Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

  1. Tan KH, Tan LT, Nishida R
    J. Chem. Ecol., 2006 Nov;32(11):2429-41.
    PMID: 17082990 DOI: 10.1007/s10886-006-9154-4
    It is widely believed that most orchid flowers attract insects by using deception or chemical rewards in the form of nectar. Flowers of Bulbophyllum vinaceum produce a large array of phenylpropanoids that lure tephritid fruit fly males and also act as floral reward, which the flies subsequently convert to pheromone components. The major floral volatile components identified are methyl eugenol (ME), trans-coniferyl alcohol (CF), 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoxphenol (DMP), and trans-3,4-dimethoxycinnamyl acetate, whereas the minor components are eugenol, euasarone, trans-3,4-dimethoxy cinnamyl alcohol, and cis-coniferyl alcohol. Among the various floral parts, the lip (which is held in a closed position up against the sexual organs) has the highest concentration of the major compounds. An attracted male fly normally lands on one of the petals before climbing up onto and forcing the "spring loaded" floral lip into the open position, hence exposing the floral sexual organs. The architecture and location of chemical attractants of the lip compel the fly to align itself along the lip's longitudinal axis in a precise manner. As the fly laps up the compounds and moves towards the base of the lip, it passes the point of imbalance causing the lip to spring back to its normal closed position. The fly is catapulted headfirst into the column cavity, and its dorsum strikes the protruding sticky base of the hamulus and adheres to it. The momentum of the fly and the structural morphology of the long stiff hamulus act to pry out the pollinia from its anther cover. Hence, the pollinarium (pollinia + hamulus) is detached from the flower and adhered to the fly's dorsum. In this unique mutualistic association, both species receive direct reproductive benefits--the flower's pollinarium is transported for cross pollination, and the fly is offered a bouquet of phenylpropanoids (synomone) that it consumes, converts, and/or sequesters as sex pheromonal components, thus enhancing sexual attraction and mating success.
  2. Tajunisah I, Wong P, Tan L, Rokiah P, Reddy S
    Int J Ophthalmol, 2011;4(5):519-24.
    PMID: 22553714 DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2011.05.12
    AIM: To assess the awareness of eye complications and the prevalence of retinopathy, in the first visit to eye clinic, among type 2 diabetic patients attending a tertiary medical centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    METHODS: An investigator-administered questionnaire was given to 137 patients with diabetes undergoing first time eye screening in the eye clinic. This was followed by a detailed fundus examination by a senior ophthalmologist to assess for presence of retinopathy.
    RESULTS: Almost 86% of respondents were aware of diabetic eye complications, especially in patients who had achieved tertiary educational level (96.3%). The majority of the patients (78.8%) were referred by their physicians and only 20.4% came on their own initiative. Many of the patients (43.8%) did not know how frequent they should go for an eye check-up and 72.3% did not know what treatments were available. Lack of understanding on diabetic eye diseases (68.6%) was the main barrier for most patients for not coming for eye screening earlier. Despite a high level of awareness, only 21.9% had recorded HbA1c level of <6.5% while 31.4% were under the erroneous assumption of having a good blood sugar control. A total of 29.2% had diabetic retinopathy in their first visit eye testing.
    CONCLUSION: In the present study, 29.2% of type 2 diabetic patients had retinopathy in their first time eye testing. Although the awareness of diabetic eye complications was high among first time eye screening patients, the appropriate eye care-seeking behavior was comparatively less and should be rectified to prevent the rise of this sight threatening eye disease.
    KEYWORDS: awa-reness; diabetic retinopathy; eye complications; eye screening
    Study site: Eye clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  3. Tan LT, Chan KG, Lee LH, Goh BH
    Front Microbiol, 2016;7:79.
    PMID: 26903962 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00079
    In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations.
  4. Tan LT, Davagnanam I, Isa H, Rose GE, Verity DH, Pusey CD, et al.
    Ophthalmology, 2015 Oct;122(10):2125-9.
    PMID: 26233627 DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2015.06.026
    Lacrimal gland involvement in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) commonly accompanies orbital disease, but occasionally may be the sole presentation preceding any other organ manifestation or systemic disease. Diagnosis of orbital GPA, especially in patients with lacrimal involvement as the initial presentation, can be difficult because of nonspecific clinical features and lack of diagnostic specificity on histologic and antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) testing. Orbital GPA can be associated with a high morbidity from potential visual loss or rapid progression of latent systemic disease, making early diagnosis important. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and imaging features of patients with lacrimal gland involvement secondary to GPA and to compare them with those of other orbital inflammatory conditions in the lacrimal gland fossa.
  5. Chan WK, Tan LT, Chan KG, Lee LH, Goh BH
    Molecules, 2016 Apr 28;21(5).
    PMID: 27136520 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21050529
    Nerolidol (3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol) is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene alcohol that is present in various plants with a floral odor. It is synthesized as an intermediate in the production of (3E)-4,8-dimethy-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), a herbivore-induced volatile that protects plants from herbivore damage. Chemically, nerolidol exists in two geometric isomers, a trans and a cis form. The usage of nerolidol is widespread across different industries. It has been widely used in cosmetics (e.g., shampoos and perfumes) and in non-cosmetic products (e.g., detergents and cleansers). In fact, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also permitted the use of nerolidol as a food flavoring agent. The fact that nerolidol is a common ingredient in many products has attracted researchers to explore more medicinal properties of nerolidol that may exert beneficial effect on human health. Therefore, the aim of this review is to compile and consolidate the data on the various pharmacological and biological activities displayed by nerolidol. Furthermore, this review also includes pharmacokinetic and toxicological studies of nerolidol. In summary, the various pharmacological and biological activities demonstrated in this review highlight the prospects of nerolidol as a promising chemical or drug candidate in the field of agriculture and medicine.
  6. Letchumanan V, Pusparajah P, Tan LT, Yin WF, Lee LH, Chan KG
    Front Microbiol, 2015;6:1417.
    PMID: 26697003 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01417
    High consumer demand for shellfish has led to the need for large-scale, reliable shellfish supply through aquaculture or shellfish farming. However, bacterial infections which can spread rapidly among shellfish poses a major threat to this industry. Shellfish farmers therefore often resort to extensive use of antibiotics, both prophylactically and therapeutically, in order to protect their stocks. The extensive use of antibiotics in aquaculture has been postulated to represent a major contributing factor in the rising incidence of antimicrobial resistant pathogenic bacteria in shellfish. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus and determine the antibiotic resistance profile as well as to perform plasmid curing in order to determine the antibiotic resistance mediation. Based on colony morphology, all 450 samples tested were positive for Vibrio sp; however, tox-R assay showed that only 44.4% (200/450) of these were V. parahaemolyticus. Out of these 200 samples, 6.5% (13/200) were trh-positive while none were tdh-positive. Antibiotic resistance was determined for all V. parahaemolyticus identified against 14 commonly used antibiotics and the multiple antibiotic resistance index (MAR) was calculated. The isolates demonstrated high resistance to several antibiotics tested- including second and third-line antibiotics- with 88% resistant to ampicillin, 81% to amikacin,70.5% to kanamycin, 73% to cefotaxime, and 51.5% to ceftazidime. The MAR index ranged from 0.00 to 0.79 with the majority of samples having an index of 0.36 (resistant to five antibiotics). Among the 13 trh-positive strains, almost 70% (9/13) demonstrated resistance to 4 or more antibiotics. Plasmid profiling for all V. parahaemolyticus isolates revealed that 86.5% (173/200) contained plasmids - ranging from 1 to 7 plasmids with DNA band sizes ranging from 1.2 kb to greater than 10 kb. 6/13 of the pathogenic V. pathogenic strains contained plasmid. After plasmid curing, the plasmid containing pathogenic strains isolated in our study have chromosomally mediated ampicillin resistance while the remaining resistance phenotypes are plasmid mediated. Overall, our results indicate that while the incidence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in shellfish in Selangor still appears to be at relatively reassuring levels, antibiotic resistance is a real concern and warrants ongoing surveillance.
  7. Tan LT, Ser HL, Yin WF, Chan KG, Lee LH, Goh BH
    Front Microbiol, 2015;6:1316.
    PMID: 26635777 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01316
    A Streptomyces strain, MUM256 was isolated from Tanjung Lumpur mangrove soil in Malaysia. Characterization of the strain showed that it has properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. In order to explore the potential bioactivities, extract of the fermented broth culture of MUM256 was prepared with organic solvent extraction method. DPPH and SOD activity were utilized to examine the antioxidant capacity and the results have revealed the potency of MUM256 in superoxide anion scavenging activity in dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity of MUM256 extract was determined using cell viability assay against 8 different panels of human cancer cell lines. Among all the tested cancer cells, HCT116 was the most sensitive toward the extract treatment. At the highest concentration of tested extract, the result showed 2.3-, 2.0-, and 1.8-folds higher inhibitory effect against HCT116, HT29, and Caco-2 respectively when compared to normal cell line. This result has demonstrated that MUM256 extract was selectively cytotoxic toward colon cancer cell lines. In order to determine the constituents responsible for its bioactivities, the extract was then subjected to chemical analysis using GC-MS. The analysis resulted in the identification of chemical constituents including phenolic and pyrrolopyrazine compounds which may responsible for antioxidant and anticancer activities observed. Based on the findings of this study, the presence of bioactive constituents in MUM256 extract could be a potential source for the development of antioxidative and chemopreventive agents.
  8. Chan CK, Tan LT, Andy SN, Kamarudin MNA, Goh BH, Kadir HA
    Front Pharmacol, 2017;8:397.
    PMID: 28680404 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00397
    Elephantopus scaber L. (family: Asteraceae) has been traditionally utilized as a folkloric medicine and scientifically shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities in various in vivo inflammatory models. Given the lack of study on the effect of E. scaber in neuroinflammation, this study aimed to investigate the anti-neuroinflammatory effect and the underlying mechanisms of ethyl acetate fraction from the leaves of E. scaber (ESEAF) on the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglia cells (BV-2). Present findings showed that ESEAF markedly attenuated the translocation of NF-κB to nucleus concomitantly with the significant mitigation on the LPS-induced production of NO, iNOS, COX-2, PGE2, IL-1β, and TNF-α. These inflammatory responses were reduced via the inhibition of p38. Besides, ESEAF was shown to possess antioxidant activities evident by the DPPH and SOD scavenging activities. The intracellular catalase enzyme activity was enhanced by ESEAF in the LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Furthermore, the formation of ROS induced by LPS in BV-2 cells was reduced upon the exposure to ESEAF. Intriguingly, the reduction of ROS was found in concerted with the activation of Nrf2 and HO-1. It is conceivable that the activation promotes the scavenging power of antioxidant enzymes as well as to ameliorate the inflammatory response in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Finally, the safety profile analysis through oral administration of ESEAF at 2000 mg/kg did not result in any mortalities, adverse effects nor histopathologic abnormalities of organs in mice. Taken altogether, the cumulative findings suggested that ESEAF holds the potential to develop as nutraceutical for the intervention of neuroinflammatory disorders.
  9. Tan LT, Chan KG, Chan CK, Khan TM, Lee LH, Goh BH
    Biomed Res Int, 2018;2018:4823126.
    PMID: 29805975 DOI: 10.1155/2018/4823126
    Mangrove derived microorganisms constitute a rich bioresource for bioprospecting of bioactive natural products. This study explored the antioxidant potentials of Streptomyces bacteria derived from mangrove soil. Based on 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis, strain MUM292 was identified as the genus Streptomyces. Strain MUM292 showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.54% with S. griseoruber NBRC12873T. Furthermore, strain MUM292 was also characterized and showed phenotypic characteristics consistent with Streptomyces bacteria. Fermentation and extraction were performed to obtain the MUM292 extract containing the secondary metabolites of strain MUM292. The extract displayed promising antioxidant activities, including DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide radical scavenging and also metal-chelating activities. The process of lipid peroxidation in lipid-rich product was also retarded by MUM292 extract and resulted in reduced MDA production. The potential bioactive constituents of MUM292 extract were investigated using GC-MS and preliminary detection showed the presence of pyrazine, pyrrole, cyclic dipeptides, and phenolic compound in MUM292 extract. This work demonstrates that Streptomyces MUM292 can be a potential antioxidant resource for food and pharmaceutical industries.
  10. Wong C, Tan LT, Mujahid A, Lihan S, Wee JLS, Ting LF, et al.
    Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 2018 Oct;67(4):384-391.
    PMID: 29998586 DOI: 10.1111/lam.13049
    Copper (Cu) tolerance was observed by endophytic fungi isolated from the carnivorous plant Nepenthes ampullaria (collected at an anthropogenically affected site, Kuching city; and a pristine site; Heart of Borneo). The fungal isolates, capable of tolerating Cu up to 1000 ppm (11 isolates in total), were identified through molecular method [internal transcribed spacer 4+5 (ITS4+5); ITS1+NL4; β-tubulin region using Bt2a + Bt2b], and all of them grouped with Diaporthe, Nigrospora, and Xylaria. A Cu biosorption study was then carried out using live and dead biomass of the 11 fungal isolates. The highest biosorption capacity of using live biomass was achieved by fungal isolates Xylaria sp. NA40 (73·26 ± 1·61 mg Cu per g biomass) and Diaporthe sp. NA41 (72·65 ± 2·23 mg Cu per g biomass), NA27 (59·81 ± 1·15 mg Cu per g biomass) and NA28 (56·85 ± 4·23 mg Cu per g biomass). The fungal isolate Diaporthe sp. NA41 also achieved the highest biosorption capacity of 59·33 ± 0·15 mg g-1 using dead biomass. The living biomass possessed a better biosorption capacity than the dead biomass (P 
  11. Kemung HM, Tan LT, Khan TM, Chan KG, Pusparajah P, Goh BH, et al.
    Front Microbiol, 2018;9:2221.
    PMID: 30319563 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02221
    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pose a significant health threat as they tend to cause severe infections in vulnerable populations and are difficult to treat due to a limited range of effective antibiotics and also their ability to form biofilm. These organisms were once limited to hospital acquired infections but are now widely present in the community and even in animals. Furthermore, these organisms are constantly evolving to develop resistance to more antibiotics. This results in a need for new clinically useful antibiotics and one potential source are the Streptomyces which have already been the source of several anti-MRSA drugs including vancomycin. There remain large numbers of Streptomyces potentially undiscovered in underexplored regions such as mangrove, deserts, marine, and freshwater environments as well as endophytes. Organisms from these regions also face significant challenges to survival which often result in the production of novel bioactive compounds, several of which have already shown promise in drug development. We review the various mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in MRSA and all the known compounds isolated from Streptomyces with anti-MRSA activity with a focus on those from underexplored regions. The isolation of the full array of compounds Streptomyces are potentially capable of producing in the laboratory has proven a challenge, we also review techniques that have been used to overcome this obstacle including genetic cluster analysis. Additionally, we review the in vivo work done thus far with promising compounds of Streptomyces origin as well as the animal models that could be used for this work.
  12. Low LE, Tan LT, Goh BH, Tey BT, Ong BH, Tang SY
    Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 2019 Apr 15;127:76-84.
    PMID: 30639596 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.01.037
    Stimuli-responsive drug release and controlled delivery play crucial roles in enhancing the therapeutic efficacy and lowering over-dosage induced side effects. In this paper, we report magnetically-triggered drug release and in-vitro anti-colon cancer efficacy of Fe3O4@cellulose nanocrystal (MCNC)-stabilized Pickering emulsions containing curcumin (CUR). The loading efficiency of CUR in the micron-sized (≈7 μm) MCNC-stabilized Pickering emulsions (MCNC-PE) template was found to be 99.35%. The drug release profiles showed that the exposure of MCNC-PE to external magnetic field (EMF) (0.7 T) stimulated the release of bioactive from MCNC-PE achieving 53.30 ± 5.08% of the initial loading over a 4-day period. The MTT assay demonstrated that the CUR-loaded MCNC-PE can effectively inhibits the human colon cancer cells growth down to 18% in the presence of EMF. The formulation also resulted in 2-fold reduction on the volume of the 3-D multicellular spheroids of HCT116 as compared to the control sample. The MCNC particle was found to be non-toxic to brine shrimp up to a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Our findings suggested that the palm-based MCNC-PE could be a promising yet effective colloidal drug delivery system for magnetic-triggered release of bioactive and therapeutics.
  13. Tan LT, Chan KG, Pusparajah P, Yin WF, Khan TM, Lee LH, et al.
    BMC Microbiol., 2019 Feb 13;19(1):38.
    PMID: 30760201 DOI: 10.1186/s12866-019-1409-7
    BACKGROUND: Colon cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide, with a commensurately high mortality rate. The search for novel antioxidants and specific anticancer agents which may inhibit, delay or reverse the development of colon cancer is thus an area of great interest; Streptomyces bacteria have been demonstrated to be a source of such agents.

    RESULTS: The extract from Streptomyces sp. MUM265- a strain which was isolated and identified from Kuala Selangor mangrove forest, Selangor, Malaysia- was analyzed and found to exhibit antioxidant properties as demonstrated via metal-chelating ability as well as superoxide anion, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. This study also showed that MUM265 extract demonstrated cytotoxicity against colon cancer cells as evidenced by the reduced cell viability of Caco-2 cell line. Treatment with MUM265 extract induced depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and accumulation of subG1 cells in cell cycle analysis, suggesting that MUM265 exerted apoptosis-inducing effects on Caco-2 cells.

    CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that mangrove derived Streptomyces sp. MUM265 represents a valuable bioresource of bioactive compounds for the future development of chemopreventive agents, with particular promise suggested for treatment of colon cancer.

  14. Tan LT, Lee LH, Yin WF, Chan CK, Abdul Kadir H, Chan KG, et al.
    PMID: 26294929 DOI: 10.1155/2015/896314
    Ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata Hook. F. & Thomson) is one of the plants that are exploited at a large scale for its essential oil which is an important raw material for the fragrance industry. The essential oils extracted via steam distillation from the plant have been used mainly in cosmetic industry but also in food industry. Traditionally, C. odorata is used to treat malaria, stomach ailments, asthma, gout, and rheumatism. The essential oils or ylang-ylang oil is used in aromatherapy and is believed to be effective in treating depression, high blood pressure, and anxiety. Many phytochemical studies have identified the constituents present in the essential oils of C. odorata. A wide range of chemical compounds including monoterpene, sesquiterpenes, and phenylpropanoids have been isolated from this plant. Recent studies have shown a wide variety of bioactivities exhibited by the essential oils and the extracts of C. odorata including antimicrobial, antibiofilm, anti-inflammatory, antivector, insect-repellent, antidiabetic, antifertility and antimelanogenesis activities. Thus, the present review summarizes the information concerning the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and biological activities of C. odorata. This review is aimed at demonstrating that C. odorata not only is an important raw material for perfume industry but also considered as a prospective useful plant to agriculture and medicine.
  15. Tan LT, Davagnanam I, Isa H, Taylor SR, Rose GE, Verity DH, et al.
    Ophthalmology, 2014 Jun;121(6):1304-9.
    PMID: 24560566 DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.12.003
    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), previously Wegener's granulomatosis, requires prompt diagnosis and systemic review to exclude life-threatening disease. However, early diagnosis of orbital GPA may be difficult because anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and anti-PR3 antibody screening can be negative at presentation and orbital biopsies taken for diagnosis may not show the classic features of GPA. This study was designed to compare GPA with other causes of orbital inflammation and to identify the presenting clinical and imaging features most likely to predict GPA and its systemic spread.
  16. Ser HL, Tan LT, Palanisamy UD, Abd Malek SN, Yin WF, Chan KG, et al.
    Front Microbiol, 2016;7:899.
    PMID: 27379040 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00899
    A novel strain, Streptomyces antioxidans MUSC 164(T) was recovered from mangrove forest soil located at Tanjung Lumpur, Malaysia. The Gram-positive bacterium forms yellowish-white aerial and brilliant greenish yellow substrate mycelium on ISP 2 agar. A polyphasic approach was used to determine the taxonomy status of strain MUSC 164(T). The strain showed a spectrum of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. The cell wall peptidoglycan was determined to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8), while the identified polar lipids consisted of aminolipid, diphosphatidylglycerol, glycolipid, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and lipid. The cell wall sugars consist of galactose, glucose and ribose. The predominant cellular fatty acids (>10.0%) were identified as iso-C15: 0 (34.8%) and anteiso-C15: 0(14.0%). Phylogenetic analysis identified that closely related strains for MUSC 164(T) as Streptomyces javensis NBRC 100777(T) (99.6% sequence similarity), Streptomyces yogyakartensis NBRC 100779(T) (99.6%) and Streptomyces violaceusniger NBRC 13459(T) (99.6%). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between MUSC 164(T) and closely related type strains ranged from 23.8 ± 0.3% to 53.1 ± 4.3%. BOX-PCR fingerprints comparison showed that MUSC 164(T) exhibits a unique DNA profile, with DNA G + C content determined to be 71.6 mol%. Based on the polyphasic study of MUSC 164(T), it is concluded that this strain represents a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces antioxidans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MUSC 164(T) (=DSM 101523(T) = MCCC 1K01590(T)). The extract of MUSC 164(T) showed potent antioxidative and neuroprotective activities against hydrogen peroxide. The chemical analysis of the extract revealed that the strain produces pyrazines and phenolic-related compounds that could explain for the observed bioactivities.
  17. Yong YL, Tan LT, Ming LC, Chan KG, Lee LH, Goh BH, et al.
    Front Pharmacol, 2016;7:538.
    PMID: 28119613 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2016.00538
    In particular, neuropathic pain is a major form of chronic pain. This type of pain results from dysfunction or lesions in the central and peripheral nervous system. Capsaicin has been traditionally utilized as a medicine to remedy pain. However, the effectiveness and safety of this practice is still elusive. Therefore, this systematic review aimed to investigate the effect of topical capsaicin as a pain-relieving agent that is frequently used in pain management. In brief, all the double-blinded, randomized placebo- or vehicle-controlled trials that were published in English addressing postherpetic neuralgia were included. Meta-analysis was performed using Revman(®) version 5.3. Upon application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only six trials fulfilled all the criteria and were included in the review for qualitative analysis. The difference in mean percentage change in numeric pain rating scale score ranges from -31 to -4.3. This demonstrated high efficacy of topical capsaicin application and implies that capsaicin could result in pain reduction. Furthermore, meta-analysis was performed on five of the included studies. All the results of studies are in favor of the treatment using capsaicin. The incidence of side effects from using topical capsaicin is consistently higher in all included studies, but the significance of safety data cannot be quantified due to a lack of p-values in the original studies. Nevertheless, topical capsaicin is a promising treatment option for specific patient groups or certain neuropathic pain conditions such as postherpetic neuralgia.
  18. Tan LT, Chan KG, Khan TM, Bukhari SI, Saokaew S, Duangjai A, et al.
    Front Pharmacol, 2017;8:276.
    PMID: 28567016 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00276
    Reactive oxygen species and other radicals potentially cause oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA which may ultimately lead to various complications including mutations, carcinogenesis, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease, aging, and inflammatory disease. Recent reports demonstrate that Streptomyces bacteria produce metabolites with potent antioxidant activity that may be developed into therapeutic drugs to combat oxidative stress. This study shows that Streptomyces sp. MUM212 which was isolated from mangrove soil in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia, could be a potential source of antioxidants. Strain MUM212 was characterized and determined as belonging to the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. The MUM212 extract demonstrated significant antioxidant activity through DPPH, ABTS and superoxide radical scavenging assays and also metal-chelating activity of 22.03 ± 3.01%, 61.52 ± 3.13%, 37.47 ± 1.79%, and 41.98 ± 0.73% at 4 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, MUM212 extract was demonstrated to inhibit lipid peroxidation up to 16.72 ± 2.64% at 4 mg/mL and restore survival of Vero cells from H2O2-induced oxidative damages. The antioxidant activities from the MUM212 extract correlated well with its total phenolic contents; and this in turn was in keeping with the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis which revealed the presence of phenolic compounds that could be responsible for the antioxidant properties of the extract. Other chemical constituents detected included hydrocarbons, alcohols and cyclic dipeptides which may have contributed to the overall antioxidant capacity of MUM212 extract. As a whole, strain MUM212 seems to have potential as a promising source of novel molecules for future development of antioxidative therapeutic agents against oxidative stress-related diseases.
  19. Tan LT, Chan KG, Pusparajah P, Lee WL, Chuah LH, Khan TM, et al.
    Front Pharmacol, 2017;8:12.
    PMID: 28167913 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00012
    Cancer mortality and morbidity is projected to increase significantly over the next few decades. Current chemotherapeutic strategies have significant limitations, and there is great interest in seeking novel therapies which are capable of specifically targeting cancer cells. Given that fundamental differences exist between the cellular membranes of healthy cells and tumor cells, novel therapies based on targeting membrane lipids in cancer cells is a promising approach that deserves attention in the field of anticancer drug development. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a lipid membrane component which exists only in the inner leaflet of cell membrane under normal circumstances, has increased surface representation on the outer membrane of tumor cells with disrupted membrane asymmetry. PE thus represents a potential chemotherapeutic target as the higher exposure of PE on the membrane surface of cancer cells. This feature as well as a high degree of expression of PE on endothelial cells in tumor vasculature, makes PE an attractive molecular target for future cancer interventions. There have already been several small molecules and membrane-active peptides identified which bind specifically to the PE molecules on the cancer cell membrane, subsequently inducing membrane disruption leading to cell lysis. This approach opens up a new front in the battle against cancer, and is of particular interest as it may be a strategy that may be prove effective against tumors that respond poorly to current chemotherapeutic agents. We aim to highlight the evidence suggesting that PE is a strong candidate to be explored as a potential molecular target for membrane targeted novel anticancer therapy.
  20. Tang C, Hoo PC, Tan LT, Pusparajah P, Khan TM, Lee LH, et al.
    Front Pharmacol, 2016;7:474.
    PMID: 28003804 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2016.00474
    Flammulina velutipes (enoki, velvet shank, golden needle mushroom or winter mushroom), one of the main edible mushrooms on the market, has long been recognized for its nutritional value and delicious taste. In recent decades, research has expanded beyond detailing its nutritional composition and delved into the biological activities and potential health benefits of its constituents. Many bioactive constituents from a range of families have been isolated from different parts of the mushroom, including carbohydrates, protein, lipids, glycoproteins, phenols, and sesquiterpenes. These compounds have been demonstrated to exhibit various biological activities, such as antitumour and anticancer activities, anti-atherosclerotic and thrombosis inhibition activity, antihypertensive and cholesterol lowering effects, anti-aging and antioxidant properties, ability to aid with restoring memory and overcoming learning deficits, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-bacterial, ribosome inactivation and melanosis inhibition. This review aims to consolidate the information concerning the phytochemistry and biological activities of various compounds isolated from F. velutipes to demonstrate that this mushroom is not only a great source of nutrients but also possesses tremendous potential in pharmaceutical drug development.
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