Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 38 in total

  1. Tan YS, Tiekink ER
    Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun, 2015 Oct 1;71(Pt 10):1143-6.
    PMID: 26594392 DOI: 10.1107/S2056989015016382
    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, {(C34H28FeP2)[Au(C5H8NS2)]2}, comprises half a mol-ecule, with the full mol-ecule being generated by the application of a centre of inversion. The independent Au(I) atom is coordinated by thiol-ate S and phosphane P atoms that define an approximate linear geometry [S-Au-P = 169.35 (3)°]. The deviation from the ideal linear is traced to the close approach of the (intra-molecular) non-coordinating thione S atom [Au⋯S = 3.1538 (8) Å]. Supra-molecular layers parallel to (100) feature in the crystal packing, being sustained by phen-yl-thione C-H⋯S inter-actions, with the non-coordinating thione S atom in the role of a dual acceptor. Layers stack with no specific inter-actions between them.
  2. Tan YS, Tiekink ERT
    Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun, 2017 Nov 01;73(Pt 11):1642-1646.
    PMID: 29152341 DOI: 10.1107/S2056989017014396
    The title structures, [M(C6H12NOS2)2(C10H8N2)]·0.5C10H8N2, for M = Zn, (I), and Cd, (II), feature terminally bound 4,4'-bipyridyl ligands and non-coordinating 4,4'-bi-pyridyl mol-ecules, with the latter disposed about a centre of inversion. The coordination geometry about the metal atom is defined by two non-symmetrically chelating di-thio-carbamate ligands and a pyridyl N atom. The NS4 donor sets are distorted but, approximate to trigonal bipyramidal in each case. In the crystal, hy-droxy-O-H⋯O(hy-droxy) and hy-droxy-O-H⋯N(pyrid-yl) hydrogen bonds between the zinc-containing mol-ecules lead to a supra-molecular layer parallel to (100). The three-dimensional architecture arises as the layers are linked via methine-C-H⋯S, pyridyl-C-H⋯O(hy-droxy) and π-π [inter-centroid distance between coordinated pyridyl rings = 3.6246 (18) Å] inter-actions. Channels along the c-axis direction are occupied by the non-coordinating 4,4'-bipyridine mol-ecules, which are held in place by C-H⋯π(chelate ring) contacts.
  3. Saad HM, Sim KS, Tan YS
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2018;20(2):141-153.
    PMID: 29773006 DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2018025463
    Five culinary-medicinal mushrooms are commonly available in the Malaysian market: Agaricus bisporus (white and brown), Ganoderma lucidum, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Pleurotus floridanus, and P. pulmonarius. These species were selected for use in the current study, the aim of which was to investigate the antimelanogenesis and anti-inflammatory activity of these mushrooms in an attempt to evaluate their potential use in cosmeceuticals. Mushroom fruiting bodies were extracted with hot water, and the extracts were freeze-dried before testing. The antimelanogenesis activity of the extracts was determined by cell viability assay, measurement of intracellular melanin content, and cellular tyrosinase assay with B16F10 melanoma cells. The anti-inflammatory activity of the mushroom extracts was tested by measuring the levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin-10 excreted by RAW264.7 macrophages. Brown A. bisporus reduced intracellular melanin content to the largest extent-up to 57.05 ± 3.90%-without a cytotoxic effect on B16F10 melanoma cells. This extract also reduced cellular tyrosinase activity to 17.93 ± 2.65%, performing better than kojic acid, the positive control. In parallel, the extract from brown A. bisporus, at the highest concentration tested, has appreciable anti-inflammatory activity through reductions of NO and TNF-α levels. The other 5 extracts showed moderate antimelanogenesis and anti-inflammatory activities. In summary, our findings show that A. bisporus (brown) extract has the potential to be used as an ingredient in whitening skincare products and to sooth the inflammatory response on the skin.
  4. Tan L, Tan YS, Tan S
    Clin Imaging, 2020 Sep;65:133-137.
    PMID: 32470834 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.04.029
    BACKGROUND: Thyroid Imaging Reporting Data System (TI-RADS) is used to characterize thyroid nodules while reducing unnecessary FNAC. Over the years, several versions of TI-RADS have been developed but there is no consensus on which TI-RADS is the best system. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy and ability of ACR TI-RADS, EU TI-RADS, K TI-RADS, AI TI-RADS to eliminate unnecessary FNAC.

    METHODS: In this prospective study, thyroid nodules were characterized by using the four TI-RADS systems and US-guided FNAC was done for nodule with the highest ACR TI-RADS score. Correlation between TI-RADS and FNAC results were analyzed.

    RESULTS: Out of 244 thyroid nodules, 100 nodules with either size <1 cm (43 nodules) non-diagnostic or inconclusive FNAC results (57 nodules) were excluded. Seven nodules (4.9%) were confirmed to be malignant on FNAC. K TI-RADS showed 100% sensitivity and NPV but the lowest specificity (40.2%). EU TI-RADS had the highest specificity (83.2%) but the lowest sensitivity (57.1%) and NPV (97.4%). ACR TI-RADS had an average sensitivity (85.7%) and NPV (98.6%). The specificity of ACR TI-RADS (51.1%) was lower than EU TI-RADS but higher than K TI-RADS. AI TI-RADS showed higher specificity (61.8% vs 51.1%, p 

  5. Subramaniam S, Sabaratnam V, Kuppusamy UR, Tan YS
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2014;16(3):259-67.
    PMID: 24941167
    Species of the genus Ganoderma are a cosmopolitan wood decaying white rot fungi, which has been used by the Asians for therapeutic purposes for centuries. In the present study, solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) was carried out with indigenous Ganoderma australe (KUM60813) and G. neo-japonicum (KUM61076) selected based on ethnomycological knowledge. G. lucidum (VITA GL) (a commercial strain) was also included in the study. Antioxidant activities of the crude ethanol and aqueous extracts of the fermented and unfermented wheat grains were investigated by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, and lipid peroxidation assay. Among the six mycelia extracts tested, the ethanol extract from wheat fermented with KUM61076 mycelia showed the most potent antioxidant activities, whereas the ethanol extract of wheat grains fermented with KUM60813 mycelia has a good potential in protecting frying oils against oxidation. Total phenolic content (TPC) in the ethanol extracts were higher than that in the aqueous extract. The wheat grains fermented with G. australe (KUM60813) and G. neo-japonicum KUM61076 have greater antioxidant potential compared to the commercially available G. lucidum (VITA GL). The antioxidant activities of the mycelia extracts had a positive correlation with their phenolic contents. Thus phenolic compounds may play a vital role in the antioxidant activities of the selected Ganoderma spp.
  6. Avin FA, Bhassu S, Tan YS, Shahbazi P, Vikineswary S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:793414.
    PMID: 24587752 DOI: 10.1155/2014/793414
    Identification of edible mushrooms particularly Pleurotus genus has been restricted due to various obstacles. The present study attempted to use the combination of two variable regions of IGS1 and ITS for classifying the economically cultivated Pleurotus species. Integration of the two regions proved a high ability that not only could clearly distinguish the species but also served sufficient intraspecies variation. Phylogenetic tree (IGS1+ITS) showed seven distinct clades, each clade belonging to a separate species group. Moreover, the species differentiation was tested by AMOVA and the results were reconfirmed by presenting appropriate amounts of divergence (91.82% among and 8.18% within the species). In spite of achieving a proper classification of species by combination of IGS1 and ITS sequences, the phylogenetic tree showed the misclassification of the species of P. nebrodensis and P. eryngii var. ferulae with other strains of P. eryngii. However, the constructed median joining (MJ) network could not only differentiate between these species but also offer a profound perception of the species' evolutionary process. Eventually, due to the sufficient variation among and within species, distinct sequences, simple amplification, and location between ideal conserved ribosomal genes, the integration of IGS1 and ITS sequences is recommended as a desirable DNA barcode.
  7. Rosnina AG, Tan YS, Abdullah N, Vikineswary S
    World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2016 Feb;32(2):18.
    PMID: 26745978 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-015-1959-2
    Pleurotus citrinopileatus (yellow oyster mushroom) has an attractive shape and yellow colour but the fragile texture complicates packaging, and its strong aroma is unappealing to consumers. This study aimed to improve the characteristics and yield of P. citrinopileatus by interspecies mating between monokaryotic cultures of P. citrinopileatus and P. pulmonarius. Ten monokaryon cultures of the parental lines were crossed in all combinations to obtain hybrids. Eleven compatible mating pairs were obtained and cultivated to observe their sporophore morphology and yield. The selected hybrid, i.e. P1xC9, was beige in colour while hybrid P3xC8 was yellow in colour. Their sporophores had less offensive aroma, improved texture and higher yield. The DNA sequences of these hybrids were found to be in the same clade as the P. citrinopileatus parent with a bootstrap value of 99%. High bootstrap values indicate high genetic homology between hybrids and the P. citrinopileatus parent. The biological efficiencies of these hybrids P1xC9 (70.97%) and P3xC8 (52.14%) were also higher than the P. citrinopileatus parent (35.63%). Interspecies hybrids obtained by this mating technique can lead to better strains of mushrooms for genetic improvement of the Pleurotus species.
  8. Jong WYL, Show PL, Ling TC, Tan YS
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2017 Jul;124(1):91-98.
    PMID: 28319022 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2017.02.008
    Amauroderma rugosum is a wild mushroom species widely distributed in tropics and is classified under the class of Basidiomycetes. Basidiomycetes are well-known for their abilities of producing lignocellulolytic enzymes such as lignin peroxidase (LiP), laccase (Lac) and manganese peroxidase (MnP). Different factors such as nutrient sources, incubation period and agitation affect the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes. The A. rugosum produced LiP in the medium supplemented with potato dextrose broth (PDB), 0.5% yeast and 1.0% saw dust at 26.70±3.31 U/mL. However, the LiP activity was increased to 106.32±5.32 U/mL when supplemented with 150 μm of copper (CuSO4). The aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is a simple, rapid and low cost method for primary extraction and recovery of LiP. A total of 25 systems made from five different molecular weights of polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (K2HPO4) were tested. PEG 600 produced the highest top phase purification factor (PFT) of 1.33±0.62 with yield of 72.18±8.50%. The optimization of the ATPS parameters, such as volume ratio VR, pH and crude enzyme loading are the factors controlling the phase partition. Our results showed that significant improvement (PFT of 6.26±2.87 with yield of 87.31±3.14%) of LiP recovery can be achieved by optimized the parameters.
  9. Karim R, Tan YS, Singh P, Khalid N, Harikrishna JA
    Physiol Mol Biol Plants, 2018 Sep;24(5):741-751.
    PMID: 30150851 DOI: 10.1007/s12298-018-0566-8
    The process of somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration involve changes in gene expression and have been associated with changes in DNA methylation. Here, we report the expression and DNA methylation patterns of SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE (SERK), BABY BOOM (BBM), LEAFY COTYLEDON 2 (LEC2) and WUSCHEL (WUS) in meristematic block of newly emerged shoots from rhizome, embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli, prolonged cell suspension culture, ex vitro leaf, and in vitro leaf of regenerated plants of Boesenbergia rotunda. Among all seven samples, based on qRT-PCR, the highest level of expression of SERK, BBM and LEC2 was in embryogenic callus, while WUS was most highly expressed in meristematic block tissue followed by embryogenic callus. Relatively lower expression was observed in cell suspension culture and watery callus for SERK, LEC2 and WUS and in in vitro leaf for BBM. For gene specific methylation determined by bisulfite sequencing data, embryogenic callus samples had the lowest levels of DNA methylation at CG, CHG and CHH contexts of SERK, LEC2 and WUS. We observed negative correlation between DNA methylation at the CG and CHG contexts and the expression levels of SERK, BBM, LEC2 and WUS. Based on our results, we suggest that relatively higher expression and lower level of DNA methylation of SERK, BBM, LEC2 and WUS are associated with somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in B. rotunda.
  10. Yeo CI, Tan YS, Tiekink ER
    Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun, 2015 Oct 1;71(Pt 10):1159-64.
    PMID: 26594396 DOI: 10.1107/S2056989015016655
    The crystal and mol-ecular structures of the title salt, C8H8N3S2 (+)·Cl(-), (I), and salt hydrate, C8H7ClN3S2 (+)·Cl(-)·H2O, (II), are described. The heterocyclic ring in (I) is statistically planar and forms a dihedral angle of 9.05 (12)° with the pendant phenyl ring. The comparable angle in (II) is 15.60 (12)°, indicating a greater twist in this cation. An evaluation of the bond lengths in the H2N-C-N-C-N sequence of each cation indicates significant delocalization of π-electron density over these atoms. The common feature of the crystal packing in (I) and (II) is the formation of charge-assisted amino-N-H⋯Cl(-) hydrogen bonds, leading to helical chains in (I) and zigzag chains in (II). In (I), these are linked by chains mediated by charge-assisted iminium-N(+)-H⋯Cl(-) hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional architecture. In (II), the chains are linked into a layer by charge-assisted water-O-H⋯Cl(-) and water-O-H⋯O(water) hydrogen bonds with charge-assisted iminium-N(+)-H⋯O(water) hydrogen bonds providing the connections between the layers to generate the three-dimensional packing. In (II), the chloride anion and water mol-ecules are resolved into two proximate sites with the major component being present with a site occupancy factor of 0.9327 (18).
  11. Yeo CI, Tan YS, Tiekink ER
    Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun, 2015 Aug 1;71(Pt 8):937-40.
    PMID: 26396760 DOI: 10.1107/S2056989015013341
    In the title complex salt, [Au2{(C6H5)2PCH2P(C6H5)2}]Cl2·(CH3)2C=O·H2O, the dication forms an eight-membered {-PCPAu}2 ring with a transannular aurophilic inter-action [Au⋯Au = 2.9743 (2) Å]. The ring approximates a flattened boat conformation, with the two methyl-ene C atoms lying ca 0.58-0.59 Å above the least-squares plane defined by the Au2P4 atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0849 Å). One Cl(-) anion functions as a weak bridge between the Au(I) atoms [Au⋯Cl = 2.9492 (13) and 2.9776 (12) Å]. The second Cl(-) anion forms two (water)O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds about a centre of inversion, forming a centrosymmetric eight-membered {⋯HOH⋯Cl}2 supra-molecular square. Globally, the dications and loosely associated Cl(-) anions assemble into layers lying parallel to the ac plane, being connected by C-H⋯Cl,π(phen-yl) inter-actions. The supra-molecular squares and solvent acetone mol-ecules are sandwiched in the inter-layer region, being connected to the layers on either side by C-H⋯Cl,O(acetone) inter-actions.
  12. Tan YS, Yeo CI, Tiekink ER
    Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun, 2015 Aug 1;71(Pt 8):886-9.
    PMID: 26396747 DOI: 10.1107/S2056989015012682
    The title compound, [Fe(C17H14PS)2], is a second monoclinic polymorph (P21/c, with Z' = 1) of the previously reported monoclinic (C2/c, with Z' = 1/2) form [Fang et al. (1995 ▸). Polyhedron, 14, 2403-2409]. In the new form, the S atoms lie to the same side of the mol-ecule with the pseudo S-P⋯P-S torsion angle being -53.09 (3)°. By contrast to this almost syn disposition, in the C2/c polymorph, the Fe atom lies on a centre of inversion so that the S atoms are strictly anti, with a pseudo-S-P⋯P-S torsion angle of 180°. The significant difference in mol-ecular conformation between the two forms does not result in major perturbations in the P=S bond lengths nor in the distorted tetra-hedral geometries about the P atoms. The crystal packing of the new monoclinic polymorph features weak Cp-C-H⋯π(phen-yl) inter-actions consolidating linear supra-molecular chains along the a axis. These pack with no directional inter-actions between them.
  13. Ponnusamy A, Ajis AH, Tan YS, Chai LC
    J Appl Microbiol, 2021 Oct 12.
    PMID: 34637602 DOI: 10.1111/jam.15327
    AIMS: Green-mould contamination is identified as one of the challenges faced by mushroom cultivation industry globally which believed to be caused by Trichoderma spp.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: To explore the dynamics of microbial population in mushroom substrate during commercial mushroom cultivation and how microbiota might play a role in green-mould contamination, we applied both culturing and targeted metagenomics approaches to identify microbiota in noncomposted sawdust substrates at different cultivation stages. The microbiological analysis showed that the green-mould contaminated substrates harboured higher total mesophilic bacteria count. The green-moulds isolated from the contaminated mushroom substrates were identified as Trichoderma pleurotum (n = 15; 93.8%) and Graphium penicillioides (n = 1; 6.3%). To our surprise, the targeted metagenomic analysis revealed that Graphium comprised 56.3% while Trichoderma consisted of only 36.1% of the total fungi population, suggesting that green-mould contamination might not be caused by Trichoderma alone, but also Graphium that grows very slowly in the laboratory.

    CONCLUSION: It is worthwhile to note that G. penicillioides was also isolated in the early stages of mushroom cultivation, but not T. pleurotum. The results indicated that the structure and composition of the bacterial population in the mushroom substrate varied and the bacterial population shifted along the cultivation process.

    SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: This study revealed a possibility of G. penicillioides as an overlooked fungi causing green-mould contamination.

  14. Norazlina MR, Tan YS, Hasmadi M, Jahurul MHA
    Heliyon, 2021 Sep;7(9):e08073.
    PMID: 34622074 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08073
    In this work, the effect of solvent pre-treatment (hexane, petroleum ether and ethanol) on the physicochemical, thermal and morphology behavior of Mangifera pajang seed fat (MPSF) were investigated. Fat extraction was performed using Soxhlet method, and results showed that the yield, physicochemical, and crystalline structures of the MPSF were significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by the extraction solvents. Hexane gave the highest fat yield (7.67 %) with low unsaturation value (52.13 g iodine/g) compared with petroleum ether and ethanol. Hexane MPSF also had low oxidation rate (peroxide value of 1.1 mEq/g). Both non-stabilized and stabilized hexane MPSF showed a single melting endothermic peak at high temperature with onset, maximum peak and offset temperature of 16.23 ˚C-18.21 °C, 28.22 ˚C-31.25 °C and 34.85 ˚C-39.58 °C, respectively. Hexane MPSF crystallized rapidly at high temperature with single maximum peak starting at 16.51 ˚C-16.68 °C and ending at 0.23 ˚C-1.13 °C. In comparison with ethanol extract, hexane MPSF demonstrated a compact crystalline structure with a large densely packed center. Therefore, MPSF obtained from hexane presented better overall quality than those obtained from other extraction solvents. MPSF exhibited similar melting and morphological behavior to mango kernel fat and commercial cocoa butter. These results suggested that hexane was the best solvent for the extraction of MPSF. This fat also has the potential to be applied as a cocoa butter alternative fat or functional fat.
  15. Phan CW, David P, Tan YS, Naidu M, Wong KH, Kuppusamy UR, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:378651.
    PMID: 25121118 DOI: 10.1155/2014/378651
    Two strains of Pleurotus giganteus (commercial and wild) were tested for their ability to induce neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) and mouse neuroblastoma-2a (N2a) cells. Treatment with the mushroom extracts resulted in neuronal differentiation and neuronal elongation, but not nerve growth factor (NGF) production. Linoleic acid (4.5-5.0%, w/w) which is a major fatty acid present in the ethanol extract promoted NGF biosynthesis when augmented with low concentration of NGF (5 ng/mL). The two strains of mushroom were found to be high in protein (154-192 g kg(-1)), total polysaccharides, phenolics, and flavonoids as well as vitamins B1, B2, and B3. The total phenolics present in the mushroom extracts were positively correlated to the antioxidant activity (free radical scavenging, ferric reducing power, and lipid peroxidation inhibition). To conclude, P. giganteus could potentially be used in well-balanced diet and as a source of dietary antioxidant to promote neuronal health.
  16. Sachithanandan A, Tan YS, Abdul Muis J, Rapi AR, Mohd Arif MN, Badmanaban B, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2014 Apr;69(2):92-4.
    PMID: 25241820 MyJurnal
    Traumatic chest injury with complete tracheo- bronchial disruption is uncommon and occurs in approximately 1% of motor vehicle accidents (MVA) (1,2). Such injuries carry a high mortality and patients rarely survive transfer to hospital. A high index of suspicion facilitates early diagnosis. Early operative intervention is vital for survival. We describe a rare case of traumatic complete disruption of the right mainstem bronchus (RMB) due to blunt chest trauma. The transected airway was reanastomosed emergently avoiding a lung resection.
  17. Chew AL, Tan YS, Desjardin DE, Musa MY, Sabaratnam V
    Mycologia, 2014 Sep-Oct;106(5):976-88.
    PMID: 24891424 DOI: 10.3852/13-274
    Three new species and one new variety of bioluminescent Mycena collected from Peninsular Malaysia are described herein. All new species belong to Mycena sect. Calodontes in what is known as the Mycena pura complex. Comprehensive descriptions, photographs, illustrations and comparisons with phenetically similar species are provided. Molecular sequences data from the nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, including the 5.8S rRNA) were used to infer relationships within sect. Calodontes. Axenic cultures were obtained to provide data on culture morphology. This is the first published photographic documentation of bioluminescent basidiomes of members of Mycena sect. Calodontes. Also, this addition brings the total known bioluminescent fungi to 77 species.
  18. Chan PM, Kanagasabapathy G, Tan YS, Sabaratnam V, Kuppusamy UR
    PMID: 24371454 DOI: 10.1155/2013/304713
    Amauroderma rugosum is a wild mushroom that is worn as a necklace by the indigenous communities in Malaysia to prevent fits and incessant crying by babies. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritive composition and antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of A. rugosum extracts on LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Nutritional analysis of freeze-dried mycelia of A. rugosum (KUM 61131) from submerged culture indicated a predominant presence of carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fibre, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. The ethanol crude extract (EE), its hexane (HF), ethyl acetate (EAF), and aqueous (AF) fractions of mycelia of A. rugosum grown in submerged culture were evaluated for antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects. EAF exhibited the highest total phenolic content and the strongest antioxidant activity based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays. HF showed dose-dependent inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and NO radical scavenging activity. Gas chromatographic analysis of HF revealed the presence of ethyl linoleate and ergosterol, compounds with known anti-inflammatory properties. In conclusion, the nutritive compositions and significant antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of mycelia extracts of A. rugosum have the potential to serve as a therapeutic agent or adjuvant in the management of inflammatory disorders.
  19. Chew AL, Tan YS, Desjardin DE, Musa MY, Sabaratnam V
    Mycologia, 2013 Sep-Oct;105(5):1325-35.
    PMID: 23709573 DOI: 10.3852/13-009
    Mycena illuminans Henn. is described and re-evaluated based on recently collected material from peninsular Malaysia, providing comprehensive descriptions, illustrations and photographs. In addition to morphological data, axenic monokaryon and dikaryon cultures were established to provide data on culture morphology and the mating system of the species. Molecular sequences data from the nuclear large subunit (LSU) gene also are presented, confirming that M. illuminans is not a synonym of Mycena chlorophos.
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