METHODS: The database includes 4037 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, previously collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to adjust the data for country median age, and in some models, birth cohort. Model-based clustering (mixture analysis) was then performed on the age of onset data using the residuals. Clinical variables in subgroups were compared.
RESULTS: There was a strong birth cohort effect. Without adjusting for the birth cohort, three subgroups were found by clustering. After adjusting for the birth cohort or when considering only those born after 1959, two subgroups were found. With results of either two or three subgroups, the youngest subgroup was more likely to have a family history of mood disorders and a first episode with depressed polarity. However, without adjusting for birth cohort (three subgroups), family history and polarity of the first episode could not be distinguished between the middle and oldest subgroups.
CONCLUSION: These results using international data confirm prior findings using single country data, that there are subgroups of bipolar I disorder based on the age of onset, and that there is a birth cohort effect. Including the birth cohort adjustment altered the number and characteristics of subgroups detected when clustering by age of onset. Further investigation is needed to determine if combining both approaches will identify subgroups that are more useful for research.
METHODOLOGY: A prospective study was performed on children with diarrhoea of more than 14 days' duration who were managed at the Department of Paediatrics, University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 1997.
RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients (14 boys and 13 girls) were studied. The median age of onset of diarrhoea was 6 months and the mean duration of symptoms before referral was 66.5 days. The underlying causes of diarrhoea were found to be: (i) prolonged diarrhoea due to well-defined entities (intestinal lymphangiectasia, two cases; congenital glucose-galactose malabsorption, one case; post-small bowel resection, one case; (ii) postenteritis diarrhoea (cow's milk protein intolerance, eight cases; secondary lactose intolerance, four cases; transient monosaccharide intolerance, one case; (iii) gastrointestinal infections (nontyphoid Salmonella gastroenteritis, three cases; trichuriasis, two cases; amoebiasis, one case; adenovirus, one case; (iv) cases in which a firm diagnosis could not be established (three cases). The mean duration of hospital admission was 63 days. Sixteen cases required a change in diet, while nine cases required total parenteral nutrition. One death occurred.
CONCLUSIONS: Chronic childhood diarrhoea in Malaysia had a variety of aetiologies. A specific diagnosis could be established in 90% of cases. Making a diagnosis was important because this led to appropriate therapy and a good outcome in 96% of cases.
METHODOLOGY: Retrospective review of all children who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of CVS and who were seen at Department of Paediatrics, University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur and Paediatric Unit, Penang Hospital, Penang, Malaysia from 1987 to 1997.
RESULTS: Eight children with CVS were seen at the two units during the study period, five girls and three boys. All had cyclical, self-limited episodes of nausea and vomiting with symptom-free intervals. The mean age of onset was 5.9 years. The clinical features were similar to other series described in the literature. Only two of the eight children were described as 'perfectionist'. Two children identified stress as precipitating factors. Therapy to reduce the number of emeses during acute attacks and to prevent subsequent attacks had been ineffective.
CONCLUSION: There are similarities and differences in CVS from South-East Asian children as compared to those described in the literature.
CASE REPORT: A 91 year old lady presented with an acute manic relapse for the past 2 weeks. She was previously on oral Sodium Valproate, and during this current admission was augmented with oral Quetiapine IR 100 mg bd. She remained unwell and was planned for right unilateral ECT with age-based dosing stimuli. After only 4 sessions, she showed complete resolution of her manic symptoms.
RESULT: In our case study, the patient showed rapid response to right unilateral ECT. Even though the Post Suppression Index (PSI) was not significant, there is some evidence that in elderly patients, burst suppression (not measured in this case) may be more accurate measure of ECT efficacy. The transient treatment emergent delirium was short lived and ECT was very tolerated in this patient.
CONCLUSION: Clinicians should not delay ECT in old-old patients who do not respond to pharmacologic treatment, as early switch to ECT results in rapid response with good safety profile.
DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This was a cross-sectional study approved by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences ethics committee and took place in Mashhad, Iran, for a period of 3 years from August 2008 till September 2011.
METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 113 ASD patients participated and they were categorized into 3 groups on the basis of family relationship between their parents: first group-"no relationship," second group- "third degree relationship," and third group- "far relationship."
RESULTS: Among the 54 male and 59 female ASD patients, the most prevalent type of ASD was ASD secundum (85.0%) followed by sinus venosus (8.8%). A total of 56% patients were present in the first group and 15% and 29% in the second group and the third group, respectively." The relationship between consanguinity and type of ASD (P < .001) and gender (P < .001 each) was observed. The relationship between the age of onset of disease and consanguinity (P=.003) was also observed.
CONCLUSION: Considering the fact that there is a high prevalence of ASD and consanguineous marriage in Iran and bearing in mind the results of the present study, we recommend educating couples about the outcomes of consanguineous marriage in pre-marriage counseling.