Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 118 in total

  1. Druka A, Burns T, Zhang S, Hull R
    J Gen Virol, 1996 Aug;77 ( Pt 8):1975-83.
    PMID: 8760450
    Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) has an RNA genome of more than 12 kb with various features which classify it as a plant picornavirus. The capsid comprises three coat protein (CP) species, CP1, CP2 and CP3, with predicted molecular masses of 22.5, 22.0 and 33 kDa, respectively, which are cleaved from a polyprotein. In order to obtain information on the properties of these proteins, each was expressed in E. coli, purified as a fusion to the maltose-binding protein and used for raising a polyclonal antiserum. CP1, CP2 and CP3 with the expected molecular masses were detected specifically in virus preparations. CP3 is probably the major antigenic determinant on the surface of RTSV particles, as was shown by ELISA, Western blotting and immunogold electron microscopy using antisera obtained against whole virus particles and to each CP separately. In some cases, especially in crude extracts, CP3 antiserum detected several other proteins (40-42 kDa), which could be products of CP3 post-translational modification. No serological differences were detected between the three CPs from isolates from the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia and India. The CP3-related 40-42 kDa proteins of the Indian RTSV isolate have a slightly higher electrophoretic mobility (42-44 kDa) and a different response to cellulolytic enzyme preparations, which allows them to be differentiated from south-east Asian isolates.
  2. Zhang S, Davies JW, Hull R
    Virus Genes, 1997;15(1):61-4.
    PMID: 9354271
    Coat protein genes CP1, CP2 and CP3 of an isolate (MaP1) of rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) from Malaysia were isolated, cloned and sequenced. Comparative analysis indicated that MaP1 isolate is closely related to the Philippine isolate.
  3. Buurman J, Zhang S, Babovic V
    Risk Anal., 2009 Mar;29(3):366-79.
    PMID: 19076327 DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2008.01160.x
    Complex engineering systems are usually designed to last for many years. Such systems will face many uncertainties in the future. Hence the design and deployment of these systems should not be based on a single scenario, but should incorporate flexibility. Flexibility can be incorporated in system architectures in the form of options that can be exercised in the future when new information is available. Incorporating flexibility comes, however, at a cost. To evaluate if this cost is worth the investment a real options analysis can be carried out. This approach is demonstrated through analysis of a case study of a previously developed static system-of-systems for maritime domain protection in the Straits of Malacca. This article presents a framework for dynamic strategic planning of engineering systems using real options analysis and demonstrates that flexibility adds considerable value over a static design. In addition to this it is shown that Monte Carlo analysis and genetic algorithms can be successfully combined to find solutions in a case with a very large number of possible futures and system designs.
  4. Zhang S, Lee G, Davies JW, Hull R
    Arch Virol, 1997;142(9):1873-9.
    PMID: 9672645
    The variation in the sequence of the coat protein genes of four isolates of rice tungro spherical virus from different countries, Malaysia, Thailand, India and Bangladesh, was compared with an isolate from the Philippines. The evidence from RT-PCR, Southern blot hybridization and sequences of the coat protein genes indicated that the isolates appeared to fall into two groups. One comprised the Philippine and Malaysian isolates (about 95% sequence similarity) and the other the Bangladeshi and Indian isolates, the sequences of which differed by about 15% from that of the Philippine isolate. The Thai isolate seemed to be a mixture of these two subgroups.
  5. Liao X, Fu Y, Zhang S, Duan YP
    Plant Dis, 2012 Feb;96(2):288.
    PMID: 30731824 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-08-11-0639
    Indian spinach (Basella rubra L.) is a red stem species of Basella that is cultivated worldwide as an ornamental and the aerial parts are also consumed as a vegetable. In May of 2011, symptoms of damping-off were observed on approximately 10% of the plants at the stem base around the soil line of seedlings in a greenhouse in Homestead, FL. Lesions were initially water soaked, grayish to dark brown, irregular in shape, and sunken in appearance on large plants, causing the infected seedlings to collapse and eventually die. Symptomatic stem tissue was surface sterilized with 0.6% sodium hypochlorite, rinsed in sterile distilled water, air dried, and plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA). Plates were incubated at 25°C in darkness for 3 to 5 days. A fungus was isolated in all six isolations from symptomatic tissues on PDA. Fungal colonies on PDA were light gray to brown with abundant growth of mycelia, and the hyphae tended to branch at right angles when examined under a microscope. A septum was always present in the branch of hyphae near the originating point and a slight constriction at the branch was observed. Neither conidia nor conidiophores were found from the cultures on PDA. The characteristics of hyphae, especially the right angle branching of mycelia, indicate close similarity to those of Rhizoctonia solani (2,3). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA was amplified with the primers ITS1/ITS4 and sequenced (GenBank Accession No. JN545836). Subsequent database searches by the BLASTN program indicated that the resulting sequence had a 100% identity over 472 bp with the corresponding gene sequence of R. solani anastomosis group (AG) 4 (GenBank Accession No. JF701752.1), a fungal pathogen reported to cause damping-off on many crops. Pathogenicity was confirmed through inoculation of healthy India spinach plants with the hyphae of isolates. Four 4-week-old plants were inoculated with the isolates by placing a 5-mm PDA plug of mycelia at the stem base and covering with a thin layer of the soil. Another four plants treated with sterile PDA served as a control. After inoculation, the plants were covered with plastic bags for 24 h and maintained in a greenhouse with ambient conditions. Four days after inoculation, water-soaked, brown lesions, identical to the symptoms described above, were observed on the stem base of all inoculated plants, whereas no symptoms developed on the control plants. The fungus was isolated from affected stem samples, and the identity was confirmed by microscopic appearance of the hyphae and sequencing the ITS1/ITS4 intergenic spacer region, fulfilling Koch's postulates. This pathogenicity test was conducted twice. R. solani has been reported to cause damping-off of B. rubra in Ghana (1) and Malaysia (4). To our knowledge, this is the first report of damping-off caused by R. solani AG-4 on Indian spinach in Florida and the United States. With the increased interest in producing Asian vegetables for food and ornamental purposes, the occurrence of damping-off on Indian spinach needs to be taken into account when designing programs for disease management in Florida. References: (1) H. A. Dade. XXIX. Bull. Misc. Inform. 6:205, 1940. (2) J. R. Parmeter et al. Phytopathology 57:218, 1967. (3) B. Sneh et al. Identification of Rhizoctonia species. The American Phytopathological Society, St Paul, MN, 1991. (4) T. H. Williams and P. S. W. Liu. Phytopathol. Pap. 19:1, 1976.
  6. Hu FJ, Li YD, Jiao SL, Zhang S
    Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi, 2013 Dec;47(12):1100-4.
    PMID: 24529267
    To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of influenza B viruses and explore the genetic evolution characteristics of the hemagglutinin(HA) and neuraminidase(NA) genes of local isolated strains in Ningbo, Southeast China, during 2010 to 2012.
  7. Liu J, Long J, Zhang S, Fang X, Luo Y
    J Pediatr (Rio J), 2013 07 11;89(5):434-43.
    PMID: 23850112 DOI: 10.1016/j.jped.2013.01.008
    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether three variants (388 G>A, 521 T>C, and 463 C>A) of the solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1) are associated with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

    DATA SOURCE: The China National Knowledge Infrastructure and MEDLINE databases were searched. The systematic review with meta-analysis included genetic studies which assessed the association between neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and 388 G>A, 521 T>C, and 463 C>A variants of SLCO1B1 between January of 1980 and December of 2012. Data selection and extraction were performed independently by two reviewers.

    SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Ten articles were included in the study. The results revealed that SLCO1B1 388 G>A is associated with an increased risk of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.07-1.82) in Chinese neonates, but not in white, Thai, Latin American, or Malaysian neonates. The SLCO1B1 521 T>C mutation showed a low risk of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in Chinese neonates, while no significant associations were found in Brazilian, white, Asian, Thai, and Malaysian neonates. There were no significant differences in SLCO1B1 463 C>A between the hyperbilirubinemia and the control group.

    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the 388 G>A mutation of the SLCO1B1 gene is a risk factor for developing neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in Chinese neonates, but not in white, Thai, Brazilian, or Malaysian populations; the SLCO1B1 521 T>C mutation provides protection for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in Chinese neonates, but not in white, Thai, Brazilian, or Malaysian populations.

  8. Noordin MM, Zhang SS, Rahman SO, Haron J
    Vet Hum Toxicol, 2000 Oct;42(5):276-9.
    PMID: 11003117
    Samples of Brachiaria decumbens collected from 5 farms representing the Peninsular Malaysia were subjected to selected trace mineral and phytate analyses to explain the pathogenesis of B decumbens intoxication. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe and Mo were comparable to other grasses while that of phytate was low. The molar ratios of Cu:Zn, Cu:Mo, and Cu:Fe warrant that Cu deficiency is involved in the toxicity of B decumbens. This might aggravate the development of photosensitization of unpigmented or lightly pigmented areas of affected animals. The Zn:phytate ratio could predispose to Zn deficiency during intoxication.
  9. Zhang SS, Noordin MM, Rahman SO, Haron J
    Vet Hum Toxicol, 2000 Oct;42(5):261-4.
    PMID: 11003114
    The influence of copper (Cu) overload on hepatic lipid peroxidation and antioxidation defense capacity was studied by overloading rats with copper sulphate orally (500 mg Cu/kg bw) 5 d/w for 8 w. Malondialdehyde (MDA), Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Se-glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured in serum and liver homogenate at 2, 4 and 8 w of dosing. Liver Cu concentration and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity were also determined. As Cu loading progressed, there were multiparameter changes with significant ALT elevation, increased MDA concentrations in serum and liver homogenate, and dramatic declines of SOD and GSH-Px activities in erythrocytes and whole blood respectively, along with marked elevation of hepatic Cu in the Cu-dosed group. Excessive Cu accumulation in the liver depressed SOD and GSH-Px activities and resulted in high MDA in serum and liver homogenate due to the lipid peroxidation induced by the Cu overload.
  10. Zhang SS, Noordin MM, Rahman SO, Haron MJ
    Vet Hum Toxicol, 2001 Apr;43(2):83-7.
    PMID: 11308125
    An attempt was made to clarify the association between zinc (Zn) and antioxidants due to Zn supplementation on lipid peroxidation occurring during Brachiaria decumbens intoxication. The concentration of Zn, copper, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and gluthathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were determined in tissues. There was a gradual increment in the concentration of Zn and MDA in serum and hepatocytic SOD in groups given Zn + B decumbens. A decline in erythrocytic GSH-Px and SOD, and lower concentration of reduced glutathione in hepatocyte cytosols were also detected in these sheep. It is highly suggestive that Zn supplementation may depress antioxidant status and enhance lipid peroxidation during B decumbens intoxication.
  11. Zhang S, Xu J, Lee LH, Chew EP, Wong WP, Chen CH
    IEEE Trans Evol Comput, 2017 Apr;21(2):206-219.
    PMID: 29170617 DOI: 10.1109/TEVC.2016.2592185
    Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a popular metaheuristic for deterministic optimization. Originated in the interpretations of the movement of individuals in a bird flock or fish school, PSO introduces the concept of personal best and global best to simulate the pattern of searching for food by flocking and successfully translate the natural phenomena to the optimization of complex functions. Many real-life applications of PSO cope with stochastic problems. To solve a stochastic problem using PSO, a straightforward approach is to equally allocate computational effort among all particles and obtain the same number of samples of fitness values. This is not an efficient use of computational budget and leaves considerable room for improvement. This paper proposes a seamless integration of the concept of optimal computing budget allocation (OCBA) into PSO to improve the computational efficiency of PSO for stochastic optimization problems. We derive an asymptotically optimal allocation rule to intelligently determine the number of samples for all particles such that the PSO algorithm can efficiently select the personal best and global best when there is stochastic estimation noise in fitness values. We also propose an easy-to-implement sequential procedure. Numerical tests show that our new approach can obtain much better results using the same amount of computational effort.
  12. He G, Sun Z, Zhao Y, Zhang S, Chen H, Zhao Z, et al.
    Int J Clin Exp Pathol, 2020;13(5):1060-1065.
    PMID: 32509079
    In recent years, the incidence and mortality of infectious diseases in China are increasing. Infectious diseases, especially new infectious diseases, seriously threaten people's lives. Recent works found that most of the emerging infectious diseases come from wild life. At the same time, the impact of human activities on the environment has further deteriorated the living environment of wildlife. However, with the conducted in-depth research on virus, human beings increase the risk of getting infected. Taking Beta Coronavirus as the example, we analyzed the transmission risks of coronavirus in the prevention and control of the outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, and recommend the prevention and control strategies before, during and after the viral outbreak. Additional works are urgently needed to better define the biological and epidemiological characteristics of these viruses.
  13. Wu X, Zhang S, Lai J, Lu H, Sun Y, Guan W
    Exp Clin Transplant, 2020 Dec;18(7):823-831.
    PMID: 33349209 DOI: 10.6002/ect.2020.0108
    OBJECTIVES: Liver fibrosis is inevitable in the healing process of liver injury. Liver fibrosis will develop into liver cirrhosis unless the damaging factors are removed. This study investigated the potential therapy of Bama pig adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis Institute of Cancer Research strain mice model.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were injected intravenously into the tails of mice of the Institute of Cancer Research strain that had been treated with carbon tetrachloride for 4 weeks. Survival rate, migration, and proliferation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the liver were observed by histochemistry, fluorescent labeling, and serological detection.

    RESULTS: At 1, 2, and 3 weeks after adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell injection, liver fibrosis was significantly ameliorated. The injected adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells had hepatic differentiation potential in vivo, and the survival rate of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells declined over time.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings in this study confirmed that adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells derived from the Bama pig can be used in the treatment of liver fibrosis, and the grafted adipose-derived mesenchy-mal stem cells can migrate, survive, and differentiate into hepatic cells in vivo.

  14. Cao H, Wu X, Syed-Hassan SSA, Zhang S, Mood SH, Milan YJ, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2020 Dec;318:124063.
    PMID: 32905948 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124063
    Biochar modified with calcium source is acted as an effective adsorbent for phosphorous recovery. In this research, eggshell is used as a low-cost and environmentally friendly calcium source to replace chemical reagents such as CaCO3, Ca(OH)2 and CaCl2 used in the modified biochar production. Biochar derived from rape straw and modified with eggshell shows prominent phosphorous adsorption performance (e.g., equilibrium adsorption amount, 109.7 mg/g). The kinetic and isotherm analysis demonstrate that chemical adsorption process is performed as the main controlled step for the modified biochar adsorption, and the phosphate adsorption process is composed of both monolayer adsorption and multi-layer adsorption. Moreover, it is found from the physicochemical structures comparison before and after phosphate adsorption that Ca-P precipitation, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic attraction are identified as main adsorption mechanisms. In addition, the adsorbed phosphates are mainly distributed inside the space with pore sizes of 15-50 nm.
  15. Liu X, Lai X, Zhang S, Huang X, Lan Q, Li Y, et al.
    J Agric Food Chem, 2012 Dec 26;60(51):12477-81.
    PMID: 23214475 DOI: 10.1021/jf303533p
    Edible bird's nest (EBN) is made of the swiftlets' saliva, which has attracted rather more attention owing to its nutritious and medical properties. Although protein constitutes the main composition and plays an important role in EBN, few studies have focused on the proteomic profile of EBN. The purpose of this study was to produce a proteomic map and clarify common EBN proteins. Liquid-phase isoelectric focusing (LIEF) was combined with two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) for comprehensive analysis of EBN proteins. From 20 to 100 protein spots were detected on 2-DE maps of EBN samples from 15 different sources. The proteins were mainly distributed in four taxa (A, B, C, and D) according to their molecular mass. Taxa A and D both contained common proteins and proteins that may be considered another characteristic of EBN. Taxon A was identified using MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS and found to be homologous to acidic mammalian chitinase-like ( Meleagris gallopavo ), which is in glycosyl hydrolase family 18.
  16. Ritter P, Duray GZ, Zhang S, Narasimhan C, Soejima K, Omar R, et al.
    Europace, 2015 May;17(5):807-13.
    PMID: 25855677 DOI: 10.1093/europace/euv026
    Recent advances in miniaturization technologies and battery chemistries have made it possible to develop a pacemaker small enough to implant within the heart while still aiming to provide similar battery longevity to conventional pacemakers. The Micra Transcatheter Pacing System is a miniaturized single-chamber pacemaker system that is delivered via catheter through the femoral vein. The pacemaker is implanted directly inside the right ventricle of the heart, eliminating the need for a device pocket and insertion of a pacing lead, thereby potentially avoiding some of the complications associated with traditional pacing systems.
  17. Chen W, Li Y, Xue W, Shahabi H, Li S, Hong H, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2020 Jan 20;701:134979.
    PMID: 31733400 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134979
    Floods are one of the most devastating types of disasters that cause loss of lives and property worldwide each year. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the prediction capability of the naïve Bayes tree (NBTree), alternating decision tree (ADTree), and random forest (RF) methods for the spatial prediction of flood occurrence in the Quannan area, China. A flood inventory map with 363 flood locations was produced and partitioned into training and validation datasets through random selection with a ratio of 70/30. The spatial flood database was constructed using thirteen flood explanatory factors. The probability certainty factor (PCF) method was used to analyze the correlation between the factors and flood occurrences. Consequently, three flood susceptibility maps were produced using the NBTree, ADTree, and RF methods. Finally, the area under the curve (AUC) and statistical measures were used to validate the flood susceptibility models. The results indicated that the RF method is an efficient and reliable model in flood susceptibility assessment, with the highest AUC values, positive predictive rate, negative predictive rate, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the training (0.951, 0.892, 0.941, 0.945, 0.886, and 0.915, respectively) and validation (0.925, 0.851, 0.938, 0.945, 0.835, and 0.890, respectively) datasets.
  18. Xu D, Gao Y, Lin Z, Gao W, Zhang H, Karnowo K, et al.
    Front Chem, 2019;7:943.
    PMID: 32117859 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2019.00943
    In this study, biochars derived from waste fiberboard biomass were applied in tetracycline (TC) removal in aqueous solution. Biochar samples were prepared by slow pyrolysis at 300, 500, and 800°C, and were characterized by ultimate analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), etc. The effects of ionic strength (0-1.0 mol/L of NaCl), initial TC concentration (2.5-60 ppm), biochar dosage (1.5-2.5 g/L), and initial pH (2-10) were systemically determined. The results present that biochar prepared at 800°C (BC800) generally possesses the highest aromatization degree and surface area with abundant pyridinic N (N-6) and accordingly shows a better removal efficiency (68.6%) than the other two biochar samples. Adsorption isotherm data were better fitted by the Freundlich model (R2 is 0.94) than the Langmuir model (R2 is 0.85). Thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption process is endothermic and mainly physical in nature with the values of ΔH0 being 48.0 kJ/mol, ΔS0 being 157.1 J/mol/K, and ΔG0 varying from 1.02 to -2.14 kJ/mol. The graphite-like structure in biochar enables the π-π interactions with a ring structure in the TC molecule, which, together with the N-6 acting as electron donor, is the main driving force of the adsorption process.
  19. Huang Y, Liu S, Zhang J, Syed-Hassan SSA, Hu X, Sun H, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2020 Jul;307:123192.
    PMID: 32220819 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123192
    This study investigated the interactions between volatile and char during biomass pyrolysis at 400 °C, employing a β-5 lignin dimer and amino-modified graphitized carbon nanotube (CNT-NH2) as their models, respectively. The results demonstrated that both -NH2 and its carrier (CNT) facilitated the conversion of the β-5 dimer, which significantly increased from 9.7% (blank run), to 61.6% (with CNT), and to 96.6% (with CNT-NH2). CNT mainly favored the breakage of C-O bond in the feedstock to produce dimers with a yield of 55.5%, while CNT-NH2 promoted the cleavage of both C-O and C-C bonds to yield monomers with a yield up to 63.4%. Such significant changes in the pyrolysis behaviors of the β-5 lignin dimer after the introduction of CNT-NH2 were considered to be mainly caused by hydrogen-bond formations between -NH2 and the dimeric feedstock/products, in addition to the π-π stacking between CNT and aromatic rings.
  20. Gou Z, Ma NL, Zhang W, Lei Z, Su Y, Sun C, et al.
    Environ Res, 2020 09;188:109829.
    PMID: 32798948 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109829
    Intensive studies have been performed on the improvement of bioethanol production by transformation of lignocellulose biomass. In this study, the digestibility of corn stover was dramatically improved by using laccase immobilized on Cu2+ modified recyclable magnetite nanoparticles, Fe3O4-NH2. After digestion, the laccase was efficiently separated from slurry. The degradation rate of lignin reached 40.76%, and the subsequent cellulose conversion rate 38.37% for 72 h at 35 °C with cellulase at 50 U g-1 of corn stover. Compared to those of free and inactivated mode, the immobilized laccase pre-treatment increased subsequent cellulose conversion rates by 23.98% and 23.34%, respectively. Moreover, the reusability of immobilized laccase activity remained 50% after 6 cycles. The storage and thermal stability of the fixed laccase enhanced by 70% and 24.1% compared to those of free laccase at 65 °C, pH 4.5, respectively. At pH 10.5, it exhibited 16.3% more activities than its free mode at 35 °C. Our study provides a new avenue for improving the production of bioethanol with immobilized laccase for delignification using corn stover as the starting material.
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