Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

  1. Zain AM
    Med J Malaysia, 1990 Mar;45(1):74-7.
    PMID: 2152073
    The concept of conversion hallucination is a relatively new one, however there have been several articles written on this phenomena, some attesting to it being a special form of hallucination while others dismissing it altogether. But currently this concept is slowly being accepted among psychiatrists and as such it is important for us to understand some of the concepts. In this case report, the patient presented with clear conversion hallucinations. The case is followed by a discussion on true and pseudo-hallucinations, previous case reports and finally a discussion of conversion hallucinations, viz. the clinical features and the conversion hypothesis.
  2. Siddiqui AA, Sobani ZA
    J Med Case Rep, 2012;6:45.
    PMID: 22289362 DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-6-45
    Hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery is a rare congenital anomaly, with only 24 cases of bilateral internal carotid artery hypoplasia reported to date. Here, we present the case of a 48-year-old woman with bilateral internal carotid artery hypoplasia. She had a collateral circulation through the vertebrobasilar system; however given the high pressure flow she developed aneurysmal formations in the posterior communicating artery. To the best of our knowledge, only seven reported cases of internal carotid artery hypoplasia have been associated with intracranial aneurysmal formations.
  3. Adityanjee, Zain AM, Subramaniam M
    Psychopathology, 1991;24(1):49-52.
    PMID: 2023985 DOI: 10.1159/000284697
    A case of Koro is described in a Malaysian Chinese man in the setting of martial dysharmony and sexual rejection. A distinction is suggested between the epidemic form of Koro and the Koro symptom occurring sporadically. Existence of the sporadic Koro syndrome is discussed and a unified classificatory system is proposed.
  4. Kaharudin, K. E., Salehuddin, F., Zain, A. S. M., Aziz, M. N. I. A., Ahmad, I.
    The reduction in the dimension of planar MOSFET device appears to be limited when it
    reaches to 22nm technology node. In this research , a new concept of MOSFET architecture named
    as Ultrathin Pillar Vertical Double Gate (VDG) MOSFET device was introduced and it was
    integrated with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology for better electrical performances. The virtual
    device fabrication and characterization were executed by using ATHENA and ATLAS modules from
    SILVACO Internationals. The process parameters of the device were then optimized by utilizing the
    Taguchi method for obtaining the lowest value of subthreshold swing (SS). The optimal result of the
    subthreshold swing (SS) was observed to be 58.07 mV/dec with threshold voltage (VTH) of 0.408 V
    and a very low leakage current (IOFF)value of 9.374 x 1016 A/µm. These results are well within the
    predicted value of International Technology Roadmap Semiconductor (ITRS) 2013 for low power
    (LP) requirement in the year 2020. Copyright © 2016 Penerbit Akademia Baru - All rights reserved.
  5. Koh KL, Zain A
    J Craniofac Surg, 2018 Jun;29(4):861-867.
    PMID: 29438206 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000004347
    : Open cranial vault remodeling techniques require rigid fixation with hardware such as plates and screws; however, complications can occur. The purpose of this study was to assess the surgical outcome after open reconstruction for craniosynostosis with less rigid fixation using nonabsorbable suture.

    METHODS: Retrospective review of patients who underwent open craniofacial reconstruction for craniosynostosis at the Hospital Kuala Lumpur between January 2011 and December 2016 were performed. Demographic data, surgical complications, and postoperative aesthetic outcomes and reoperations were evaluated using Whitaker classification. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS.

    RESULTS: Thirty-four (n = 34) cases were included in this review consisting of 16 males and 18 females (ratio 1:1.25). Sixteen patients were syndromic with multiple suture synostoses: Apert syndrome (n = 8), Crouzon syndrome (n = 6), and Muenke's syndrome (n = 2). Eighteen patients were nonsyndromic: isolated single-suture craniosynostosis (n = 12) and multiple suture involvement (n = 6). Mean age of presentation was 17.4 months (4-16 months) with mean age of surgery of 23.8 months (6-68 months). Mean length of surgery was 6.1 hours (range 3-10 hours) and mean length of hospital stay was 10 days (mean 7-20 days). Mean duration of follow-up was 2.2 years (6 month-4 years). There were a total of 9 complications postoperatively: massive blood loss (n = 4), seroma (n = 2), exposure keratitis (n = 1), hand extravasation (n = 1), and occipital sore (n = 1). Analysis showed multiple suture craniosynostoses were associated with longer operative times (4.3 hours vs 6.5 hours, P = 0.0082 24 months of age, P = 0.00059). Patients were categorized as 88.2% (n = 30) Whitaker I and II and 11.8% (n = 4) Whitaker III and IV. Reoperation rates were 2.9% (n = 1). Whitaker III and IV class were higher among patients with syndromic synostosis, unicoronal and multiple suture synostoses.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our technique of open cranial reconstruction with nonabsorbable suture nylon 2/0 as sole method of fixation has resulted in good aesthetic outcome with low reoperations and complications rate. Longer follow-up is needed to ascertain our long-term results.
  6. Chary T, Varma S, Singh S, Zain A, Dharap A
    Eur. Psychiatry, 1996;11(1):12-5.
    PMID: 19698416 DOI: 10.1016/0924-9338(96)80453-6
    Dermatoglyphic patterns of fingers were studied in two hundred and fifty patients of various subtypes of schizophrenia and ninety normal control subjects. The difference between the males and female dermatoglyphic patterns in the schizophrenic and controls was found to be non significant. No difference was also found between the fingerprint patterns in patients of various subtypes of schizophrenia.
  7. Hamdan SK, Mohd Zain A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2014 Dec;21(Spec Issue):12-26.
    PMID: 25941459 MyJurnal
    Glutamate is one of the most prominent neurotransmitters in mammalian brains, which plays an important role in neuronal excitation. High levels of neurotransmitter cause numerous alterations, such as calcium overload and the dysfunction of mitochondrial and oxidative stress. These alterations may lead to excitotoxicity and may trigger multiple neuronal diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and epilepsy. Excitotoxicity is a pathological process that damages nerve cells and kills cells via excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters. Monitoring the concentration level of brain glutamate via an implantable microbiosensor is a promising alternative approach to closely investigate in the function of glutamate as a neurotransmitter. This review outlines glutamate microbiosensor designs to enhance the sensitivity of glutamate detection with less biofouling occurrence and minimal detection of interference species. There are many challenges in the development of a reproducible and stable implantable microbiosensor because many factors and limitations may affect the detection performance. However, the incorporation of multiple scales is needed to address the basic issues and combinations across the various disciplines needed to achieve the success of the system to overcome the challenges in the development of an implantable glutamate biosensor.
  8. Chew BH, Md Zain A, Hassan F
    Psychol Health Med, 2015;20(2):198-204.
    PMID: 24773524 DOI: 10.1080/13548506.2014.913797
    Positive social interaction with peers was said to facilitate cognitive and intellectual development leading to good academic performance. There was paucity of published data on the effect of social management (SM) emotional intelligence (EI) on academic performance. We conducted this study to examine their relationship in the undergraduate medical students in a public medical school in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) to measure the SM. The first and final year medical students were invited to participate. Students answered a paper-based demography questionnaire and completed the online MSCEIT in privacy. Independent predictors were identified using multivariate analyses. A total of 163 (84 first year and 79 final year) medical students completed the study (at a response rate of 66.0%). SM score (B = -.10 95% CI -.175 to -.015, p = .021) was significantly related to the continuous assessment (CA) marks (adjusted R(2) = .45, F13,137 = 10.26, p 
  9. Lee CE, Zain AA, Pang YK
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Sep;65(3):221-3.
    PMID: 21939173
    We report a case of a 21-year-old university student with underlying lupus nephritis who presented with recurrent symptoms of fever, haemoptysis, and pleuritic chest pain. CT pulmonary angiogram confirmed pulmonary embolism in the right subsegmental pulmonary arteries. One week later, she developed left renal vein and left common iliac vein thromboses, with new emboli in the left subsegmental pulmonary arteries. We hereforth discuss the diagnostic issues of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) on corticosteroids therapy, and also treatment of the antiphospholipid syndrome.
  10. Wong MH, Sockalingam S, Zain A
    Int J Rheum Dis, 2011 Aug;14(3):e38-41.
    PMID: 21816012 DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-185X.2011.01602.x
    We report a 57-year-old woman with a 20-year history of hepatitis B presenting with progressive proximal lower limb weakness for the previous 1 month. Previous medical history included a pericardial and pleural effusion, of which no cause was found and pulmonary tuberculosis which has been adequately treated. Examination revealed multiple telangiactasia over face and nail beds and bilateral proximal lower limb weakness of power 4/5. Biochemical investigation revealed a raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 36 mm/h, elevated creatinine kinase levels (14,363 IU/L) and raised liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase 445 IU/L, aspartate aminotransferase 606 IU/L) with high hepatitis B virus DNA (1,021,158 copies/mL). Nerve conduction tests and muscle biopsy were consistent with polymyositis. She received entacavir for hepatitis B treatment. Despite treatment with entacavir for 10 weeks, her weakness persisted and prednisolone was added. Upon commencement of prednisolone, her symptoms and biochemical profiles returned to normal.
  11. Jasmi AY, Zain AR, Hayati AR
    Med J Malaysia, 1992 Dec;47(4):316-9.
    PMID: 1338918
    A 14 year old Malay boy with an adenocarcinoma of the transverse colon is reported. A lesion was discovered early when he presented with an uncommon complication in the form of a bowel intussusception. Emergency segmental colonic resection was performed, followed later by an extended left hemicolectomy following histological confirmation of the disease. Benign adenomatous polyp is believed to be the predisposing condition. Both ralities, colorectal cancer in young adults and adult intussusception, are discussed.
  12. Varma SL, Zain AM, Singh S
    Am. J. Med. Genet., 1997 Feb 21;74(1):7-11.
    PMID: 9033998
    There is increasing evidence that genetic factors play a role in the etiology of schizophrenic disorders. One thousand eighty-nine first-degree relatives of schizophrenics and 1,137 controls were studied to discover their psychiatric morbidity. Psychiatric morbidity was found in 16.34% of the first-degree relatives (FDR) of schizophrenics (parents, 5.69%; siblings, 7.71%; offspring, 2.94%) as compared to 6.9% in the controls (P < 0.001). Schizophrenia was found in 8.3% of the patient group, which was significantly higher (0.2%) as compared to the controls. Schizoid-schizotypal personality disorder was found in 3.03% of FDRs of the schizophrenic group. Depressive disorder was found in 4.4% and 2.1% in the control and patient group, respectively, which was statistically significant. Morbidity risk of schizophrenia was found in 16.97%, 6.22% and 5.79% of schizophrenia, schizoid-schizotypal personality disorder and depressive disorder, respectively, in the FDR of schizophrenic group.
  13. D'Souza UJ, Zain A, Raju S
    Mutat Res, 2005 Mar 7;581(1-2):187-90.
    PMID: 15725618
    The genotoxic effect of the herbicide paraquat was studied in rat bone-marrow by means of the micronucleus assay. Paraquat at dose levels of 6, 15 and 30 mg/kg body weight was given to rats in a single application via the dermal route. Marrow was collected at 24, 48 and 72 h after the application. The micronucleus assay was done as recommended by standard procedures. Paraquat gave rise to an increase in the number of micronuclei in a dose-dependent manner. The number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes showed a maximum at 48 h and the toxicity was further prolonged, as there was no complete recovery at 72 h. These findings suggest a genotoxic effect of paraquat even after exposure via dermal application.
  14. Jasmin R, Sockalingam S, Shahrizaila N, Cheah TE, Zain AA, Goh KJ
    Lupus, 2012 Sep;21(10):1119-23.
    PMID: 22433918 DOI: 10.1177/0961203312440346
    Peripheral neuropathy is a known manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the association of primary autoimmune inflammatory neuropathies such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) with SLE is uncommon. We report a 26-year-old man who simultaneously presented with severe CIDP and photosensitive rash, but was unresponsive to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion and continued to progress. He was found to have underlying SLE and improved with combined corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy with oral cyclophosphamide. CIDP with underlying SLE may be more resistant to conventional therapy with IVIG, requiring the addition of other immunosuppressive agents.
  15. Tay SK, Leong YP, Meah FA, Abdullah T, Zain AR
    Med J Malaysia, 1992 Dec;47(4):267-72.
    PMID: 1303478
    Bleeding gastroesophageal varices is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Forty-four cases of bleeding gastroesophageal varices were treated at the Department of Surgery, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur over four and a half years. Thirty-two of them had liver cirrhosis. Hepatitis B infection was noted in 13 and alcoholic abuse was present in 14 patients. Five patients had associated hepatoma. Thirty-four percent had gastric fundal varices and a third of these bled from them. A total of 179 endoscopic injection sclerotherapy sessions were performed averaging 4 per person. Rebleeding rate was 4% and mortality was high (50%) in these cases. It was concluded that injection sclerotherapy is a safe and effective means of controlling bleeding oesophageal varices. Operative surgery was employed in those who rebled after injection and would be considered in those in Child's A.
  16. D'Souza UJ, Narayana K, Zain A, Raju S, Nizam HM, Noriah O
    Folia Morphol (Warsz), 2006 Feb;65(1):6-10.
    PMID: 16783728
    The effects of exposure to low doses of paraquat, a herbicide, via the dermal route were studied on the spermatozoa of Sprague-Dawley rats. Paraquat (1, 1'-dimethyl-4, 4'-bipyridinium dichloride) was administered once a day for five days, at intervals of 24 h at 0, 6, 15 and 30 mg/kg, and the rats were sacrificed on days 7, 14, 28, and 42 after the last exposure. The sperm suspensions were obtained by mincing the caudae epididymes and ductus deferens for the purpose of performing a sperm morphology test, sperm count and analysis of sperm mortality and sperm motility, as per the standard procedures. The sperm count was decreased (p < 0.05) only on days 7 and 14 but sperm abnormalities increased on all days (p < 0.05). Sperm mortality increased at higher dose-levels (p < 0.05) except on day 42, and motility was affected by 30 mg/kg only on day 42. In conclusion, paraquat is a genotoxic and cytotoxic agent to germ cells in the male rat.
  17. Huang Z, Wang J, Lu X, Mohd Zain A, Yu G
    Brief Bioinform, 2023 Mar 19;24(2).
    PMID: 36733262 DOI: 10.1093/bib/bbad040
    Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data are typically with a large number of missing values, which often results in the loss of critical gene signaling information and seriously limit the downstream analysis. Deep learning-based imputation methods often can better handle scRNA-seq data than shallow ones, but most of them do not consider the inherent relations between genes, and the expression of a gene is often regulated by other genes. Therefore, it is essential to impute scRNA-seq data by considering the regional gene-to-gene relations. We propose a novel model (named scGGAN) to impute scRNA-seq data that learns the gene-to-gene relations by Graph Convolutional Networks (GCN) and global scRNA-seq data distribution by Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN). scGGAN first leverages single-cell and bulk genomics data to explore inherent relations between genes and builds a more compact gene relation network to jointly capture the homogeneous and heterogeneous information. Then, it constructs a GCN-based GAN model to integrate the scRNA-seq, gene sequencing data and gene relation network for generating scRNA-seq data, and trains the model through adversarial learning. Finally, it utilizes data generated by the trained GCN-based GAN model to impute scRNA-seq data. Experiments on simulated and real scRNA-seq datasets show that scGGAN can effectively identify dropout events, recover the biologically meaningful expressions, determine subcellular states and types, improve the differential expression analysis and temporal dynamics analysis. Ablation experiments confirm that both the gene relation network and gene sequence data help the imputation of scRNA-seq data.
  18. Zaini MA, Mohd Zain A, Md Din N, Lam C
    Immun Inflamm Dis, 2023 Oct;11(10):e1051.
    PMID: 37904693 DOI: 10.1002/iid3.1051
    PURPOSE: SARS-CoV-2 viral infection affects multiple systems including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurological, cardiac, and ophthalmic systems. We report a case of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) related optic neuritis in a SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) patient.

    METHODS: Case report.

    RESULTS: A 36-year-old Malay gentleman with underlying hypertension presented with the first episode of bilateral progressively worsening blurred vision for 1 week associated with retrobulbar pain. There were no other neurological symptoms. He had fever a week before the eye symptoms and tested positive for COVID-19. He received COVID-19 booster vaccine a month before the disease onset. On examination, his vision was hand motion on right eye and 6/18 on left eye. Relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) was positive on right eye with abnormal optic nerve function tests. Anterior segments were unremarkable. Fundus examination showed bilateral optic disc swelling. MRI revealed multifocal hyperintense subcortical white matter lesions. Optic nerves appeared normal with no enhancement seen. Blood investigation showed a positive serum MOG antibody. Intravenous methylprednisolone was commenced followed by oral prednisolone after which his vision and ocular symptoms markedly improved. The oral prednisolone was tapered alongside addition of azathioprine. At 1 month, the disease was stable with no recurrence.

    CONCLUSION: While optic neuritis has been associated with both COVID-19 infection and vaccination, MOG IgG antibody-mediated optic neuritis is also a possible manifestation. This type of optic neuritis associated with COVID-19 infection does not show a similar pattern of frequent recurrences as seen in non-COVID-19 related optic neuritis.

  19. Abdollahi F, Lye MS, Md Zain A, Shariff Ghazali S, Zarghami M
    PMID: 24644441
    OBJECTIVE: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common health problem which affects women in the postpartum period. This is a brief note on its associated factors in women from different cultures.
    METHODS: A literature review was performed in MEDLINE and Pubmed from 1991 to 2008 and Magiran from 1991 to 2009. Additional articles and book chapters were referenced from these sources.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of postpartum depression has been reported to be from 0.5% to 60% globally, and from 3.5% to 63.3% in Asian countries, in which Malaysia and Pakistan had respectively the lowest and highest rates. One of the factors contributing to PPD in Asian societies can be that women may not have the empowerment to reject traditional rituals that are imposed on them by their caregivers. Unsatisfactory pre-existing relationships between the mothers and their caregivers resulting in mothers experiencing difficulties during their confinement period may be another factor. Thirdly, some features of these traditional rituals may be the cause of tension, stress and emotional distress. Emotional conflicts caused by insistence on practice of traditional rituals during the postpartum period may lead to mental breakdown.
    CONCLUSION: Health care professionals should be aware that the phenomenon in Asian cultures is as prevalent as European cultures. Moreover, further research needs to be conducted on the global prevalence of the experiences of childbearing women with depressive symptoms.
    KEYWORDS: Cultures; Postpartum depression; Risk factors
  20. Rao PV, Ahuja MM, Trivedi BB, Ramachandran M, Samal KC, Zain AZ, et al.
    J Indian Med Assoc, 1998 May;96(5):155-7.
    PMID: 9828573
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