Introduction: This research was conducted to investigate the effects of Catharanthus roseus (Kemunting Cina), Kalanchoe laciniata (Setawar Kampung) and Piper longum (Kadok Kampung) on the in vitro proliferation of hormone dependent breast cancer (MCF-7) and colon cancer (Caco2) cell lines. Methodology:The effects of Catharanthus roseus, Kalanchoe laciniata and Piper longum extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts) on the cytotoxicity of MCF-7 and Caco2 cell lines were measured using (3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide) (MTT) assay. Results: Kalanchoe laciniata hexane extract showed significant inhibitions on MCF-7 carcinoma cell lines proliferation with IC50 value of 75.7 Âµg/ml. Catharanthus roseus extracts (hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate) inhibited MCF-7 cells proliferation at concentrations of 80, 70 and 90 mg/ml, respectively. Discussion: IC50 value of all extracts of Piper longum and Kalanchoe laciniata chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts on the proliferation of MCF-7 cancer cells could not be determined, as it did not demonstrate any appreciable inhibition on the cellular proliferation at the concentration tested. However, Piper longum chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts showed anti-tumourigenic effect against colon cancer (Caco2) with IC50 of 87 mg/ml and 20 mg/ml, respectively. Kalanchoe laciniata hexane extracts inhibited Caco2 cellular proliferation with IC50 value of 100 mg/ml. Catharanthus roseus chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts inhibited Caco2 proliferation at IC50 of 28.2 Âµg/ml and 74.1 mg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that only hexane extract of Kalanchoe laciniata was effective against cellular proliferations of MCF-7 while Piper longum was more effective in inhibiting Caco2 proliferations. However, both the herbs were not so effective against MCF-7 and Caco2 cell lines compared with Catharanthus roseus. Keywords: Catharanthus roseus, Kalanchoe laciniata, Piper longum, cytotoxicity
The effects of cell density and growth in 10% foetal bovine serum and 10% newborn calf serum on the activity of the enzyme (Na+ + K+)-ATPase were studied in 3T3 and SV3T3 cells. The enzyme activity decreases in 3T3 cells grown in foetal bovine serum as the cells approach confluency while in those grown in newborn calf serum the enzyme activity increases. The (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity does not change with increase in cell density in SV3T3 cells grown in foetal bovine serum while the enzyme activity in those grown in newborn calf serum increases with increase in cells density up to about 1.35 x 10(5) cells/sq. cm. and then decreases with further increase in cell number. At confluency it was found that the enzyme activity is higher in the SV3T3 as compared to the 3T3 cells when the cells were grown in 10% foetal bovine serum, whereas in those grown in 10% newborn calf serum the enzyme activity is higher in the 3T3 as compared to the SV3T3 cells.
An adherently growing MDCK cell line was adapted in a two-step process in a fully defined medium and in suspension. The resulting MDCK.SUS2 cells were subsequently evaluated for their potential as host cells for influenza vaccine production in two lab-scale bioreactors (wave and stirred-tank). Cell concentrations up to 2.3 x 10(6)cells/mL were obtained after 96 h, which is slightly higher than cell concentrations obtained with adherent MDCK cells cultivated on microcarriers (2g/L). Infections with influenza A/PR/8/34 and B/Malaysia resulted in high virus titers (2.90 and 2.75 log HA units/100 microL, respectively). The monitoring of extracellular metabolites, including amino acids, revealed a change in some of the metabolite consumption or release profiles, which indicates changes in metabolism during the adaptation process. Overall, the MDCK.SUS2 cell line represents a new cell substrate for a robust influenza vaccine production in a fully defined process.
Bat-borne viral diseases are a major public health concern among newly emerging infectious diseases which includes severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah, Marburg and Ebola virus disease. During the survey for Nipah virus among bats at North-East region of India; Tioman virus (TioV), a new member of the Paramyxoviridae family was isolated from tissues of Pteropus giganteus bats for the first time in India. This isolate was identified and confirmed by RT-PCR, sequence analysis and electron microscopy. A range of vertebrate cell lines were shown to be susceptible to Tioman virus. Negative electron microscopy study revealed the "herringbone" morphology of the nucleocapsid filaments and enveloped particles with distinct envelope projections a characteristic of the Paramyxoviridae family. Sequence analysis of Nucleocapsid gene of TioV demonstrated sequence identity of 99.87% and 99.99% nucleotide and amino acid respectively with of TioV strain isolated in Malaysia, 2001. This report demonstrates the first isolation of Tioman virus from a region where Nipah virus activity has been noticed in the past and recent years. Bat-borne viruses have become serious concern world-wide. A Survey of bats for novel viruses in this region would help in recognizing emerging viruses and combating diseases caused by them.
Tor tor is an important game and food fish of India with a distribution throughout Asia from the trans-Himalayan region to the Mekong River basin to Malaysia, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia. A new cell line named TTCF was developed from the caudal fin of T. tor for the first time. The cell line was optimally maintained at 28°C in Leibovitz-15 (L-15) medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The propagation of TTCF cells showed a high plating efficiency of 63.00%. The cytogenetic analysis revealed a diploid count of 100 chromosomes at passage 15, 30, 45 and 60 passages. The viability of the TTCF cell line was found to be 72% after 6 months of cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen (-196°C). The origin of the cell lines was confirmed by the amplification of 578- and 655-bp sequences of 16S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) respectively. TTCF cells were successfully transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter plasmids. Further, immunocytochemistry studies confirm its fibroblastic morphology of cells. Genotoxicity assessment of H₂O₂ in TTCF cell line revealed the utility of TTCF cell line as in vitro model for aquatic toxicological studies.
Tricalcium phosphate ceramic microcarrier has been developed and introduced to a new possibility for the culture of anchorage dependent animal cells of DF1. It was observed that the number of attached cells was increased with shorter time for both spinner vessel and stirred tank (ST) bioreactor. For those bioreactors, the total viable cell number that had been obtained is about 1.2 x 10(5) cell/ml.
In this study, tumorspheres were generated from TW06 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line and examined their expression of putative cancer stem-like cell surface markers and drug sensitivity. The rate of tumorsphere expansion from dissociated late passage TW06 tumorspheres (≥ passage 15) was higher than that from parental cells and dissociated 10-day-old (passage 0) tumorspheres. The expression of CD24 surface marker was lost in the generation of tumorspheres and the loss was reversible after differentiating the tumorspheres in monolayer culture conditions. Drug sensitivity assay showed that late passage tumorspheres were resistant to docetaxel and oxaliplatin treatment. Our data suggest that serially passaged tumorspheres possess the characteristics of CSCs that render them a suitable preclinical in vitro model for evaluating anticancer drug efficacy and elucidating the underlying mechanisms of drug resistance.
Zerumbone (ZER) is a phytochemical isolated from the subtropical Zingiberaceae family and as a natural compound it has different biomedical properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory anti-proliferative activity. ZER also has effects on angiogenesis and acts as an antitumor drug in the treatment of cancer, showing selective toxicity toward various cancer cell lines. Several techniques also have been established for extraction of ZER from the rhizomes of ginger. This review paper is an overview of recent research about different extraction methods and their efficiencies, in vivo and vitro investigations of ZER and also its prominent chemopreventive properties and treatment mechanisms. Most of the studies mentioned in this review paper may be useful use as a knowledge summary to explain ZER extraction and anticancer activities, which will show a way for the development of strategies in the treatment of malignancies using ZER.
Despite of ongoing research programs and numerous clinical trials, seasonal influenza epidemics remain a major concern globally. Vaccination remains the most effective method to prevent influenza infection. However, current flu vaccines have several limitations, including limited vaccine capacity, long production times, inconsistence efficacy in certain populations, and lack of a "universal" solution. Different next-generation approaches such as cell line-based culture, reverse genetics, and virus expression technology are currently under development to address the aforementioned challenges in conventional vaccine manufacture pipeline. Such approaches hope for safe and scalable production, induce broad-spectrum immunity, create premade libraries of vaccine strains, and target nonvariable regions of antigenic proteins for "universal" vaccination. Here, we discuss the process and challenges of the current influenza vaccine platform as well as new approaches that are being investigated. These developments indicate that an exciting future lies ahead in the influenza vaccine field.
The increasing and widespread use of synthetic food dyes raises health concerns and earlier reports suggest that certain food dyes might be harmful for human health. In this study, we have investigated the effect of three commonly used food dyes on human liver cell line, HepG2. Our findings suggest that these experimental food dyes significantly affect cell viability and this effect can be worsen in hyperglycemic condition. Accumulation of cellular fat was significantly higher in presence of these dyes. Expression pattern of the gene involved in regulating apoptosis suggests that that the observed cell death could be attributed to the activation of apoptotic pathway. These findings suggest that these experimental dyes might exert synergistic toxicity in hyperglycemia that need to be confirmed using suitable in vivo models.
A new compound, schistochilic acid D (1) and two known compounds (2 and 3) were isolated from MeOH extract of Bornean liverwort. Schistochila acuininata collected from Mount Trus Madi, Sabah. The structure of the new metabolite was established based on spectroscopic (ID NMR, 2D NMR, and IR). and HRESIMS data. In addition, another population of S. acuminata collected from Mount Alab (Sabah) yielded four known compounds, 2, 3, 4 and 5. These compounds were tested for their biological potential against the B 16-Fl0 cell line. Compounds 4 and 5 exhibited weak cytotoxic activity.
Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), are a growing public health concern. Systems-level analysis of how flaviviruses hijack cellular processes through virus-host protein-protein interactions (PPIs) provides information about their replication and pathogenic mechanisms. We used affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) to compare flavivirus-host interactions for two viruses (DENV and ZIKV) in two hosts (human and mosquito). Conserved virus-host PPIs revealed that the flavivirus NS5 protein suppresses interferon stimulated genes by inhibiting recruitment of the transcription complex PAF1C and that chemical modulation of SEC61 inhibits DENV and ZIKV replication in human and mosquito cells. Finally, we identified a ZIKV-specific interaction between NS4A and ANKLE2, a gene linked to hereditary microcephaly, and showed that ZIKV NS4A causes microcephaly in Drosophila in an ANKLE2-dependent manner. Thus, comparative flavivirus-host PPI mapping provides biological insights and, when coupled with in vivo models, can be used to unravel pathogenic mechanisms.
This study evaluated human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and their differentiated fibroblastic progenies as cellular models for genotoxicity screening. The DNA damage response of hESCs and their differentiated fibroblastic progenies were compared to a fibroblastic cell line (HEPM, CRL1486) and primary cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), upon exposure to Mitomycin C, gamma irradiation and H2O2. It was demonstrated that hESC-derived fibroblastic progenies (H1F) displayed significantly higher chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei formation and double strand break (DSB) formation, as compared to undifferentiated hESC upon exposure to genotoxic stress. Nevertheless, H1F cell types displayed comparable sensitivities to genotoxic challenge as HEPM and PBL, both of which are representative of somatic cell types commonly used for genotoxicity screening. Subsequently, transcriptomic and pathways analysis identified differential expression of critical genes involved in cell death and DNA damage response upon exposure to gamma irradiation. The results thus demonstrate that hESC-derived fibroblastic progenies are as sensitive as commonly-used somatic cell types for genotoxicity screening. Moreover, hESCs have additional advantages, such as their genetic normality compared to immortalized cell lines, as well as their amenability to scale-up for producing large, standardized quantities of cells for genotoxicity screening on an industrial scale, something which can never be achieved with primary cell cultures.
A new cell line, Asian sea bass brain (ASBB), was derived from the brain tissue of Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer. This cell line was maintained in Leibovitz L-15 media supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The ASBB cell line was subcultured more than 60 times over a period of 15 mo. The ASBB cell line consists predominantly of fibroblastic-like cells and was able to grow at temperatures between 20°C and 30°C with an optimum temperature of 25°C. The growth rate of these cells increased as the proportion of FBS increased from 2% to 20% at 25°C with optimum growth at the concentrations of 10% or 15% FBS. Polymerase chain reaction products were obtained from ASBB cells and tissues of sea bass with primer sets of microsatellite markers of sea bass. An isolate of piscine nodavirus from juveniles of marine fish species tested positive by IQ2000 kit for viral nervous necrosis detection and was examined for its infectivity to a fish cell line of ASBB. A marine fish betanodavirus was tested to determine the susceptibility of this new cell line in comparison with commercial highly permissive SSN-1 cells. The ASBB cell line was found to be susceptible to nodavirus (RGNNV genotype), and the infection was confirmed by comparison cytopathic effect (CPE) with commercial SSN-1 and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. A nodavirus was further elucidated by electron microscopy, and the virus tested was shown to induce CPE on ASBB cells with significant high titer. This suggests that the ASBB cell line has good potential for the isolation of fish viruses.
The progression of breast cancer is increasing at an alarming rate, particularly in western countries. Meanwhile, the lower incidence in Asian countries could be attributed to the heavy incorporation of green leaves vegetables or spices in their diets. Murraya koenigii (MK) or often times known as curry leaves are common spice used mostly in tropical countries. Anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects of MK aqueous extract on 4T1 breast cancer cell-challenged mice were evaluated.
Neurodegenerative causes of blindness and deafness possess a major challenge in their clinical management as proper treatment guidelines have not yet been found. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been established as a promising therapy against neurodegenerative disorders including hearing and visual loss. Unfortunately, the blood-retinal barrier and blood-cochlear barrier, which have a comparable structure to the blood-brain barrier prevent molecules of larger sizes (such as BDNF) from exiting the circulation and reaching the targeted cells. Anatomical features of the eye and ear allow use of local administration, bypassing histo-hematic barriers. This paper focuses on highlighting a variety of strategies proposed for the local administration of the BDNF, like direct delivery, viral gene therapy, and cell-based therapy, which have been shown to successfully improve development, survival, and function of spiral and retinal ganglion cells. The similarities and controversies for BDNF treatment of posterior eye diseases and inner ear diseases have been analyzed and compared. In this review, we also focus on the possibility of translation of this knowledge into clinical practice. And finally, we suggest that using nanoparticulate drug-delivery systems may substantially contribute to the development of clinically viable techniques for BDNF delivery into the cochlea or posterior eye segment, which, ultimately, can lead to a long-term or permanent rescue of auditory and optic neurons from degeneration.
The present study investigated the effects of Quercus infectoria (QI) gall extract on the proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin, and the morphology of a human fetal osteoblast cell line (hFOB 1.19).
Three diorganotin(IV) complexes of the general formula R2Sn[RcC(O)N(RN)O] (Rc = aryl, RN = Alkyl) have been synthesized by refluxing in toluene the corresponding diorganotin(IV) oxides with the free ligand N-methyl p-fluorobenzohydroxamic acid, using a Dean and Stark water separator. The ligand was derived from the reaction of the corresponding p-fluorobenzoyl chloride and N-methylhydroxylamine hydrochloride in the presence of sodium hydrogen carbonate. The isolated free ligand and its respective diorganotin compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR and 1H-, 13C-, 119Sn-NMR spectroscopies. The crystal structures of the diorganotin complexes have been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The investigations carried out on the diorganotin(IV) complexes of N-methyl p-fluorobenzohydroxamic acid confirmed a 1:2 stoichiometry. The complex formation took place through the O,O-coordination via the carbonyl oxygen and subsequent deprotonated hydroxyl group to the tin atom. The crystal structures of three diorganotin complexes were determined and were found to adopt six coordination geometries at the tin centre with coordination to two ligand moieties.
Objective: Previous studies have shown milk to contain cancer inhibitors. In this context, this study was conducted to screen the potential cytotoxic properties of four different types of milk, namely cow's milk, goat's milk, mare's milk and human milk.
Methods: In evaluating the cytotoxic properties of milk, two different human leukemia cell lines namely, Raji and CEM-SS were used. The treated and untreated cells of milk were cultured at 37°C in 5% CO2 for 5 days according to standard guidelines. The CellTiter 96® Aqueous (MTS) assay was carried out on the first, third and fifth days to measure cell viability. The percentage of cell viability was determined by comparing the optical density of the treated cells against the untreated controls. One-way ANOYA at p