Microglial cells, upon hyperactivation, produce proinflammatory cytokines and other oxidative stress mediators causing neuroinflammation, which is associated with the progress of many neurodegenerative diseases. Suppressing the microglial activation has hence been used as an approach for treating such diseases. In this study, the antineuroinflammatory effect of simvastatin was examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated rat C6 glioma cells. The cell proliferation and cytotoxic effect of LPS and simvastatin on C6 glioma cells was evaluated by (MTT) assay. Neuroinflammation was induced in differentiated cell lines by treatment with 3.125 μg/mL of LPS for 12 h. Upon induction, the cell lines were treated with different concentrations (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 μM) of simvastatin and incubated in a humidified CO2 incubator for 24 to 48 h. The optimum concentrations of LPS and simvastatin were found to be 3.125 μg/mL and 25 μM, respectively, with a cell viability of more than 90% at 24 h postincubation. Furthermore, proinflammatory marker expression was analyzed by flow cytometry and showed a decrease in interferon-γ, interleukin 6, nuclear factor-κB p65, and tumor necrosis factor-α in simvastatin-treated and LPS-induced neuroinflammatory cells, and the mean fluorescent values were found to be 21.75 ± 0.76, 20.9 ± 1.90, 19.72 ± 1.29, and 16.82 ± 0.97, respectively, as compared to the untreated cells. Thus, we show that simvastatin has the potential to regulate the anti-inflammatory response in microglial cells upon LPS challenge. Hence, simvastatin can be employed as a potent anti-inflammatory drug against neuroinflammatory diseases and neurodegenerative disorders.
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