Pogostemon cablin Benth. (patchouli) is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, it is used to treat colds, headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. In aromatherapy, patchouli oil is used to relieve depression, stress, calm nerves, control appetite and to improve sexual interest. Till now more than 140 compounds, including terpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, organic acids, lignins, alkaloids, glycosides, alcohols, aldehydes have been isolated and identified from patchouli. The main phytochemical compounds are patchouli alcohol, α-patchoulene, β-patchoulene, α-bulnesene, seychellene, norpatchoulenol, pogostone, eugenol and pogostol. Modern studies have revealed several biological activities such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, antimutagenic, antiemetic, fibrinolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, some of the traditional uses need to be verified and may require standardizing and authenticating the bioactivity of purified compounds through scientific methods. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of essential oil and different plant extracts of patchouli based on the available scientific literature. This information will provide a potential guide in exploring the use of main active compounds of patchouli in various medical fields.
Nanotechnology advancements have led to the development of its allied fields, such as nanoparticle synthesis and their applications in the field of biomedicine. Nanotechnology driven innovations have given a hope to the patients as well as physicians in solving the complex medical problems. Nanoparticles with a size ranging from 0.2 to 100 nm are associated with an increased surface to volume ratio. Moreover, the physico-chemical and biological properties of nanoparticles can be modified depending on the applications. Different nanoparticles have been documented with a wide range of applications in various fields of medicine and biology including cancer therapy, drug delivery, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, biomolecules detection, and also as antimicrobial agents. However, the development of stable and effective nanoparticles requires a profound knowledge on both physico-chemical features of nanomaterials and their intended applications. Further, the health risks associated with the use of engineered nanoparticles needs a serious attention.
Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae which occurs naturally throughout the tropics and warm regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. This herb has therapeutic and nutritional properties attributed to its natural phytochemical compounds which are highly valued in the pharmaceutical industry. Besides, it has horticultural properties due to its aromatic nature and essential oil producing capability. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat conditions like cold, asthma, constipation, headache, cough, fever and skin diseases. The leaves of the plant are often eaten raw or used as flavoring agents, or incorporated as ingredients in the preparation of traditional food. The literature survey revealed the occurrence 76 volatiles and 30 non-volatile compounds belonging to different classes of phytochemicals such as monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, esters, alcohols and aldehydes. Studies have cited numerous pharmacological properties including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antitumor, wound healing, anti-epileptic, larvicidal, antioxidant and analgesic activities. Also, it has been found to be effective against respiratory, cardiovascular, oral, skin, digestive and urinary diseases. Yet, scientific validation of many other traditional uses would be appreciated, mainly to discover and authenticate novel bioactive compounds from this herb. This review article provides comprehensive information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and nutritional importance of P. amboinicus essential oil and its various solvent extracts. This article allows researchers to further explore the further potential of this multi-utility herb for various biomedical applications.
We investigated the effect of different solvents (ethyl acetate, methanol, acetone, and chloroform) on the extraction of phytoconstituents from Lantana camara leaves and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Further, GC-MS analysis was carried out to identify the bioactive chemical constituents occurring in the active extract. The results revealed the presence of various phytocompounds in the extracts. The methanol solvent recovered higher extractable compounds (14.4% of yield) and contained the highest phenolic (92.8 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (26.5 mg RE/g) content. DPPH radical scavenging assay showed the IC50 value of 165, 200, 245, and 440 μg/mL for methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, and chloroform extracts, respectively. The hydroxyl scavenging activity test showed the IC50 value of 110, 240, 300, and 510 μg/mL for methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, and chloroform extracts, respectively. Gram negative bacterial pathogens (E. coli and K. pneumoniae) were more susceptible to all extracts compared to Gram positive bacteria (M. luteus, B. subtilis, and S. aureus). Methanol extract had the highest inhibition activity against all the tested microbes. Moreover, methanolic extract of L. camara contained 32 bioactive components as revealed by GC-MS study. The identified major compounds included hexadecanoic acid (5.197%), phytol (4.528%), caryophyllene oxide (4.605%), and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (3.751%).
A wide range of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) have been explored for their essential oils in the past few decades. Essential oils are complex volatile compounds, synthesized naturally in different plant parts during the process of secondary metabolism. Essential oils have great potential in the field of biomedicine as they effectively destroy several bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. The presence of different types of aldehydes, phenolics, terpenes, and other antimicrobial compounds means that the essential oils are effective against a diverse range of pathogens. The reactivity of essential oil depends upon the nature, composition, and orientation of its functional groups. The aim of this article is to review the antimicrobial potential of essential oils secreted from MAPs and their possible mechanisms of action against human pathogens. This comprehensive review will benefit researchers who wish to explore the potential of essential oils in the development of novel broad-spectrum key molecules against a broad range of drug-resistant pathogenic microbes.
Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a highly valued natural phenolic compound that is very commonly found in plants of the families Lamiaceae and Boraginaceae, including Coleus blumei, Heliotropium foertherianum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Perilla frutescens, and Salvia officinalis. RA is also found in other members of higher plant families and in some fern and horned liverwort species. The biosynthesis of RA is catalyzed by the enzymes phenylalanine ammonia lyase and cytochrome P450-dependent hydroxylase using the amino acids tyrosine and phenylalanine. Chemically, RA can be produced via methods involving the esterification of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid and caffeic acid. Some of the derivatives of RA include melitric acid, salvianolic acid, lithospermic acid, and yunnaneic acid. In plants, RA is known to have growth-promoting and defensive roles. Studies have elucidated the varied pharmacological potential of RA and its derived molecules, including anticancer, antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. The demand for RA is therefore, very high in the pharmaceutical industry, but this demand cannot be met by plants alone because RA content in plant organs is very low. Further, many plants that synthesize RA are under threat and near extinction owing to biodiversity loss caused by unscientific harvesting, over-collection, environmental changes, and other inherent features. Moreover, the chemical synthesis of RA is complicated and expensive. Alternative approaches using biotechnological methodologies could overcome these problems. This review provides the state of the art information on the chemistry, sources, and biosynthetic pathways of RA, as well as its anticancer properties against different cancer types. Biotechnological methods are also discussed for producing RA using plant cell, tissue, and organ cultures and hairy-root cultures using flasks and bioreactors. The recent developments and applications of the functional genomics approach and heterologous production of RA in microbes are also highlighted. This chapter will be of benefit to readers aiming to design studies on RA and its applicability as an anticancer agent.
Plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has been considered as green route and a reliable technique for the synthesis of nanoparticles due to its eco-friendly approach. In this study, we report a simple and eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using methanolic Momordica cymbalaria fruit extract as reducing agent. The fruit extract of M. cymbalaria exposed to AgNO3 solution showed the change in color from green to light yellow at room temperature within 1h of incubation confirms the synthesis of AgNPs. UV-vis spectra analysis revealed that the synthesized AgNPs had a sharp surface plasmon resonance at around 450 nm, while, the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed distinctive peaks indices to the crystalline planes of the face centered cubic silver. The Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis results confirmed the presence of spherical shaped AgNPs by a huge disparity in the particle size distribution with an average size of 15.5 nm. The synthesized AgNPs showed strong antibacterial activity against all the tested multidrug resistant human pathogenic bacterial strains and also exhibited highest free radical scavenging activity (74.2%) compared to fruit extract (60.4%). Moreover, both fruit extract and the synthesized AgNPs showed the cytotoxicity towards Rat L6 skeletal muscle cell line at different concentrations, but the highest inhibition percentage was recorded for AgNPs at concentration of 100 μg/ml.
Antimicrobial substances may be synthetic, semisynthetic, or of natural origin (i.e., from plants and animals). Antimicrobials are considered "miracle drugs" and can determine if an infected patient/animal recovers or dies. However, the misuse of antimicrobials has led to the development of multi-drug-resistant bacteria, which is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare practitioners and is a significant global threat. The major concern with the development of antimicrobial resistance is the spread of resistant organisms. The replacement of conventional antimicrobials by new technology to counteract antimicrobial resistance is ongoing. Nanotechnology-driven innovations provide hope for patients and practitioners in overcoming the problem of drug resistance. Nanomaterials have tremendous potential in both the medical and veterinary fields. Several nanostructures comprising metallic particles have been developed to counteract microbial pathogens. The effectiveness of nanoparticles (NPs) depends on the interaction between the microorganism and the NPs. The development of effective nanomaterials requires in-depth knowledge of the physicochemical properties of NPs and the biological aspects of microorganisms. However, the risks associated with using NPs in healthcare need to be addressed. The present review highlights the antimicrobial effects of various nanomaterials and their potential advantages, drawbacks, or side effects. In addition, this comprehensive information may be useful in the discovery of broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs for use against multi-drug-resistant microbial pathogens in the near future.
Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn. (Apocynaceae), is a traditional medicinal plant species widely used to treat various ailments such as tuberculosis, hematopoiesis, emaciation, cough, dyspnea, fever, burning sensation, night blindness, cancer, and dysentery. In Ayurveda, it is known for its revitalizing, rejuvenating, and lactogenic properties. This plant is one of the major ingredients in many commercial herbal formulations, including Speman, Envirocare, Calshakti, Antisept, and Chyawanprash. The therapeutic potential of this herb is because of the presence of diverse bioactive compounds such as α-amyrin, β-amyrin, ferulic acid, luteolin, diosmetin, rutin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, hentricontanol, a triterpene alcohol simiarenol, apigenin, reticulin, deniculatin, and leptaculatin. However, most biological studies on L. reticulata are restricted to crude extracts, and many biologically active compounds are yet to be identified in order to base the traditional uses of L. reticulata on evidence-based data. At present, L. reticulata is a threatened endangered plant because of overexploitation, unscientific harvesting, and habitat loss. The increased demand from pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and veterinary industries has prompted its large-scale propagation. However, its commercial cultivation is hampered because of the non-availability of genuine planting material and the lack of knowledge about its agronomical practices. In this regard, micropropagation techniques will be useful to obtain true-to-type L. reticulata planting materials from an elite germplasm to meet the current demand. Adopting other biotechnological approaches such as synthetic seed technology, cryopreservation, cell culture, and genetic transformation can help conservation as well as increased metabolite production from L. reticulata. The present review summarizes scientific information on the botanical, agronomical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and biotechnological aspects of L. reticulata. This comprehensive information will certainly allow better utilization of this industrially important herb towards the discovery of lead drug molecules.
An in vitro protocol has been established for clonal propagation of Nothapodytes nimmoniana which is an important source of Camptothecin (CPT). Elite source was identified based on the chemical potency to accumulate the optimum level of CPT. Different types and concentrations of plant growth regulators were used to study their effect on inducing multiple shoots from the explants regenerated from embryos of N. nimmoniana. Of these, a combination of N6-benzyladenine (0.2 mg L(-1)) and Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (0.1 mg L(-1)) proved optimum for differentiating multiple shoots in 90.6 % of the cultures with an average of 10.24 shoots per explant obtained within 8 weeks of inoculation. Nearly, 92 % of the excised in vitro shoots rooted on half strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.05 % activated charcoal, supplemented with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and IBA at 0.1 mg L(-1) each. The micropropagated plants were evaluated for their genetic fidelity by employing inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. Ten individuals, randomly chosen from a population of 145 regenerants, were compared with the donor plant. The regenerated plants were also evaluated for their chemical potency using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of CPT content. The true-to-type nature of the micropropagated plants was confirmed based on their monomorphic banding profiles with that of the mother plants using ISSR markers. Besides, HPLC evaluation of the CPT content confirmed the existence of chemical uniformity among the regenerated plants and the elite mother plant.
The extraction of bioactive compounds from herbal materials requires optimization in order to recover the highest active dose. Response surface methodology was used to optimize variables affecting the microwave extraction of zerumbone from Zingiber zerumbet using the Box-Behnken design. The influence of variables, such as ethanol concentration (X1), microwave power (X2), irradiation time (X3), and liquid-to-solid ratio (X4), on the extraction of zerumbone was modeled using a second-order regression equation. The antiproliferative activity of optimized and non-optimized extracts was evaluated against the HeLa cancer cell line using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay.
This investigation demonstrates an efficient method of propagation, short-term conservation, and germplasm exchange for Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. encapsulated propagules. In vitro-derived shoot apices (shoot tips and nodal segments) which showed 100% survival on MS medium supplemented with 0.4 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine were selected for encapsulation studies. Shoot apices measuring about 3-5 mm in size showed the ability to break the beads and exhibited 100% survival and regrowth. The combination of 3% (w/v) sodium alginate and 100 mM CaCl2 was found to be ideal for forming uniformally spherical beads, and successive preservation of encapsulated shoot apices into plantlets. The encapsulated shoot tips were relatively more effective than the nodal segments in terms of shoot growth and multiplication. Encapsulated shoot tips retained the ability to regrow (63.3%) for up to 40 days when maintained at 4 °C. Encapsulated shoot tips effectively converted into plantlets on agar medium (78%) and peat moss (58%) under in vitro conditions. Encapsulated shoot tips on agar medium showed a higher shoot regeneration (9.91 ± 0.15 shoots per explant) ability than the peat moss (5.71 ± 0.34 shoots per explant), while the highest rooting (12.16 ± 0.23 roots per explant) was observed on peat moss. Thus, calcium alginate encapsulation holds latent qualities that could be explored to develop a future alternative method of propagation, short-term storage and germplasm distribution for elite genotypes of Plectranthus sp.
This study evaluates the phytochemistry, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects of Plectranthus amboinicus leaves extracted in different solvents. The methanol extract contained the highest total phenolic (94.37 ± 1.24 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid contents (26.90 ± 1.35 mg RE/g) and exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging activity (90.13 ± 3.32%) followed by the acetone extract (80.23 ± 3.26%) at 500 μg/mL concentration. Similarly, the highest ferric ion reduction potential (849.63 ± 30.95 μM of Fe (II)/g dry weight) was exhibited by the methanol extract followed by the acetone extract (695.92 ± 25.44 μM of Fe (II)/g dry weight). The methanol extract showed greater antimicrobial activity against all the tested pathogens (Bacillus subtilis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans). However, both hexane and acetone extracts failed to inhibit E. coli. S. aureus and C. albicans were more susceptible to all the extracts. Further, GC-MS analysis confirmed the occurrence of a total 46 phytocompounds in different solvent extracts. Some of the major compounds included carvacrol (37.7%), tetracontane (16.6%), squalene (15.6%), tetrapentacontane (13.7%), and Phytol (12.9%). In conclusion, extraction solvents influenced the recovery of phytocompounds and the highest pharmacological activities of the methanol extract could be correlated to the presence of additional bioactive compounds.
Recently, the quality-by-design concept has been widely implemented in the optimization of pharmaceutical processes to improve batch-to-batch consistency. As flavonoid compounds in pigmented rice bran may provide natural antioxidants, extraction of flavonoid components from red and brown rice bran was optimized using central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). Among the solvents tested, ethanol was most efficient for extracting flavonoids from rice bran. The examined parameters were temperature, solvent percentage, extraction time, and solvent-to-solid ratio. The highest total flavonoid content (TFC) in red rice bran was predicted as 958.14 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g dry matter (DM) at 58.5 °C, 71.5% (v/v), 36.2 min, and 7.94 mL/g, respectively, whereas the highest TFC in brown rice bran was predicted as 782.52 mg QE/100 g DM at 56.7 °C, 74.4% (v/v), 36.9 min, and 7.18 mL/g, respectively. Verification experiment results under these optimized conditions showed that the TFC values for red and brown rice bran were 962.38 and 788.21 mg QE/100 g DM, respectively. No significant differences were observed between the predicted and experimental TFC values, indicating that the developed models are accurate. Analysis of the extracts showed that apigenin and p-coumaric acid are abundant in red and brown rice bran. Further, red rice bran with its higher flavonoid content exhibited higher nitric oxide and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activities (EC50 values of 41.3 and 33.6 μg/mL, respectively) than brown rice bran. In this study, an extraction process for flavonoid compounds from red and brown rice bran was successfully optimized. The accuracy of the developed models indicated that the approach is applicable to larger-scale extraction processes.
Microglial cells, upon hyperactivation, produce proinflammatory cytokines and other oxidative stress mediators causing neuroinflammation, which is associated with the progress of many neurodegenerative diseases. Suppressing the microglial activation has hence been used as an approach for treating such diseases. In this study, the antineuroinflammatory effect of simvastatin was examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated rat C6 glioma cells. The cell proliferation and cytotoxic effect of LPS and simvastatin on C6 glioma cells was evaluated by (MTT) assay. Neuroinflammation was induced in differentiated cell lines by treatment with 3.125 μg/mL of LPS for 12 h. Upon induction, the cell lines were treated with different concentrations (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 μM) of simvastatin and incubated in a humidified CO2 incubator for 24 to 48 h. The optimum concentrations of LPS and simvastatin were found to be 3.125 μg/mL and 25 μM, respectively, with a cell viability of more than 90% at 24 h postincubation. Furthermore, proinflammatory marker expression was analyzed by flow cytometry and showed a decrease in interferon-γ, interleukin 6, nuclear factor-κB p65, and tumor necrosis factor-α in simvastatin-treated and LPS-induced neuroinflammatory cells, and the mean fluorescent values were found to be 21.75 ± 0.76, 20.9 ± 1.90, 19.72 ± 1.29, and 16.82 ± 0.97, respectively, as compared to the untreated cells. Thus, we show that simvastatin has the potential to regulate the anti-inflammatory response in microglial cells upon LPS challenge. Hence, simvastatin can be employed as a potent anti-inflammatory drug against neuroinflammatory diseases and neurodegenerative disorders.
This study reports the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using methanolic leaf extract of Pogostemon cablin Benth. (Patchouli) as a reducing agent, and their potent biological (antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer) activities. The P. cablin extract when exposed to silver nitrate reduced silver ions to form crystalline AgNPs within 1 h of incubation at room-temperature. UV-visible spectra showed a sharp surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at around 430 nm for the biosynthesized AgNPs and the XRD pattern indicated the crystalline planes of the face centered cubic silver. The FE-SEM analysis revealed the occurrence of predominant spherical shaped AgNPs with a huge disparity in their particle size distribution with an average size of 25 nm, while, the FTIR data confirmed the bio-reduction and capping of AgNPs by several phytocompounds present in the methanolic leaf extract. AgNPs effectively inhibited the growth of all the tested human pathogenic bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli), while, the methanolic leaf extract failed to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. AgNPs showed the highest free radical scavenging activity (79.0 ± 0.76%) compared to methanolic leaf extract (68.3 ± 0.68%) at 100 μg/ml. Further, the cytotoxicity study using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) confirmed that AgNPs successfully inhibited the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (HT-29) in a dose dependent manner. At higher concentrations (500 μg/ml), only 4% of cells survived after 72 hrs of exposure with IC50 value of 120 μg/ml. Thus, these findings offer a new source of biomolecules with diverse biological activities.
Nanobiotechnology has emerged as a promising technology to develop new therapeutically active nanomaterials. The present study was aimed to biosynthesize AgNPs extracellularly using Aspergillus niger JX556221 fungal extract and to evaluate their anticancer potential against colon cancer cell line, HT-29. UV-visible spectral characterization of the synthesized AgNPs showed higher absorption peak at 440 nm wavelength. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed the monodispersed nature of synthesized AgNPs occurring in spherical shape with a size in the range of 20-25 nm. Further, characterization using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX) confirmed the face-centred cubic crystalline structure of metallic AgNPs. FTIR data revealed the occurrence of various phytochemicals in the cell free fungal extract which substantiated the fungal extract mediated AgNPs synthesis. The cytotoxic effect of AgNPs was studied by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results evidenced the cytotoxic effect of AgNPs on HT-29 cell lines in a dose dependent manner. The highest activity was found at 100 μg/ml concentration after 24 h of incubation. Use of propidium iodide staining examination method confirmed the cytotoxic effect of AgNPs through inducing cell apoptosis. AgNPs cytotoxicity was found to be through elevating reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caspase-3 activation resulting in induced apoptosis. Therefore, this research finding provides an insight towards the development of novel anticancer agents using biological sources.
Manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) magnetic nanoparticles were successfully prepared by a sol-gel self-combustion technique using iron nitrate and manganese nitrate, followed by calcination at 150 °C for 24 h. Calcined sample was systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and vibrational sample magnetometry (VSM) in order to identify the crystalline phase, functional group, morphology, particle size, shape and magnetic behavior. It was observed that the resultant spinal ferrites obtained at low temperature exhibit single phase, nanoparticle size and good magnetic behavior. The study results have revealed the existence of a potent dose dependent cytotoxic effect of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles against 4T1 cell lines at varying concentrations with IC50 values of 210, 198 and 171 μg/mL after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of incubation, respectively. Cells exposed to higher concentrations of nanoparticles showed a progressive increase of apoptotic and necrotic activity. Below 125 μg/mL concentration the nanoparticles were biocompatible with 4T1 cells.
Nanomedicine and nano delivery systems are a relatively new but rapidly developing science where materials in the nanoscale range are employed to serve as means of diagnostic tools or to deliver therapeutic agents to specific targeted sites in a controlled manner. Nanotechnology offers multiple benefits in treating chronic human diseases by site-specific, and target-oriented delivery of precise medicines. Recently, there are a number of outstanding applications of the nanomedicine (chemotherapeutic agents, biological agents, immunotherapeutic agents etc.) in the treatment of various diseases. The current review, presents an updated summary of recent advances in the field of nanomedicines and nano based drug delivery systems through comprehensive scrutiny of the discovery and application of nanomaterials in improving both the efficacy of novel and old drugs (e.g., natural products) and selective diagnosis through disease marker molecules. The opportunities and challenges of nanomedicines in drug delivery from synthetic/natural sources to their clinical applications are also discussed. In addition, we have included information regarding the trends and perspectives in nanomedicine area.