Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 63 in total

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  1. Tan KL
    Int Breastfeed J, 2011 Feb 02;6(1):2.
    PMID: 21284889 DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-6-2
    BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is accepted as the natural form of infant feeding. For mothers to be able to breastfeed exclusively to the recommended six months, it is important to understand the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Peninsular Malaysia.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 682 mother-infant pairs with infants up to six months attending maternal and child health section of the government health clinics in Klang, Malaysia. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a pre-tested structured questionnaire over 4 months in 2006. Data on breastfeeding were based on practice in the previous one month period. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between the independent variables and exclusive breastfeeding adjusting for infant age.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers with infants aged between one and six months was 43.1% (95% CI: 39.4, 46.8). In the multivariate model exclusive breastfeeding was positively associated with rural residence, Malay mothers, non-working and non-smoking mothers, multiparous mothers, term infants, mothers with husbands who support breastfeeding and mothers who practice bed-sharing.

    CONCLUSIONS: Interventions that seek to increase exclusive breastfeeding should focus on women who are at risk of early discontinuation of breastfeeding.

  2. Tan KL
    Malays J Nutr, 2009 Mar;15(1):11-8.
    PMID: 22691800 MyJurnal
    This is a cross-sectional study which investigated the association between non-exclusive breastfeeding and maternal, paternal, obstetric and infant factors. Data on maternal, paternal, obstetric and infant factors were collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire from 498 mothers with four-week-old infants who attended government clinics in Klang district between 17 and 28 July 2006. The prevalence of non-exclusive breastfeeding at four weeks was 45.8%. Factors significantly associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding at four weeks included Indian ethnic mother (OR = 4.06), working mother (OR = 3.55), mother from high household income (OR = 1.90), mother who smokes (OR = 7.27), primiparous (OR = 1.97), infant not sharing a bed with mother (OR = 1.75) and infant born prematurely (OR = 7.69). Identification of risk factors should assist in targeting women who are at increased risk of non-exclusive breastfeeding.
  3. Tan KL
    J Dev Behav Pediatr, 2009 Oct;30(5):420-5.
    PMID: 19827222 DOI: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181ba083a
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of mother-infant bed sharing in Klang district, Peninsular Malaysia and to identify factors associated with bed sharing.

    METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study involving 682 mother-infant pairs with infants up to 6 months attending government clinics in Klang district, Peninsular Malaysia. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using a pretested structured questionnaire for a 4-month period in 2006. Data regarding maternal, paternal, obstetric, infant, occupancy, breast-feeding characteristics, and bed-sharing practice were collected. Data on bed sharing were based on practice in the past 1-month period. Bed sharing was defined as an infant sharing a bed with mother, and infant must be within arms reach from the mother, whereas a bed was defined as either a sleeping mattress placed on a bed frame or placed on the floor. The prevalence of bed sharing was estimated. Relationship and magnitude of association between independent factors and bed sharing were examined using odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Logistic regression analysis was used to control for confounding factors.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of bed sharing among mothers with infants aged between 1 and 6 months was 73.5% (95% confidence interval: 70.0-76.7). In multivariate analysis, urban/rural differences, mothers' ethnicity, occupation, family income, husbands' support on bed sharing, number of children younger than 12 years staying in the house, and breast-feeding were associated with bed sharing.

    CONCLUSIONS: These factors need to be considered in analyzing the overall risks and benefits of bed sharing, paying attention to breastfeeding practices.
  4. Tan KL
    PMID: 6497323
    Perinatal mortality rates have been gradually declining in all countries. The initial decline mainly resulted from improvements in the late foetal mortality rates. Later with improvements in neonatal care, early neonatal mortality rates also improved. The developed countries have consistently shown better results than the developing countries, an indication of the higher standard of living, general health as well as the delivery of health care in these countries. In the Singapore situation, a rapid improvement in perinatal mortality was initially observed due to improvements in the late foetal mortality, followed later by reduction in the early neonatal mortality due to upgrading of neonatal intensive care. The perinatal mortality rate is lowest in the Chinese compared to the Indians and Malays, most likely due to the dietary practices of the three ethnic groups in Singapore; while the Chinese encourage extra nutrition in the pregnant female, the Malays and Indians tend to practise dietary restriction during this period. The improved nutrition of the pregnant mother is a factor in improving the perinatal mortality.
  5. Tan KL
    MyJurnal
    This was a cross-sectional study which attempt; tu determine the prevalence of breastfeeding practice among mothers in Klcmg district, Malaysia and the association between lyrcastfceding practice with place of delivery and knowledge 011 breastfeeding. Dam collection was conducted by face·t0·face interview using a premuded structured questionnaire amung mothers with fum month old infants only who attended che government clinics in Klang, A total of 508 mothers were recruited ima the study. The study showed 92.9% ever breastfed, 55.1% exclusively lareastfed fur one month and 20.5% exclusively bremtfcd for four months. Malays brcastfed the most, while
    Chinese the least. Breastfeeding was more common among mothers with lower education, delivered in government hospitals and with good knowledge on breastfeeding. A high proportion uf mothers in Klang wouki initiate breastfeeding and the [neualence of exclusive breastfeeding was comparable nationally. Breastfeeding was associated with mothers delivered in government hospitals and with good knowledge on breastfeeding. Continued promotional efforts targeted at private hospitals with information on breastfeeding should result in further increase in breastfeeding prevalence.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan, Kelang district, Selangor, Malaysia
  6. Tan KL
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: In Klang, a district in the state of Selangor in Peninsular Malaysia, the effects of westernization and urbanization in recent years have had an impact on infant feeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate the practice, knowledge and attitude to breastfeeding and to assess factors associated with breastfeeding among women in Klang, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and October 2006 involving 220 women with infants aged six months from two randomly selected health clinics were selected and interviewed. Data on socio-demographic, infant factors, infant feeding in the first six months of life, knowledge and attitude towards breastfeeding were collected. Results: Exclusive breastfeeding was reported by 32.8%, mixed feeding was reported by 14.5% and infant formula feeding was reported by 52.7% of the respondents. Chinese women were more likely not to practice exclusive breastfeeding compared to Malay women (odds ratio 18.27, 95% CI: 3.95, 84.54) while working women were more likely not to practice exclusive breastfeeding compared to non working women (odds ratio 3.75, 95% CI: 1.64 , 8.55). Positive association with not exclusive breastfeeding included women with high household income and women with male infants. Malaysian women had a positive attitude but work place and short maternity leave had a negative impact on breastfeeding. Conclusion: Women of Chinese ethnicity, working, from high family income and with male infants were less likely to exclusively breastfeed. Adopting facilitatory measures at hospitals and work place could increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding.
  7. Tan KL
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 Oct;74(5):389-393.
    PMID: 31649214
    BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity remains the most important modifiable risk factor in preventing a variety of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and has been identified to be a risk factor for obesity, heart disease and cancers. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity among the suburban adult population in Port Dickson district, Negeri Sembilan, Peninsular Malaysia.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a community based crosssectional study involving 397 adult respondents conducted in February 2016. Data was collected by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Data regarding socio-demographic factors (age, gender, ethnicity, education level, marital status and monthly income, working hours), current behavioural stage of physical activity and perceived benefits and barriers to physical activity were collected. Physical activity measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) with the cut-off point of less than 600 met-min per week was considered to be physically inactive.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of physical inactivity among adult population was 36.3%. Factors significantly associated with physical inactivity included age, gender, marital status, working hours and current behavioural stage of physical activity.

    CONCLUSION: Physical inactivity is high among the adult community in Negeri Sembilan district, Peninsular Malaysia and was strongly associated with age, gender, marital status, working hours and current behavioural stage of physical activity. It is important to identify individuals with physical inactivity and its associated factors early as this could severely affect the quality of life of the individuals.

  8. Tan KL, Yadav H
    J Health Psychol, 2013 Jan;18(1):121-7.
    PMID: 22322990 DOI: 10.1177/1359105311433908
    This community based cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and factors associated with depression among urban poor in Peninsular Malaysia. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to determine the presence or absence of depression. The prevalence of depression among the urban poor was 12.3%. Factors significantly associated with depression included respondents under 25 years old, male gender, living in the area for less than four years and those who do not exercise regularly. It is important to identify individuals with depression and its associated factors early because depression can severely affect the quality of life.
  9. Tan KL, Harvinder S
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Jun;65(2):101-2.
    PMID: 23756790 MyJurnal
    Onodi cell is a posterior ethmoid air cell that pneumatizes into the sphenoid sinus, It is an important entity for clinicians when performing endoscopic sinus surgery (EES) because it encroaches into the optic nerve and internal carotid artery. CT-scans are the road map for ESS to prevent damage to structures mentioned above. Its prevalence in Malaysia is unknown.
  10. Tan KL, Yadav H
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Aug;63(3):199-202.
    PMID: 19248689 MyJurnal
    This is a cross-sectional study investigating the profile of children with disability registered with the primary health care clinics in Malaysia. The purpose of the study was to assess the developmental stage of children with disability. Secondary data from the pilot project conducted by the Family Health Development Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia was used in this study. The study period was for six months from 1st August 2004 until 31st January 2005. A total of 900 disabled children were selected in this study. Schedule of Growing Scale (SGS) II was used for analysis. Results showed more boys than girls were affected with a ratio of 6:4. The mean total SGS score increases as the age of the child increased. The score was highest in delayed speech cases and lowest in cerebral palsy cases. The performance among children with delayed speech was the highest while children with cerebral palsy were the lowest. There was a statistically significant difference between the major ethnic groups in delayed speech and attention deficit hyperactive disorder.
    Questionnaire: Denver Developmental Assessment Test II chart; DSST; Schedule of Growing Scale II; SGS
  11. Tan KL, Yadav H
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Mar;63(1):17-20.
    PMID: 18935725 MyJurnal
    This is a cohort study investigating the profile of children with disability registered with the primary health care clinics in Malaysia. The purpose of the study was to determine whether reassessment on the development of children with disability under rehabilitation should be done at three months interval or six months interval. Secondary data from the pilot project conducted by the Family Health Development Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia was used in this study. The study was carried out for seven months from 1st August 2004 until 28th February 2005. A total of 168 disabled children followed up for six months were selected in this study. Schedule of Growing Scale (SGS) II was the tool used for analysis. Results showed a statistically significant difference in the mean total SGS score at six months interval but not at three months interval. The result suggests that reassessment on children with Down Syndrome, Autism, Cerebral Palsy, mental retardation and delayed speech under rehabilitation should be carried out every six months while children with gross developmental delay and slow learner might need a longer interval for reassessment.
  12. Tan KL, Pezzella F
    Oncology letters, 2016 Dec;12(6):4287-4296.
    PMID: 28101194 DOI: 10.3892/ol.2016.5232
    The capabilities of tumour cells to survive through deregulated cell cycles and evade apoptosis are hallmarks of cancer. The ubiquitin-like proteins (UBL) proteasome system is important in regulating cell cycles via signaling proteins. Deregulation of the proteasomal system can lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation. The Skp, Cullin, F-box containing complex (SCF complex) is the predominant E3 ubiquitin ligase, and has diverse substrates. The ubiquitin ligase activity of the SCF complexes requires the conjugation of neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8) to cullin proteins. A tumour suppressor and degrading enzyme named NEDD8 ultimate buster 1 (NUB1) is able to recruit HLA-F-adjacent transcript 10 (FAT10)- and NEDD8-conjugated proteins for proteasomal degradation. Ubiquitination is associated with neddylation and FAT10ylation. Although validating the targets of UBLs, including ubiquitin, NEDD8 and FAT10, is challenging, understanding the biological significance of such substrates is an exciting research prospect. This present review discusses the interplay of these UBLs, as well as highlighting their inhibition through NUB1. Knowledge of the mechanisms by which NUB1 is able to downregulate the ubiquitin cascade via NEDD8 conjugation and the FAT10 pathway is essential. This will provide insights into potential cancer therapy that could be used to selectively suppress cancer growth.
  13. Tan KL, Woon KY
    J Singapore Paediatr Soc, 1979;Suppl:57-67.
    PMID: 550004
  14. Smith JD, Tan KL
    Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am., 2018 Jun;51(3):659-665.
    PMID: 29482921 DOI: 10.1016/j.otc.2018.01.010
    The Asia-Pacific region has 60% of the world's population. There is a huge variability in ethnic groups, geography, diseases, and income. The otolaryngology workforce depends on the number of medical graduates, training programs, scope of practice, and available employment. Training has been influenced by the British, Russian, and US training systems, and by local influences and experience. Otolaryngologic diseases are similar to those seen in the United States but with ethnic and regional differences. There are opportunities for humanitarian service but the most sustainable projects will include repetitive visits with transfer of knowledge.
  15. Tan KL, Ankathil R, Gan SH
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci, 2011 Nov 15;879(30):3583-91.
    PMID: 22000961 DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2011.09.048
    We developed a simple and sensitive method for the simultaneous detection of imatinib mesylate (IM) and its active metabolite, N-desmethyl imatinib (M1), in human serum samples. Separation was successfully achieved using an Agilent(®) ZORBAX Eclipse plus C(18) reversed phase column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, i.d.; 1.8 μm) under isocratic mobile phase conditions consisting of acetonitrile: 0.02 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate with 0.2% triethylamine at pH 3 (25:75, v/v) and ultra-violet detection was achieved at 235 nm. Extraction of the target compounds was completed using 100% cold acetonitrile. Good linearities (r(2)>0.99) for both IM and M1 were achieved for the concentration ranges of 50-1800 ng/mL and 50-360 ng/mL, respectively. The detection limits were 20 ng/mL and 10 ng/mL for M1 and IM, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 1% with percent recoveries of more than 90%. The method was successfully applied to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters of chronic myeloid leukemia patients receiving imatinib. The method is suitable to be routinely applied for determination of IM and M1 in serum.
  16. Tan KL, Ghani SN, Moy FM
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Dec;64(4):311-5.
    PMID: 20954557 MyJurnal
    This was a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and characteristics of mother-infant bed-sharing practice in Klang district, Malaysia. Data was collected by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire for a four month period in 2006. A total of 682 mother-infant pairs attending government health clinics were included in the study. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics of the mothers, information on the infants, bed-sharing and breastfeeding practices were collected. The mean maternal age was 28.4 +/- 5.1 years while the mean infant gestational age was 38.8 +/- 1.8 weeks. The study showed the prevalence of bed-sharing was 73.5% (95% CI: 70.0, 76.7). In multivariate analysis; area of interview, maternal occupation, family income, breastfeeding and infant birth weight were associated with bed-sharing after adjusted for maternal ethnicity, age, marital status, educational level, parity, infant gender and infant gestational age. In conclusion, bed-sharing is a common practice in Klang district, Malaysia, not specific to ethnicity, but strongly associated with low family income and breastfeeding.
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