METHODS: First, challenges for seniors, including chronic diseases and other limitations associated with old age, are specified. Second, a review of seniors' needs and concerns is performed. Finally, solutions that can improve seniors' quality of life are discussed. Publications obtained from the following databases are used in this scoping review: Web of Science, PubMed, and Science Direct. Four independent reviewers screened the identified records and selected relevant publications published from 2010 to 2017. A total of 1916 publications were selected. In all, 52 papers were selected based on abstract content. For further processing, 21 full papers were screened."
RESULTS: The results indicate disabilities as a major problem associated with seniors' activities of daily living dependence. We founded seven categories of different conditions - psychological problems, difficulties in mobility, poor cognitive function, falls and incidents, wounds and injuries, undernutrition, and communication problems. In order to minimize ageing consequences, some areas require more attention, such as education and training; technological tools; government support and welfare systems; early diagnosis of undernutrition, cognitive impairment, and other diseases; communication solutions; mobility solutions; and social contributions.
CONCLUSIONS: This scoping review supports the view on chronic diseases in old age as a complex issue. To prevent the consequences of chronic diseases and other limitations associated with old age related problems demands multicomponent interventions. Early recognition of problems leading to disability and activities of daily living (ADL) dependence should be one of essential components of such interventions.
METHODS: The modified SPEED or M-SPEED is a sequence prediction algorithm, which modified the previous SPEED algorithm by using time duration of appliance's ON-OFF states to decide the next state. M-SPEED discovered periodic episodes of inhabitant behavior, trained it with learned episodes, and made decisions based on the obtained knowledge.
RESULTS: The results showed that M-SPEED achieves 96.8% prediction accuracy, which is better than other time prediction algorithms like PUBS, ALZ with temporal rules and the previous SPEED.
CONCLUSIONS: Since human behavior shows natural temporal patterns, duration times can be used to predict future events more accurately. This inhabitant activity prediction system will certainly improve the smart homes by ensuring safety and better care for elderly and handicapped people.
METHODS: Forty older participants were equally assigned to a supervised exercise program (group-I) or a home exercise program (group-II). Each participant performed the exercise program for 35-45 minutes, two times per week for four months. Balance indices and isometric muscle strength were measured with the Biodex Balance System and Hand-Held Dynamometer. Functional activities were evaluated by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the timed get-up-and-go test (TUG).
RESULTS: The mean values of the Biodex balance indices and the BBS improved significantly after both the supervised and home exercise programs (P < 0.05). However, the mean values of the TUG and muscle strength at the ankle, knee and hip improved significantly only after the supervised program. A comparison between the supervised and home exercise programs revealed there were only significant differences in the BBS, TUG and muscle strength.
CONCLUSIONS: Both the supervised and home exercise training programs significantly increased balance performance. The supervised program was superior to the home program in restoring functional activities and isometric muscle strength in older participants.
DESIGN: This study was a two-arm within-participants trial with 4- and 12-wk follow-ups. Allocation ratio was 1:1, and pretraining and posttraining measurements were included. A total number of 25 healthy older adults were enrolled (mean = 63.32, SD = 4.44). Participants were randomly allocated into two conditions: (a) prospective memory training: participants underwent a multicomponent prospective memory training, and (b) control: participants were not contacted during the training phase. After the training phase was finished, participants crossed over to undergo the condition they did not experience before. The differences between pretraining and posttraining measures of prospective memory, activities of daily living, negative mood (depression), and anxiety were assessed. All changes in the measurements were analyzed using general linear method. This trial is registered at https://www.isrctn.com (#ISRCTN57600070).
RESULTS: Multicomponent prospective memory training program was significantly effective on both subjective and objective prospective memory performances among healthy older adults. Moreover, the training had significant positive effects on activities of daily living (independence) among participants. In addition, negative mood and anxiety levels were reduced after the training was finished.
CONCLUSIONS: This multicomponent prospective memory training improved prospective memory performance and activities of daily living and reduce negative mood (depression) and anxiety levels among healthy older adults.
Methods: Fifty-seven participants were assessed for their demographics and functional ability relating to the requirement for walking devices, including the Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) and lower limb loading during sit-to-stand (LLL-STS).
Results: Thirty-five participants (61%) used a walking device, particularly a standard walker, for daily walking. More than half of them (n = 23, 66%) had potential of walking progression (i.e., safely walk with a less-support device than the usual one). The ability of walking progression was significantly associated with a mild severity of injury, increased lower-limb muscle strength, decreased time to complete the TUGT, and, in particular, increased LLL-STS.
Conclusion: A large proportion of ambulatory individuals with SCI have the potential for walking progression, which may increase their level of independence and minimise the appearance of disability. Strategies to promote LLL-STS are important for this progression.
METHODS: Using data from a random population sample of noninstitutionalized Chinese, Malay, and Indian older adults 60 years old and older in Singapore (N = 1072), we modeled the dimensional structure of the 8-item IADL Scale using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and assessed its convergent and divergent validity using known group differences and strengths of association.
RESULTS: Factor analyses yielded two strong and reliable factors representing underlying physical and cognitive dimensions of IADL. The validity of the model was supported by the pattern of associations of the IADL with age, gender, education, self-reported health status, hospitalization, physical comorbidities, dementia and depression, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores. Notably, cognitive IADL showed a greater total effect on MMSE cognitive performance score than did physical IADL, with the effect of physical IADL on MMSE score mostly explained by cognitive IADL. Reasonably good cross-cultural validity was demonstrated among Chinese, Malays, and Indians, with strongest validity for Indians.
CONCLUSION: The eight-item IADL Scale has physical and cognitive domains and is cross-culturally applicable. The cognitive IADL domain taps a set of activities directly related to cognitive functioning.