Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 68 in total

  1. Suppian R, Vegandraj S, Kandaiya S
    Int J Rad Appl Instrum A, 1992 Jul;43(7):937-8.
    PMID: 1321104
    Pumping air through a soft tissue which acts as a membrane is a relatively easy and quick method to collect and measure radon/thoron and its daughter nuclides in air. Analysis of the activity of the radionuclides can be calculated using an alpha counter which has been calibrated. In this method the activity of radon/thoron cannot be separated from the activity of radionuclides already present in the aerosol or dust particles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis*
  2. Sakai N, Yamamoto S, Matsui Y, Khan MF, Latif MT, Ali Mohd M, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2017 May 15;586:1279-1286.
    PMID: 28236484 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.02.139
    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in indoor air were investigated at 39 private residences in Selangor State, Malaysia to characterize the indoor air quality and to identify pollution sources. Twenty-two VOCs including isomers (14 aldehydes, 5 aromatic hydrocarbons, acetone, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene) were collected by 2 passive samplers for 24h and quantitated using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Source profiling based on benzene/toluene ratio as well as statistical analysis (cluster analysis, bivariate correlation analysis and principal component analysis) was performed to identify pollution sources of the detected VOCs. The VOCs concentrations were compared with regulatory limits of air quality guidelines in WHO/EU, the US, Canada and Japan to clarify the potential health risks to the residents. The 39 residences were classified into 2 groups and 2 ungrouped residences based on the dendrogram in the cluster analysis. Group 1 (n=30) had mainly toluene (6.87±2.19μg/m3), formaldehyde (16.0±10.1μg/m3), acetaldehyde (5.35±4.57μg/m3) and acetone (11.1±5.95μg/m3) at background levels. Group 2 (n=7) had significantly high values of formaldehyde (99.3±10.7μg/m3) and acetone (35.8±12.6μg/m3), and a tendency to have higher values of acetaldehyde (23.7±13.5μg/m3), butyraldehyde (3.35±0.41μg/m3) and isovaleraldehyde (2.30±0.39μg/m3). The 2 ungrouped residences showed particularly high concentrations of BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene: 235μg/m3 in total) or acetone (133μg/m3). The geometric mean value of formaldehyde (19.2μg/m3) exceeded an 8-hour regulatory limit in Canada (9μg/m3), while those in other compounds did not exceed any regulatory limits, although a few residences exceeded at least one regulatory limit of benzene or acetaldehyde. Thus, the VOCs in the private residences were effectively characterized from the limited number of monitoring, and the potential health risks of the VOCs exposure, particularly formaldehyde, should be considered in the study area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis*
  3. Syazwan A, Rafee BM, Hafizan J, Azman A, Nizar A, Izwyn Z, et al.
    PMID: 22570579 DOI: 10.2147/RMHP.S26567
    To meet the current diversified health needs in workplaces, especially in nonindustrial workplaces in developing countries, an indoor air quality (IAQ) component of a participatory occupational safety and health survey should be included.
    Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution, Indoor
  4. Syazwan A, Rafee BM, Juahir H, Azman A, Nizar A, Izwyn Z, et al.
    PMID: 23055779 DOI: 10.2147/DHPS.S33400
    To analyze and characterize a multidisciplinary, integrated indoor air quality checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants in a nonindustrial workplace setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution, Indoor
  5. Saad SM, Andrew AM, Shakaff AY, Saad AR, Kamarudin AM, Zakaria A
    Sensors (Basel), 2015;15(5):11665-84.
    PMID: 26007724 DOI: 10.3390/s150511665
    Monitoring indoor air quality (IAQ) is deemed important nowadays. A sophisticated IAQ monitoring system which could classify the source influencing the IAQ is definitely going to be very helpful to the users. Therefore, in this paper, an IAQ monitoring system has been proposed with a newly added feature which enables the system to identify the sources influencing the level of IAQ. In order to achieve this, the data collected has been trained with artificial neural network or ANN--a proven method for pattern recognition. Basically, the proposed system consists of sensor module cloud (SMC), base station and service-oriented client. The SMC contain collections of sensor modules that measure the air quality data and transmit the captured data to base station through wireless network. The IAQ monitoring system is also equipped with IAQ Index and thermal comfort index which could tell the users about the room's conditions. The results showed that the system is able to measure the level of air quality and successfully classify the sources influencing IAQ in various environments like ambient air, chemical presence, fragrance presence, foods and beverages and human activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution, Indoor
  6. Amir Abdullah, M.D., Abdullah, A.H., Leman, A.M.
    Indoor air quality has been a major public concern recently. Several health effects are related to this problem.
    Findings from several studies have shown MVAC system as the main contributor for IAQ problem. Good practice of
    maintenance and servicing is important to maintain MVAC system, especially the filter. Good air filtration for MVAC
    system is needed to make sure adequate air is received by the occupants. This paper illustrated a recent study of air
    filtration for MVAC system especially for several industries that used MVAC system in their premises. This paper also
    proposed an air filtration study for a better air quality. Several Acts and Regulations related to Safety and Health were
    identified to create the framework for the proposed study. Air filtration technique was used in this preliminary study
    to set up guidelines to create safe and clean indoor spaces for workers and occupants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution, Indoor
  7. Li TC, Ambu S, Mohandas K, Wah MJ, Sulaiman LH, Murgaiyah M
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Sep;31(3):540-56.
    PMID: 25382482 MyJurnal
    Airborne bacteria are significant biotic constituents of bioaerosol. Bacteria at high concentrations in the air can compromise indoor air quality (IAQ) and result in many diseases. In tropical environments like Malaysia that extensively utilize air-conditioning systems, this is particularly significant due to continuous recirculation of indoor air and the potential implications for human health. Currently, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of airborne bacteria on IAQ in Malaysia. This study was prompted by a need for reliable baseline data on airborne bacteria in the indoor environment of tropical equatorial Malaysia, that may be used as a reference for further investigations on the potential role played by airborne bacteria as an agent of disease in this region. It was further necessitated due to the threat of bioterrorism with the potentiality of release of exotic pathogenic microorganisms into indoor or outdoor air. Before scientists can detect the latter, a gauge of the common microorganisms in indoor (as well as outdoor) air needs to be ascertained, hence the expediency of this study. Bacterial counts from the broad-based and targeted study were generally in the order of 10(2) colony-forming units (CFU) per m(3) of air. The most prevalent airborne bacteria found in the broad-based study that encompassed all five levels of the building were Gram-positive cocci (67.73%), followed by Gram-positive rods (24.26%) and Gram-negative rods (7.10%). Gram-negative cocci were rarely detected (0.71%). Amongst the genera identified, Kytococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Leifsonia sp., Bacillus sp. and Corynebacterium sp. predominated in indoor air. The most dominant bacterial species were Kytococcus sedentarius, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus. The opportunistic and nosocomial pathogen, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was also discovered at a high percentage in the cafeteria. The bacteria isolated in this study have been increasingly documented to cause opportunistic infections in immuno-compromised patients, sometimes with fatal outcomes. Furthermore, some of them are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics. Hence, we propose that indoor reservoirs of these bacteria and their associated clinical and more subtle health effects, if any, be investigated further.
    Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution, Indoor*
  8. Abidin EZ, Hashim Z, Semple S
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(11):6845-50.
    PMID: 24377615
    BACKGROUND: This study was performed to gather data on second-hand smoke (SHS) concentrations in a range of public venues following the implementation of partial Smoke-Free Legislation in Malaysia in 2004.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: PM2.5 was measured as a marker of SHS levels in a total of 61 restaurants, entertainment centres, internet cafes and pubs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: Under the current smoke-free laws smoking was prohibited in 42 of the 61 premises. Active smoking was observed in nearly one-third (n=12) of these. For premises where smoking was prohibited and no active smoking observed, the mean (standard deviation) indoor PM2.5 concentration was 33.4 (23.8) μg/m3 compared to 187.1 (135.1) μg/m3 in premises where smoking was observed The highest mean PM2.5 was observed in pubs [361.5 (199.3) μg/m3].

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of high levels of SHS across a range of hospitality venues, including about one-third of those where smoking is prohibited, despite 8 years of smoke-free legislation. Compliance with the legislation appeared to be particularly poor in entertainment centres and internet cafes. Workers and non-smoking patrons continue to be exposed to high concentrations of SHS within the hospitality industry in Malaysia and there is an urgent need for increased enforcement of existing legislation and consideration of more comprehensive laws to protect health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis*; Air Pollution, Indoor/legislation & jurisprudence; Air Pollution, Indoor/prevention & control
  9. Ahmad Sayuti Zainal Abidin, Leman, A.M., Nor Mohd Razif Noraini
    This study intended to investigate the level on airborne microbe in indoor air for new constructed building. It was divided by three different phase of building commissioning in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. The first phase of the sampling was carried out after the building fully handed over from the main contractor to the building owner. Second phase of the sampling take place after the building is equipped with furniture. Phase three sampling is conducted after one month of building occupancy. Airborne microbes’ concentrations were determined by using a single stage impactor (Biosampler) as per requirement of National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method, NIOSH Manual Analytical Method MAM 0800. The total concentration of airborne bacteria and fungi were average to 641 and 38 CFU/m³ in the first phase, 133 and 117 CFU/m³ in the second phase, and 389 and 52 CFU/m³ in the third phase. These findings indicate that although a new constructed building should be having a significant background level of airborne microbe (total bacteria and total fungi). The building owner should be aware to their indoor air status to protect the occupant from the safety and health problem (risk) especially for ventilated building.
    Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution, Indoor
  10. Mohd Mahathir Suhaimi Shamsuri, Leman, A.M., Azian Hariri, Azizi Afandi
    The cultivation of indoor plants in indoor environment has become a topic of interest among researchers worldwide for its
    potential to improve indoor air quality (IAQ). However, the adaptations of environmental factor of each plant need to be investigated
    to correspond with the native environment. The study investigate the capability of plants selected to live indoor. Before experiment was
    conducted, all plants selected were assimilated with indoor environment for two months. Photosynthesis proses in this experiment will
    be a guidance to determine the comparative for every plant. The portable photosynthesis system equipment (LI-COR 6400) was used to
    determine the level of photosynthesis rate for each of plants. Accordingly, among of all plants tested, Spider Plant showed less effective
    to be grown with indoor environment by the rate of photosynthesis value up to -0.15. Moreover, light compensation point (LCP) of
    Spider Plant also indicated the light intensity consumption was 2960 lux which is extremely higher than 300 lux. As a conclusion, only
    six plants in this study which are Anthurium, Dumb Cane, Golden Pothos, Kadaka Fern, Prayer Plant, and Syngonium are able to
    survive with indoor environment. In the next stage of study, this six plants may give good results to enhance the IAQ.
    Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution, Indoor
  11. Chong KC, Lai SO, Lau WJ, Thiam HS, Ismail AF, Roslan RA
    Polymers (Basel), 2018 Jan 28;10(2).
    PMID: 30966162 DOI: 10.3390/polym10020126
    Air pollution is a widely discussed topic amongst the academic and industrial spheres as it can bring adverse effects to human health and economic loss. As humans spend most of their time at the office and at home, good indoor air quality with enriched oxygen concentration is particularly important. In this study, polysulfone (PSF) hollow fiber membranes fabricated by dry-jet wet phase inversion method were coated by a layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or poly(ether block amide) (PEBAX) at different concentrations and used to evaluate their performance in gas separation for oxygen enrichment. The surface-coated membranes were characterized using SEM and EDX to determine the coating layer thickness and surface chemical properties, respectively. Results from the gas permeation study revealed that the PSF membrane coated with PDMS offered higher permeance and selectivity compared to the membrane coated with PEBAX. The best performing PDMS-coated membrane demonstrated oxygen and nitrogen gas permeance of 18.31 and 4.01 GPU, respectively with oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 4.56. Meanwhile, the PEBAX-coated membrane only showed 12.23 and 3.11 GPU for oxygen and nitrogen gas, respectively with a selectivity of 3.94. It can be concluded the PDMS coating is more promising for PSF hollow fiber membrane compared to the PEBAX coating for the oxygen enrichment process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution, Indoor
  12. Foo, Ming Hui
    In this era, most of us are suffering some level of respiratory problem. Respiratory system of our children is even more sensitive compare to adults. As our children spending an average of 8 hours in school, indoor air quality of the classroom become an important element. Many studies have shown that indoor air quality not only affecting the respiratory system of schoolchildren but their performance in academy as well.
    Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution, Indoor
  13. Lee J, Lim S, Lee K, Guo X, Kamath R, Yamato H, et al.
    Int J Hyg Environ Health, 2010 Sep;213(5):348-51.
    PMID: 20542729 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2010.05.007
    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major threat to public health. Asian countries having the highest smoking prevalence are seriously affected by SHS. The objective of the study was to measure SHS levels in hospitality venues in seven Asian countries and to compare the SHS exposure to the levels in Western countries. The study was carried out in four types of related hospitality venues (restaurant, café, bar/club and entertainment) in China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Real-time measurement of particulate matter of <2.5microm aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)) was made during business hour using a handheld laser operated monitor. A total of 168 venues were measured in seven countries. The average indoor PM(2.5) level was 137microg/m(3), ranging from 46microg/m(3) in Malaysia to 207microg/m(3) in India. Bar/club had the highest PM(2.5) level of 191microg/m(3) and restaurants had the lowest PM(2.5) level of 92microg/m(3). The average indoor PM(2.5) level in smoking venues was 156micro/m(3), which was 3.6 times higher than non-smoking venues (43microg/m(3)). Indoor PM(2.5) levels were significantly associated with country, type of venue, smoking density and air exchange rate (p<0.05). In the seven Asian countries, PM(2.5) levels were high due to SHS in public places. The current levels are comparable to the levels in Western countries before the adoption of smoke-free policy. Since Asian country has high prevalence of SHS in public places, there is an urgent need for comprehensive smoke-free regulation in Asian countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis; Air Pollution, Indoor/statistics & numerical data*
  14. Ismail B, Redzuwan Y, Chua RS, Shafiee W
    Appl Radiat Isot, 2001 Mar;54(3):393-7.
    PMID: 11214872
    The processing of amang (one of a number of tin-tailing products) for its valuable minerals has associated with the radiological and environmental problems. The processing and stockpiling of amang and ilmenite in open-air spaces, subject as it is to environmental influences, gives rise to a potential for affecting residents in adjacent area. A case study was carried out in a residential area neighbouring a typical amang plant to investigate the radiological impact to the residents. The average Effective Dose rates, calculated based on the contributions of Effective Dose rates from inhaled suspended radioactive dust, radon-thoron and their progeny, and external gamma radiation, were determined for selected houses. Results show that the occupants of those houses received Effective Dose rate, which cannot be differentiated from background. The major contributor to the average Effective Dose rate came from external radiation sources. Inhaled radon and its progeny was the second major contributor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects; Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis
  15. Khamal R, Isa ZM, Sutan R, Noraini NMR, Ghazi HF
    Ann Glob Health, 2019 01 22;85(1).
    PMID: 30741516 DOI: 10.5334/aogh.2425
    INTRODUCTION: Indoor air quality in day care centers (DCCs) is an emerging research topic nowadays. Indoor air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) and microbes have been linked to respiratory health effects in children, particularly asthma-related symptoms such as night coughs and wheezing due to early exposure to indoor air contaminants.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the association between wheezing symptoms among toddlers attending DCCs and indoor particulate matter, PM10, PM2.5, and microbial count level in urban DCCs in the District of Seremban, Malaysia.

    METHODS: Data collection was carried out at 10 DCCs located in the urban area of Seremban. Modified validated questionnaires were distributed to parents to obtain their children's health symptoms. The parameters measured were indoor PM2.5, PM10, carbon monoxide, total bacteria count, total fungus count, temperature, air velocity, and relative humidity using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health analytical method.

    RESULTS: All 10 DCCs investigated had at least one indoor air quality parameter exceeding the acceptable level of standard guidelines. The prevalence of toddlers having wheezing symptoms was 18.9%. There was a significant different in mean concentration of PM2.5 and total bacteria count between those with and those without wheezing symptoms (P = 0.02, P = 0.006).

    CONCLUSIONS: Urban DCCs are exposed to many air pollutants that may enter their buildings from various adjacent sources. The particle concentrations and presence of microbes in DCCs might increase the risk of exposed children for respiratory diseases, particularly asthma, in their later life.

    Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis; Air Pollution, Indoor/prevention & control
  16. Lim FL, Hashim Z, Md Said S, Than LT, Hashim JH, Norbäck D
    Sci Total Environ, 2015 Dec 1;536:353-61.
    PMID: 26225741 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.06.137
    There are few studies on sick building syndrome (SBS) including clinical measurements for atopy and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Our aim was to study associations between SBS symptoms, selected personal factors, office characteristics and indoor office exposures among office workers from a university in Malaysia. Health data were collected by a questionnaire (n=695), skin prick test (SPT) (n=463) and FeNO test (n=460). Office settled dust was vacuumed and analyzed for endotoxin, (1,3)-β-glucan and house dust mites (HDM) allergens group 1 namely Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 1) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1). Office indoor temperature, relative air humidity (RH), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured by a direct reading instrument. Associations were studied by two-levels multiple logistic regression with mutual adjustment and stratified analysis. The prevalence of weekly dermal, mucosal and general symptoms was 11.9%, 16.0% and 23.0% respectively. A combination of SPT positivity (allergy to HDM or cat) and high FeNO level (≥25 ppb) was associated with dermal (p=0.002), mucosal (p<0.001) and general symptoms (p=0.05). Der f1 level in dust was associated with dermal (p<0.001), mucosal (p<0.001) and general (p=0.02) symptoms. Among those with allergy to D. farinae, associations were found between Der f 1 levels in dust and dermal (p=0.003), mucosal (p=0.001) and general symptoms (p=0.007). Office-related symptoms were associated with Der f 1 levels in dust (p=0.02), low relative air humidity (p=0.04) and high office temperature (p=0.05). In conclusion, a combination of allergy to cat or HDM and high FeNO is a risk factor for SBS symptoms. Der f 1 allergen in dust can be a risk factor for SBS in the office environment, particularly among those sensitized to Der f 1 allergen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis*; Air Pollution, Indoor/statistics & numerical data
  17. Al-Shamiry, Faisal Mohammed Seif, Desa Ahmad
    Natural ventilation is defined as the number of air exchanges per hour per unit floor area necessary
    to reduce high indoor air temperature and humidity. In addition, it maintains the concentration of carbon dioxide. Natural ventilation is preferred in mechanical system as the ventilation opening is built into the greenhouse, with lower construction cost and no energy and maintenance inputs are required. A mathematical model to quantify natural ventilation rates was developed and verified in large-scale greenhouse structures. For this purpose, four Naturally Ventilated Tropical Greenhouse Structures were designed and constructed at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI). These were single, double, triple, and quadruple span structures with floor areas of 500 m2, 1000 m2, 1500 m2 and 2000 m2, respectively. This paper presents the validation of a mathematical model which was developed to quantify natural ventilation rates which are very crucial to reduce high in-house temperature built up in the tropics. Regression equations of natural ventilation against wind speed were found to be Φw = 0.0632V, Φw= 0.0395V, Φw= 0.0316Vand Φw=0.0276V for the single, double, triple and quadruple spans, respectively. Meanwhile, coefficients of determination showed strong relationships between ventilation rate and wind speed, with R2 = 0.9999 for all structures. Larger floor area was found to have higher in-house temperature than smaller ones. Ventilation rate inside the single-span structure was found to be higher compared to the multi-span structures, which increased linearly with the increasing wind speed at the eaves of structure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution, Indoor
  18. Salamone F, Belussi L, Danza L, Galanos T, Ghellere M, Meroni I
    Sensors (Basel), 2017 May 04;17(5).
    PMID: 28471398 DOI: 10.3390/s17051021
    The article describes the results of the project "open source smart lamp" aimed at designing and developing a smart object able to manage and control the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) of the built environment. A first version of this smart object, built following a do-it-yourself (DIY) approach using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, and techniques of additive manufacturing, allows the adjustment of the indoor thermal comfort quality (ICQ), by interacting directly with the air conditioner. As is well known, the IEQ is a holistic concept including indoor air quality (IAQ), indoor lighting quality (ILQ) and acoustic comfort, besides thermal comfort. The upgrade of the smart lamp bridges the gap of the first version of the device providing the possibility of interaction with the air exchange unit and lighting system in order to get an overview of the potential of a nearable device in the management of the IEQ. The upgraded version was tested in a real office equipped with mechanical ventilation and an air conditioning system. This office was occupied by four workers. The experiment is compared with a baseline scenario and the results show how the application of the nearable device effectively optimizes both IAQ and ILQ.
    Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution, Indoor
  19. Ambu, Stephen, Chu, Wan-Loy, Mak, Joon-Wah, Wong, Shew-Fung, Chan, Li-Li, Wong, Siew-Tung
    Malaysia has good environmental laws to protect the outdoor environment and public health. However there are no laws governing indoor air quality (IAQ) and the knowledge among the public about its importance is also lacking. Environmental professionals think it is not a priority and this influences the policy decisions in the country. Therefore there is a need to create awareness by way of research, education and other promotional activities. What is much needed at this time is the establishment of standards for the conduct of risk assessment studies. To establish standards we need reliable data which can be used to develop appropriate guidelines for the purpose of mitigation and adaptation programmes. IAQ can have significant influence on health resulting in drop in productivity and economy of a country. It has been estimated that in the US, building related illnesses (BRI) symptoms have a relationship with decrease (3 to 5%) in work performance in an affected population resulting in an annual loss of US$60 billion in revenue. However, based on efficient management programmes they have also projected that the potential annual savings can be in the region of US$10 to 30 billion. This establishes that fact that good management programmes based on efficient guidelines is of economic value to a country and wellbeing of the population. The IMU has embarked on a research programme to collect the much-needed data for the framing of a good IAQ guideline for Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution, Indoor
  20. Masitah Alias, Zaini Hamzah
    The growing concern over the workers safety and health has lead many factories and organizations do the air monitoring to ensure the airborne at their workplace is safe for the worker’s health and complying the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Act 514). In this study, the monitoring covers an indoor air quality and chemical exposure to the workers in one of the power plant repair shop. A few workers from different sections namely blasting, welding, grinding, fitting and maintenance area were chosen to assist in the personal monitoring for 8 hours measurement. PM10 were measured at a few sampling points to collect dusts for 24 hours duration. The samples were brought back to the laboratory for gravimetric and SEM-EDAX analysis. The results were certainly exceed the limit for air quality, and many elements were detected such as Fe, Ni, Al, Si, Ca, K, Ba, S, Cr, Zn and Cl. The present of these elements shows that exposure to these particulate matters is quite risky and some measure needs to be taken for remedial action.
    Matched MeSH terms: Air Pollution, Indoor
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (tengcl@gmail.com)

External Links