires for the data collection. Both overall and domain-specific satisfaction were measured, with the three domains being exchanging information (EI), socio-emotional behaviour (SB), and communication style (CS).
RESULTS: The findings show that 92.8% of the 283 respondents were satisfied with overall HCP-PC, 89.5% with EI, 91.3% with SB, and 72.2% with CS. Satisfaction was statistically higher among Malays for CS and higher among those with low education and poor health for EI, SB and CS. EI and overall communication satisfaction were also higher among patients who reported short wait times, and patients who were in gender concordance with their HCPs showed higher SB satisfaction.
CONCLUSION: Basic and continuous communication skills training and patient activation programs should be established to increase patient satisfaction. Health information technology use should be actively promoted to allow for structured and standardised information exchange between HCPs and patients.
KEYWORDS: communication; patient satisfaction; primary care
Study site: outpatient clinic at Hospital Kuala Lumpur
Azizam NA, Shamsuddin K
Cancers of the ovary and corpus uteri afflict 5% and 3.6% Malaysian women respectively. Ovarian cancer (OC) remained the deadliest gynaecological malignancy in perimenopausal women mainly due to the lack of symptoms until the disease had spread. Ultrasonography could provide a preliminary screening allowing the clinician to tailor subsequent management and counselling for these women. To support the basis for selective screening, a study on 517 urban disease free women aged 45 years and above, uterus-intact, non-users of HRT was undertaken. This study presented normograms of ovary, uterus and endometrium derived from entry ultrasound assessment. The sample comprised of 58.0% premenopaused and 42.0% postmenopaused women with an average age of 51.27±5.35 years old. Over two thirds were Chinese followed by Malays and Indians. The findings indicated that the average uterine size and endometrial thickness (ET) was 7.21±1.67x4.36±1.30cm and 6.36±3.73mm respectively. Premenopausal women had larger uterus compared to those postmenopaused (p
Identification of pregnancies that are at greater than average risk is a fundamental component of antenatal care. The objective of this study was to assess the level of appropriate management and outcomes among mothers with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, postdates and anemia in pregnancy, and to determine whether the colour coding system had any effect on the maternal mortality ratios. A retrospective follow-through study confined to users of government health services in Peninsular Malaysia was carried out in 1997. The study areas were stratified according to their high or low maternal mortality ratios. The study randomly sampled 1112 mothers out of 8388 mothers with the three common obstetric problems in the selected study districts. The study showed that the prevalence of anemia, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and postmaturity among mothers with these conditions were according to known international standards. There was no significant difference in the colour coding practices between the high and low maternal mortality areas. Inappropriate referrals were surprisingly lower in the areas with high maternal mortality. Inappropriate care by diagnosis and by assigned colour code were significantly higher in the areas with high maternal mortality. The assigned colour code was accurate in only 56.1% of cases in the low maternal mortality areas and in 55.8% of the cases in the high maternal mortality areas and these two areas did not differ significantly in their accurate assignment of the colour codes. The colour coding system, as it exists now should be reviewed. Instead, a substantially revised system that takes cognisance of evidence in the scientific literature should be used to devise a more effective system that can be used by health care personnel involved in antenatal care to ensure appropriate level of care and referrals.
A cost-utility analysis was performed desferrioxamine treatment in thalctssaemia patients at two tertiary hospitals in Malaysia in 2004. A hundred and twelve transfusion dependent thalassaemia patients were grouped according to the status of desferrioxamine; optimum and sulwptimum. Cost analysis was from a patient and hospital perspectives while Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) was the health outcome of choice. Incremental Cost·Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) was also stipulated to show the difference in cost for an additional QALY if patient currently on suboptimum desferrioxamine to switch using optimum desferrioxamine. Results on cost analysis showed the mean cost of treatment for thalassaemia patients on optimum desferrioxamirie was higher than those on sub·optimum desferrioxamine; (RM14, 775.00+SDRM4,737.00 and RM10,780+RM3,655, respectively). QALYs were 19.186+6.591 and 9.859+5275 in the optimum and suboptirnum group, respectively. Costutility analysis showed the cost per QALYs in optimum desferrioxamine group was RM59,045.00 compared to RM44,665.00 in suboptimum desferrioxamine group. ICER of patients on sub-optimum desferrioxamine switching to optimum desferrioxarnine was only RM420.39. Sensitivity analysis showed that the results were robust in the best and worst scenarios. In conclusion, although it is expensive for thalassaemia patients to use optimum desferrioxamine compared to sub-optimum desferrioxamine, the cost per QALYs gained was undoubtedly low.
There is a growing interest in research on satisfaction with healthcare provider (HCP) and HCP- patient communication as a measure of healthcare quality of HCP’s communication competency. However, many communication assessments were not comprehensive measures and are not entirely accurate in measuring what is supposed to be measured. This study aimed at assessing the validity and reliability of a newly developed HCP-PC instrument in a Malaysian primary care setting. The HCP-PC instrument was developed using items adapted from existing instruments as well as self-developed items. A pilot study involving 277 clients of an outpatient clinic was conducted in HKL using the proposed instrument which was distributed immediately after face to face consultation. The content validity and Cronbach alpha reliability were assessed. Factor analysis constructed 3 components, exchanging information (EI), socioemotional behaviour (SB) and communication style (CS). All items loaded on the corresponding component with factor loading ≥0.6, suggesting that all items in the respective component are measuring the same direction. PCA of the final 30 items explain 61.98% of the total variance with 6.66%, 47.18% and 8.13% explained by EI, SB and CS respectively. Component-based reliability show strong internal consistency with Cronbach alpha, αEI= 0.92, αSB= 0.96 and αCS= 0.70. The pilot study supported the instrument validity and reliability after initial tests. However, further study needs to be done to confirm its construct validity to help establish a valid and reliable HCP-PC instrument for measuring patient satisfaction with HCP-PC that can be used in primary care setting.
Study site: outpatient clinic was conducted in HKL
Objectives: To measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking among male secondary school children and assess their family influence especially that of their fathers' smoking habits on their current smoking habits.
Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kota Bharu, Kelantan in April 1997 where 460 male form four students, aged 15-16 years were randomly selected from six secondary schools. Data on smoking habits, sociodemographic profile and family characteristics particularly parents and siblings' smoking habits, perceived parental supervision and communication were collected through self-administered questionnaires.
Results: The prevalence of cigarette smoking among male secondary school children was 33.2%. Crude analysis shows family factors, fathers' and siblings' smoking habits, and lack of parental supervision were significantly associated with the students' current smoking habit. Among students who smoked compared to non-smokers, father's smoking habit gives a crude Odds Ratio = 1.8, 95% C.I. 1.08 - 3.16. Further analysis shows that the effect of their father's smoking habit on the student's current smoking habit is still significant after controlling for other familial and non-familial factors including parental supervision, academic performance, reported influence of cigarette advertisement, having friends who smoked and the student's poor knowledge of the ill-effects of smoking and other factors (Odds Ratio = 1.9, 95% C.I 1.05 - 3.32). In conclusion, family factors especially the father's smoking habit is an important factor that influences a student's current smoking habit and the presence of negative role models within the home need to be seriously considered in any cigarette smoking prevention programs among secondary school adolescents.
Keywords: smoking, male students, adolescents, family influence, father’s smoking habit
Several strategies have been developed to reduce hepatitis B infections. These include antenatal screening, universal immunisation of newborns and immunoglobulin therapy for babies who are at risk. Antenatal screening for hepatitis B is not routinely performed, but all newborns in Malaysia are immunised against hepatitis B. We assessed the prevalence of hepatitis B and the factors associated with it among antenatal mothers in Ipoh. This information is useful in decision-making for future hepatitis B screening programmes for antenatal mothers, allowing for immunoglobulin therapies for newborns if their mother's hepatitis B virus (HBV) status is known.
This study was conducted to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and to determine the individual, family, and environmental factors associated with smoking among young urban women. A cross-sectional study through self-administered questionnaire was conducted on female students enrolled in private higher learning institutions in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia, between July and October 2005. Analysis on 408 respondents showed that current smoker prevalence rate was 18.6%. Adjusted analyses showed significant association between smoking and individual factors, which are the importance of slim image, average monthly allowance, and car ownership. For family factors, analyses showed significant association between smoking and parental marital status and smoking status of male siblings. Strong associations were seen between female smoking and environmental factors, such as having more smoker friends, having smokers as best friends, keeping cigarette-brand items, being offered free cigarette, and perceiving female smoking as normal. The identified risk factors could be used to develop more effective prevention programs to overcome smoking among young urban women.
We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict.
Cancers of the breast and cervix made up 30.4% and 12% of all cancer cases in Malaysia. Thus screening for reproductive organ cancers as women approached menopause becomes exceedingly important. The study reports the baseline assessment tests of 495 disease free urban Malaysian women aged 45 years and above who volunteered in a healthy lifestyle intervention study. The sample comprised of 58.0% premenopaused and 42.0% postmenopaused women with an average age of 51.27±5.35 years old. Over two thirds were Chinese followed by Malays and Indians. Overall, abnormal Pap smears were seen in 7.6% comprising of 1.3% cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), 6.1% human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and 0.2% atypical squmous cells of undetermined significances (ASCUS). Yeast and other infections were found in 6.9% and 1.9% respectively. Comparatively, postmenopausal women had a 2.8 fold higher cancerous changes whereas premenopausal women had a higher infection rate, 11.8% vs. 4.7% respectively (p=0.024) with comparable HPV infection rates in both. This study found 1.3% had breast cancer (BC) with 3.6% requiring a biopsy while 3.4% needed regular follow up. Postmenopaused women had more abnormal mammograms (p
BACKGROUND: The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1,720 women. The chi-square test, odds ratio and binomial logistic regression were used in bivariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 24.4% for BSE once a month, and 18.4% for Pap smear examination within the last three years. Women who were significantly more likely to perform BSE every month were 30 years and older, Malays, with upper secondary education and above, answered the BSE question correctly, and had a Pap smear within the last three years. The proportion of women who had a Pap smear within the last three years were significantly higher among those who were older, married, with young children, on the contraceptive pill or intra-uterine device, had a medical examination within the last five years, answered the Pap smear question correctly, and performed BSE monthly. CONCLUSION: Screening practice rates in this study were low when compared to national rates. Socio-demographic and health care factors significantly associated with screening practice are indicative of barriers which should be further understood so that more effective educational and promotional strategies could be developed.
A longitudinal study was conducted to determine changes in knowledge, attitudes and preventive efforts of Malaysian medical students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. There were significant improvements in knowledge about cigarette smoking and in knowledge, attitudes and efforts concerning environmental exposure to tobacco smoke. Overall attitudes concerning cigarette smoking did not change over this period. The same pattern was found for male non-smokers. Women improved on all five scales; male smokers improved on none over the 3-year period. Male non-smokers had better scores on these scales than male smokers in both beginning and ending years. Women excelled in comparison to male non-smokers on smoking attitudes in the pre-clinical year and on all scales except preventive efforts in the final clinical year.Although medical students experienced no changes in the amount of pressures not to smoke from family and friends, there was a significant increase in the amount of prohibition on smoking from their teachers. Male non-smokers alone accounted for this increase. Women experienced more pressure than men not to smoke from their teachers in both years, but the male smokers and non-smokers did not differ in teacher pressure for either year.
The workplace environment has a great influence on employees' health. Job dissatisfaction has been widely recognised as a workplace stressor that can influence employees' psychological and physical health statuses. However, job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional concept, and it is necessary to investigate its different facets and their unique consequences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the nine facets of job satisfaction and psychological health and somatic complaints (i.e., sleep disorders, headache, gastro-intestinal and respiratory problems).
This study aimed at assessing effect of the four dimensions of work-family conflicts (strain and time-based work interference into family and family interference into work) on sleep disturbance in Malaysian working women. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 325 Malaysian married working women. Multiple-stage simple random sampling method was used to recruit women from public service departments of Malaysia. Self-administrated questionnaires were used to measure the study variables and data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. We found that high level of the four dimensions of work-family conflicts significantly increase sleep disturbance. Our analyses also revealed an age-dependent effect of the work-family conflict on sleep disturbance. Women in their 20 to 30 yr old suffer from sleep disturbance due to high level of time-based and strain-based work-interference into family. However, the quality of sleep among women aged 30-39 were affected by strain-based family-interference into work. Finally, women older than 40 yr had significantly disturbed sleep due to strain-based work-interference into family as well as time-based family interference into work. Our findings showed that sleep quality of working women might be disturbed by experiencing high level of work-family conflict. However, the effects of inter-role conflicts on sleep varied among different age groups.