Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 163 in total

  1. Bong JJ, Wang J, Spalding DR
    Surg. Today, 2011 Feb;41(2):281-4.
    PMID: 21264770 DOI: 10.1007/s00595-009-4217-0
    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas present more commonly in the elderly. This report describes a case of IPMN in a 36-year-old man who presented with obstructive jaundice and weight loss. The initial investigation by computed tomography scan revealed a cystic lesion in the head of pancreas fistulating into the duodenum and the common bile duct (CBD). Subsequent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed a low CBD stricture with proximal filling defects. Mucin was observed extruding from the biliary orifice following an endoscopic sphincterotomy. A classic Whipple's pancreatoduodenectomy was performed to excise the lesion. A histological examination of the lesion confirmed the presence of a malignant IPMN of the pancreas complicated by pancreatobiliary and pancreatoduodenal fistulae.
  2. Wang J, Jamison DT, Bos E, Vu MT
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 1997 Oct;2(10):1001-10.
    PMID: 9357491
    This paper analyses the effect of income and education on life expectancy and mortality rates among the elderly in 33 countries for the period 1960-92 and assesses how that relationship has changed over time as a result of technical progress. Our outcome variables are life expectancy at age 60 and the probability of dying between age 60 and age 80 for both males and females. The data are from vital-registration based life tables published by national statistical offices for several years during this period. We estimate regressions with determinants that include GDP per capita (adjusted for purchasing power), education and time (as a proxy for technical progress). As the available measure of education failed to account for variation in life expectancy or mortality at age 60, our reported analyses focus on a simplified model with only income and time as predictors. The results indicate that, controlling for income, mortality rates among the elderly have declined considerably over the past three decades. We also find that poverty (as measured by low average income levels) explains some of the variation in both life expectancy at age 60 and mortality rates among the elderly across the countries in the sample. The explained amount of variation is more substantial for females than for males. While poverty does adversely affect mortality rates among the elderly (and the strength of this effect is estimated to be increasing over time), technical progress appears far more important in the period following 1960. Predicted female life expectancy (at age 60) in 1960 at the mean income level in 1960 was, for example 18.8 years; income growth to 1992 increased this by an estimated 0.7 years, whereas technical progress increased it by 2.0 years. We then use the estimated regression results to compare country performance on life expectancy of the elderly, controlling for levels of poverty (or income), and to assess how performance has varied over time. High performing countries, on female life expectancy at age 60, for the period around 1990, included Chile (1.0 years longer life expectancy), China (1.7 years longer), France (2.0 years longer), Japan (1.9 years longer), and Switzerland (1.3 years longer). Poorly performing countries included Denmark (1.1 years shorter life expectancy than predicted from income), Hungary (1.4 years shorter), Iceland (1.2 years shorter), Malaysia (1.6 years shorter), and Trinidad and Tobago (3.9 years shorter). Chile and Switzerland registered major improvements in relative performance over this period; Norway, Taiwan and the USA, in contrast showed major declines in performance between 1980 and the early 1990s.
  3. Wang J, Li H, Cai W
    Zootaxa, 2016 Sep 12;4162(3):550-8.
    PMID: 27615990 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4162.3.8
    A new species of the insect order Zoraptera, Zorotypus weiweii, is described and figured from Sabah, East Malaysia. The new species represents the second angel insect from Borneo. Z. caudelli Karny was also collected near the type locality of Z. weiweii. Methods of specimen collection and a brief note of angel insects in Malaysia were provided based on new materials and biological observations.
  4. Wang B, Ngoi S, Wang J, Chong SS, Lee CG
    Mol. Pharmacol., 2006 Jul;70(1):267-76.
    PMID: 16608921
    The MDR1 multidrug transporter represents one of the better characterized drug transporters that play an important role in protecting the body against xenobiotic insults. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and SNP haplotypes within this gene have been variously associated with differences in MDR1 expression/function, drug response as well as disease susceptibility. Nonetheless, the effect of polymorphisms at the MDR1 promoter region on its promoter activity remains less characterized. Through the examination of approximately 1.5 kilobases of MDR1 promoter region from five populations, including the Chinese, Malays, Indians, European Americans, and African Americans, we identified eight low-frequency SNPs, of which only two were polymorphic in at least four of the five populations examined. The other SNPs are mainly population-specific, the majority of which occur only in the African-American population. Recapitulation of the various combinations of SNP haplotypes in vitro in promoter-reporter assays revealed a few notable trends. The African and European American-specific haplotypes tended to result in enhanced MDR1 promoter activity only in the human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cell line. Haplotype GCTAACC, which occurs at variable frequencies in all the populations examined, with Asians having much lower frequencies (<2%) compared with the European Americans/African Americans (>4%), affected MDR1 promoter activity differently in different cell lines. Compared with the commonest haplotype, GCTA-ACC haplotype resulted in a significant decrease in MDR1 promoter activity in HeLa cells (P < 0.05) but a significant increase in the same promoter activity in HEK293 cells (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the MDR1 promoter region is largely invariant but that different haplotypes have differential effects on the MDR1 promoter activity in different cell lines.
  5. Chu SY, Barlow SM, Lee J, Wang J
    Int J Speech Lang Pathol, 2017 12;19(6):616-627.
    PMID: 28425760 DOI: 10.1080/17549507.2016.1265587
    PURPOSE: This research characterised perioral muscle reciprocity and amplitude ratio in lower lip during bilabial syllable production [pa] at three rates to understand the neuromotor dynamics and scaling of motor speech patterns in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD).

    METHOD: Electromyographic (EMG) signals of the orbicularis oris superior [OOS], orbicularis oris inferior [OOI] and depressor labii inferioris [DLI] were recorded during syllable production and expressed as polar-phase notations.

    RESULT: PD participants exhibited the general features of reciprocity between OOS, OOI and DLI muscles as reflected in the EMG during syllable production. The control group showed significantly higher integrated EMG amplitude ratio in the DLI:OOS muscle pairs than PD participants. No speech rate effects were found in EMG muscle reciprocity and amplitude magnitude across all muscle pairs.

    CONCLUSION: Similar patterns of muscle reciprocity in PD and controls suggest that corticomotoneuronal output to the facial nucleus and respective perioral muscles is relatively well-preserved in our cohort of mild idiopathic PD participants. Reduction of EMG amplitude ratio among PD participants is consistent with the putative reduction in the thalamocortical activation characteristic of this disease which limits motor cortex drive from generating appropriate commands which contributes to bradykinesia and hypokinesia of the orofacial mechanism.

  6. Lian W, Wang W, Tan CP, Wang J, Wang Y
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2019 Feb;42(2):321-329.
    PMID: 30421172 DOI: 10.1007/s00449-018-2036-7
    LML-type structured lipids are one type of medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols. LML was synthesized using immobilized Talaromyces thermophilus lipase (TTL)-catalyzed interesterification of tricaprylin and ethyl linoleate. The resin AB-8 was chosen, and the lipase/support ratio was determined to be 60 mg/g. Subsequently, the immobilized TTL with strict sn-1,3 regiospecificity was applied to synthesize LML. Under the optimized conditions (60 °C, reaction time 6 h, enzyme loading of 6% of the total weight of substrates, substrate of molar ratio of ethyl linoleate to tricaprylin of 6:1), Triacylglycerols with two long- and one medium-chain FAs (DL-TAG) content as high as 52.86 mol% was obtained. Scale-up reaction further verified the industrial potential of the established process. The final product contained 85.24 mol% DL-TAG of which 97 mol% was LML after purification. The final product obtained with the high LML content would have substantial potential to be used as functional oils.
  7. Wang J, Goh KM, Salem DR, Sani RK
    Sci Rep, 2019 Feb 07;9(1):1608.
    PMID: 30733471 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-36983-z
    Geobacillus sp. WSUCF1 is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, aerobic and thermophilic bacterium, isolated from a soil sample obtained from a compost facility. Strain WSUCF1 demonstrated EPS producing capability using different sugars as the carbon source. The whole-genome analysis of WSUCF1 was performed to disclose the essential genes correlated with nucleotide sugar precursor biosynthesis, assembly of monosaccharide units, export of the polysaccharide chain, and regulation of EPS production. Both the biosynthesis pathway and export mechanism of EPS were proposed based on functional annotation. Additionally, the genome description of strain WSUCF1 suggests sophisticated systems for its adaptation under thermophilic conditions. The presence of genes associated with CRISPR-Cas system, quorum quenching lactonase, polyketide synthesis and arsenic resistance makes this strain a potential candidate for various applications in biotechnology and biomedicine. The present study indicates that strain WSUCF1 has promise as a thermophilic EPS producer for a broad range of industrial applications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on genome analysis of a thermophilic Geobacillus species focusing on its EPS biosynthesis and transportation, which will likely pave the way for both enhanced yield and tailor-made EPS production by thermophilic bacteria.
  8. Chu SY, Barlow SM, Lee J, Wang J
    PMID: 31213093 DOI: 10.1080/17549507.2019.1622781
    Purpose: To characterise labial articulatory pattern variability using the spatiotemporal index (STI) in speakers with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) across different speaking rates and syllable-sentence conditions compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Method: Ten speakers with mild-severe idiopathic PD and 10 controls produced "pa" and the Rainbow Passage at slow, typical and fast speech rates. Upper lip and lower lip kinematics were digitised during a motion capture system. Data were analysed using linear mixed modelling. Result: Regardless of the participant group, a high STI value was observed in the fast speech rate for the "pa" syllable condition, particularly for movements of the lower lip. As utterance rate increased, the control group showed the highest variability, followed by PD OFF and PD ON conditions. Syllable "pa" showed a greater STI value compared to both the first and second utterance of Rainbow Passage. Conclusion: PD manifests sufficient residual capacity to achieve near-normal motor compensation to preserve the consistency of lower lip movements during speech production. The lack of a significant difference in lip STI values between ON-OFF medication states suggests that dopaminergic treatment does not influence stability of speech for individuals with mild-moderate stage PD.
  9. Lin SC, Ko RT, Kang BH, Wang JS
    Malays J Pathol, 2019 Aug;41(2):207-211.
    PMID: 31427558
    INTRODUCTION: Salivary gland intraductal carcinoma (IDC) is rare. We present the second case of IDC originating from an intraparotid lymph node (LN) with a more detailed description of the histogenesis, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and updated molecular information.

    CASE REPORT: An 87-year-old male had a tumour nodule over the left parotid tail for about 20 years. Physical examinations revealed a 4.5 cm soft, non-tender and fixed mass. After the left parotidectomy, pathology confirmed the diagnosis of IDC arising within an intraparotid lymph node. The cystic component of the tumour was lined by single to multilayered ductal cells with micropapillary growth pattern. The solid part showed intraductal proliferation of neoplastic cells in solid, cribriform, micropapillary and Roman bridge-like structure. By immunohistochemistry (IHC), the tumour cells were positive for S-100, CK (AE1/AE3), mammaglobin, SOX10, and estrogen receptor (ER), with myoepithelial cell rimming highlighted by positive p63 and calponin IHC stains. The prognosis of this patient is excellent after complete excision.

    DISCUSSION: The mechanism of salivary gland tumour arising in the intra-parotid gland LN was assumed to be related to salivary duct inclusion within the intraparotid gland LN which is a normal occurrence during embryology development. Although the terminology may raise some confusion about the relationship between IDC and conventional salivary duct carcinoma (SDA), they are different in immunophenotype and clinicopathologic features. IDC is characterised by S100 (+) ER (+) with predominant intraductal growth and excellent prognosis; while SDC features S100 (-) androgen receptor (+) with predominant invasive growth and aggressive behavior. Recent discovery of recurrent RET gene rearrangement in IDC but not SDC also supports that IDC is not precursor lesion of the SDC.

  10. Rao R, Bhassu S, Bing RZ, Alinejad T, Hassan SS, Wang J
    J. Invertebr. Pathol., 2016 05;136:10-22.
    PMID: 26880158 DOI: 10.1016/j.jip.2016.01.002
    The world production of shrimp such as the Malaysian giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is seriously affected by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). There is an urgent need to understand the host pathogen interaction between M. rosenbergii and WSSV which will be able to provide a solution in controlling the spread of this infectious disease and lastly save the aquaculture industry. Now, using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), we will be able to capture the response of the M. rosenbergii to the pathogen and have a better understanding of the host defence mechanism. Two cDNA libraries, one of WSSV-challenged M. rosenbergii and a normal control one, were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. After de novo assembly and clustering of the unigenes from both libraries, 63,584 standard unigenes were generated with a mean size of 698bp and an N50 of 1137bp. We successfully annotated 35.31% of all unigenes by using BLASTX program (E-value <10-5) against NCBI non-redundant (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway (KEGG) and Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) databases. Gene Ontology (GO) assessment was conducted using BLAST2GO software. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by using the FPKM method showed 8443 host genes were significantly up-regulated whereas 5973 genes were significantly down-regulated. The differentially expressed immune related genes were grouped into 15 animal immune functions. The present study showed that WSSV infection has a significant impact on the transcriptome profile of M. rosenbergii's hepatopancreas, and further enhanced the knowledge of this host-virus interaction. Furthermore, the high number of transcripts generated in this study will provide a platform for future genomic research on freshwater prawns.
  11. Zheng B, Xing G, Bi Y, Yan G, Wang J, Cheng Y, et al.
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2016 Jan;23(1):54-65.
    PMID: 26858539 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.08.009
    As a novel oral drug delivery system, proliposome was applied to improve the solubility of active components of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE). There are currently few reports focusing on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of proliposome of GbE (GbP). A rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantification of active components of GbP and a commercial tablet product (Ginaton) in rat plasma was developed and successfully validated. The method was applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic evaluation of GbP and Ginaton in rat plasma. The results indicated that GbP has a significant effect on absorption, elimination and bioavailability of flavonoids and terpenoid lactones in comparison with Ginaton. The obtained results would be helpful for evaluating the absorption mechanism in the gastrointestinal tract in pharmacokinetic level and guiding the development of the novel oral drug delivery system.
  12. Wang J, Mahmood Q, Qiu JP, Li YS, Chang YS, Chi LN, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:617861.
    PMID: 25685798 DOI: 10.1155/2015/617861
    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.
  13. Che Azemin MZ, Ab Hamid F, Aminuddin A, Wang JJ, Kawasaki R, Kumar DK
    Exp. Eye Res., 2013 Nov;116:355-358.
    PMID: 24512773 DOI: 10.1016/j.exer.2013.10.010
    The fractal dimension is a global measure of complexity and is useful for quantifying anatomical structures, including the retinal vascular network. A previous study found a linear declining trend with aging on the retinal vascular fractal dimension (DF); however, it was limited to the older population (49 years and older). This study aimed to investigate the possible models of the fractal dimension changes from young to old subjects (10-73 years). A total of 215 right-eye retinal samples, including those of 119 (55%) women and 96 (45%) men, were selected. The retinal vessels were segmented using computer-assisted software, and non-vessel fragments were deleted. The fractal dimension was measured based on the log-log plot of the number of grids versus the size. The retinal vascular DF was analyzed to determine changes with increasing age. Finally, the data were fitted to three polynomial models. All three models are statistically significant (Linear: R2 = 0.1270, 213 d.f., p 
  14. Wu WH, Kuo TC, Lin YT, Huang SW, Liu HF, Wang J, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(12):e83711.
    PMID: 24391812 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083711
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease can be classified into three genotypes and many subtypes. The objectives of this study were to conduct a molecular epidemiological study of EV71 in the central region of Taiwan from 2002-2012 and to test the hypothesis that whether the alternative appearance of different EV71 subtypes in Taiwan is due to transmission from neighboring countries or from re-emergence of pre-existing local strains. We selected 174 EV71 isolates and used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to amplify their VP1 region for DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods. We found that the major subtypes of EV71 in Taiwan were B4 for 2002 epidemic, C4 for 2004-2005 epidemic, B5 for 2008-2009 epidemic, C4 for 2010 epidemic and B5 for 2011-2012 epidemic. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the 2002 and 2008 epidemics were associated with EV71 from Malaysia and Singapore; while both 2010 and 2011-2012 epidemics originated from different regions of mainland China including Shanghai, Henan, Xiamen and Gong-Dong. Furthermore, minor strains have been identified in each epidemic and some of them were correlated with the subsequent outbreaks. Therefore, the EV71 infection in Taiwan may originate from pre-existing minor strains or from other regions in Asia including mainland China. In addition, 101 EV71 isolates were selected for the detection of new recombinant strains using the nucleotide sequences spanning the VP1-2A-2B region. No new recombinant strain was found. Analysis of clinical manifestations showed that patients infected with C4 had significantly higher rates of pharyngeal vesicles or ulcers than patients infected with B5. This is the first study demonstrating that different EV 71 genotypes may have different clinical manifestations and the association of EV71 infections between Taiwan and mainland China.
  15. Wang J, Vijaykrishna D, Duan L, Bahl J, Zhang JX, Webster RG, et al.
    J. Virol., 2008 Apr;82(7):3405-14.
    PMID: 18216109 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02468-07
    The transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus to Southeast Asian countries triggered the first major outbreak and transmission wave in late 2003, accelerating the pandemic threat to the world. Due to the lack of influenza surveillance prior to these outbreaks, the genetic diversity and the transmission pathways of H5N1 viruses from this period remain undefined. To determine the possible source of the wave 1 H5N1 viruses, we recently conducted further sequencing and analysis of samples collected in live-poultry markets from Guangdong, Hunan, and Yunnan in southern China from 2001 to 2004. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of 73 H5N1 isolates from this period revealed a greater genetic diversity in southern China than previously reported. Moreover, results show that eight viruses isolated from Yunnan in 2002 and 2003 were most closely related to the clade 1 virus sublineage from Vietnam, Thailand, and Malaysia, while two viruses from Hunan in 2002 and 2003 were most closely related to viruses from Indonesia (clade 2.1). Further phylogenetic analyses of the six internal genes showed that all 10 of those viruses maintained similar phylogenetic relationships as the surface genes. The 10 progenitor viruses were genotype Z and shared high similarity (>/=99%) with their corresponding descendant viruses in most gene segments. These results suggest a direct transmission link for H5N1 viruses between Yunnan and Vietnam and also between Hunan and Indonesia during 2002 and 2003. Poultry trade may be responsible for virus introduction to Vietnam, while the transmission route from Hunan to Indonesia remains unclear.
  16. Wang J, Luo E, Hirai M, Arai M, Abdul-Manan E, Mohamed-Isa Z, et al.
    Acta Med. Okayama, 2008 Oct;62(5):327-32.
    PMID: 18985093
    The Malaysian people consist of several ethnic groups including the Malay, the Chinese, the Indian and the Orang Asli (aboriginal Malaysians). We collected blood samples from outpatients of 2 hospitals in the State of Selangor and identified 27 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient subjects among these ethnic groups. In the Malay, G6PD Viangchan (871GA, 1311CT, IVS11 nt93TC) and G6PD Mahidol (487GA) types, which are common in Cambodia and Myanmar, respectively, were detected. The Malay also had both subtypes of G6PD Mediterranean:the Mediterranean subtype (563CT, 1311CT, IVS11 nt93TC) and the Indo-Pakistan subtype (563CT, 1311C, IVS11 nt93T). In Malaysians of Chinese background, G6PD Kaiping (1388GA), G6PD Canton (1376GT) and G6PD Gaohe (95AG), which are common in China, were detected. Indian Malaysians possessed G6PD Mediterranean (Indo-Pakistan subtype) and G6PD Namoru (208TC), a few cases of which had been reported in Vanuatu and many in India. Our findings indicate that G6PD Namoru occurs in India and flows to Malaysia up to Vanuatu. We also discovered 5 G6PD-deficient cases with 2 nucleotide substitutions of 1311CT and IVS11 nt93TC, but without amino-acid substitution in the G6PD molecule. These results indicate that the Malaysian people have incorporated many ancestors in terms of G6PD variants.
    Study site: Kajang District Hospital and the Hospital Orang Asli Gombak, Selangor, Malaysia
  17. Wang J, Mahmood Q, Qiu JP, Li YS, Chang YS, Li XD
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:398028.
    PMID: 26167485 DOI: 10.1155/2015/398028
    Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8 d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179 mg/L to 12341 mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587 mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30 mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65 m(3) of biogas per m(3) of POME which was utilized for electricity generation.
  18. Md Din MF, Wang JL, Cheng ZX, Dou SX, Kennedy SJ, Avdeev M, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2015;5:11288.
    PMID: 26090940 DOI: 10.1038/srep11288
    The structural and magnetic properties of seven CeMn2Ge(2-x)Six compounds with x = 0.0-2.0 have been investigated in detail. Substitution of Ge with Si leads to a monotonic decrease of both a and c along with concomitant contraction of the unit cell volume and significant modifications of the magnetic states - a crossover from ferromagnetism at room temperature for Ge-rich compounds to antiferromagnetism for Si-rich compounds. The magnetic phase diagram has been constructed over the full range of CeMn2Ge(2-x)Six compositions and co-existence of ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism has been observed in CeMn2Ge1.2Si0.8, CeMn2Ge1.0Si1.0 and CeMn2Ge0.8Si1.2 with novel insight provided by high resolution neutron and X-ray synchrotron radiation studies. CeMn2Ge(2-x)Six compounds (x = 0, 0.4 and 0.8) exhibit moderate isothermal magnetic entropy accompanied with a second-order phase transition around room temperature. Analysis of critical behaviour in the vicinity of TC(inter) for CeMn2Ge2 compound indicates behaviour consistent with three-dimensional Heisenberg model predictions.
  19. Rao R, Bing Zhu Y, Alinejad T, Tiruvayipati S, Lin Thong K, Wang J, et al.
    Gut Pathog, 2015;7:6.
    PMID: 25922623 DOI: 10.1186/s13099-015-0052-6
    The Malaysian giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean worldwide. However, production of this prawn is facing a serious threat from Vibriosis disease caused by Vibrio species such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Unfortunately, the mechanisms involved in the immune response of this species to bacterial infection are not fully understood. We therefore used a high-throughput deep sequencing technology to investigate the transcriptome and comparative expression profiles of the hepatopancreas from this freshwater prawn infected with V. parahaemolyticus to gain an increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the species' immune response to this pathogenic bacteria.
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