Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 60 in total

  1. Ting ASY, Rahman NHA, Isa MIHM, Tan WS
    Bioresour Technol, 2013 Nov;147:636-639.
    PMID: 24001691 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.08.064
    Metal removal potential of both alginate-immobilized and free-cells of Effective Microorganisms (EM-1™ Inoculant) was investigated in this study. Results revealed that removal of Cr(III), Cu(II) and Pb(II) followed a similar trend where alginate-immobilized EM were more efficient compared to free-cells of EM. For these metals, 0.940, 2.695 and 4.011 mg g(-1) of Cr(III), Cu(II) and Pb(II) were removed compared to only 0.160, 0.859 and 0.755 mg ml(-1) removed by free-cells, respectively. The higher efficiency of alginate-immobilized EM was primarily attributed to the alginate matrix. This was evident when both alginate-immobilized EM and plain alginate beads (without EM), were not significantly different in their removal efficacies. Presence of alginate also enhanced the use of the biosorbents as maximum metal sorption was achieved after 120 min as opposed to only 60 min for free-cells. EM per se in immobilized or free-cell forms did not enhance metal removal efficacy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alginates/chemistry*
  2. Majidnia Z, Fulazzaky MA
    J Environ Manage, 2017 Apr 15;191:219-227.
    PMID: 28107756 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.01.019
    The presence of Cs(I) ions in nuclear wastewater becomes an important issue for the reason of its high toxicity. The development of adsorbent embedded metal-based catalysts that has sufficient adsorption capacity is expected for the removal of Cs(I) ions from contaminated water. This study tested the use of maghemite, titania and combined maghemite-titania polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-alginate beads as an adsorbent to remove Cs(I) ions from aqueous solution with the variables of pH and initial concentration using batch experiments under sunlight. The results showed that the use of combined maghemite-titania PVA-alginate beads can have an efficiency of 93.1% better than the use of either maghemite PVA-alginate beads with an efficiency of 91.8% or titania PVA-alginate beads with an efficiency of 90.1%. The experimental data for adsorption of Cs(I) ions from aqueous solution with the initial concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg L(-1) on the surface of combined maghemite-titania PVA-alginate beads were well fit by the pseudo-second-order and Langmuir models. The optimal adsorption of Cs(I) ions from aqueous solution by combined maghemite-titania PVA-alginate beads under sunlight occurs at pH 8 with an initial Cs(I) ion concentration of 50 mg L(-1). The combined maghemite-titania PVA-alginate beads can be recycled at least five times with a slight loss of their original properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alginates/chemistry
  3. Bera H, Kumar S
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Mar;108:1053-1062.
    PMID: 29122714 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.11.019
    The current study aimed at developing diethonolamine-modified high-methoxyl pectin (DMP)-alginate (ALG) based core-shell composites for controlled intragastric delivery of metformin HCl (MFM) by combined approach of floating and bioadhesion. DMP with degree of amidation of 48.72% was initially accomplished and characterized by FTIR, DSC and XRD analyses. MFM-loaded core matrices were then fabricated by ionotropic gelation technique employing zinc acetate as cross-linker. The core matrices were further coated by fenugreek gum (FG)-ALG gel membrane via diffusion-controlled interfacial complexation method. Various formulations demonstrated excellent drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, 51-70%) and sustained drug eluting behavior (Q8h, 72-96%), which were extremely influenced by polymer-blend (ALG:DMP) ratios, low density additives (olive oil/magnesium stearate) and FG-ALG coating inclusion. The drug release profile of the core-shell matrices (F-7) was best fitted in zero-order kinetic model with case-II transport driven mechanism. It also portrayed outstanding gastroretentive characteristics. Moreover, the composites were analyzed for surface morphology, drug-excipients compatibility, thermal behavior and drug crystallinity. Thus, the developed composites are appropriate for controlled stomach-specific delivery of MFM for type 2 diabetes management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alginates/chemistry
  4. Surjit Singh CK, Lim HP, Tey BT, Chan ES
    Carbohydr Polym, 2021 Jan 01;251:117110.
    PMID: 33142647 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.117110
    The commercial application of liquid-state Pickering emulsions in food systems remains a major challenge. In this study, we developed a spray-dried Pickering emulsion powder using chitosan as a Pickering emulsifier and alginate as a coating material. The functionality of the powder was evaluated in terms of its oxidative stability, pH-responsiveness, mucoadhesivity, and lipid digestibility. The Pickering emulsion powder was oxidatively more stable than the conventional emulsion powder stabilized by gum Arabic. The powder exhibited pH-responsiveness, whereby it remained intact in acidic pH, but dissolved to release the emulsion in 'Pickering form' at near-neutral pH. The Pickering emulsion powder was also mucoadhesive and could be digested by lipase in a controlled manner. These findings suggested that the multi-functional Pickering emulsion powder could be a potential delivery system for applications in the food industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alginates/chemistry*
  5. Sutirman ZA, Sanagi MM, Wan Aini WI
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2021 Mar 31;174:216-228.
    PMID: 33516856 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.01.150
    The presence of heavy metal and radionuclides in water bodies has been a long-lasting environmental problem which results in many undesirable consequences. In this framework, the biosorption process, which uses inexpensive and naturally produced material such as alginate, is an alternative technology in the environmental remediation. This review provides relevant and recent literature regarding the application of alginate and its derivatives on removal of various heavy metal ions and radionuclides. The effects of process variables such as solution pH, adsorbent dosage, metal ion concentration, contact time, temperature and co-existing ions used in batch studies in addition to kinetic, isothermal models as well as thermodynamic that fit the adsorption experimental data are critically discussed. This review also includes mechanisms involved during adsorption process. Furthermore, future research needs for the removal of contaminants by alginate-based materials with the aims of improving their adsorption performance and their practical applications are commented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alginates/chemistry*
  6. Wong TW
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2011 Dec;63(12):1497-512.
    PMID: 22060280 DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2011.01347.x
    Use of alginate graft copolymers in oral drug delivery reduces dosage form manufacture complexity with reference to mixing or coating processes. It is deemed to give constant or approximately steady weight ratio of alginate to covalently attached co-excipient in copolymers, thereby leading to controllable matrix processing and drug release. This review describes various grafting approaches and their outcome on oral drug release behaviour of alginate graft copolymeric matrices. It examines drug release modulation mechanism of alginate graft copolymers against that of co-excipients in non-grafted formulations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alginates/chemistry*
  7. Rezvanian M, Amin MCIM, Ng SF
    Carbohydr Polym, 2016 Feb 10;137:295-304.
    PMID: 26686133 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.10.091
    Previously, studies have demonstrated that topical application of simvastatin can promote wound healing in diabetic mice via augmentation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. This study aimed to formulate and characterize simvastatin in alginate-based composite film wound dressings. Biopolymers used for composite films were sodium alginate blended with pectin or gelatin. The films were prepared and characterized based on their physical properties, surface morphology, mechanical strength and rheology. Then, in vitro drug releases from the films were investigated and, finally, the cell viability assay was performed to assess the cytotoxicity profile. From the pre-formulation studies, alginate/pectin composite film showed to possess desirable wound dressing properties and superior mechanical properties. The in vitro drug release profile revealed that alginate/pectin film produced a controlled release drug profile, and cell viability assay showed that the film was non-toxic. In summary, alginate/pectin composite film is suitable to be formulated with simvastatin as a potential wound dressing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alginates/chemistry*
  8. Darah I, Nisha M, Lim SH
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2015 Mar;175(5):2629-36.
    PMID: 25547814 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-014-1447-4
    Bacterial cells of Enterobacter aerogenes NBO2 were entrapped in calcium alginate beads in order to enhance polygalacturonase production compared to free cells. The optimized condition of 5 % (w/v) sodium alginate concentration, agitation speed of 250 rpm, and 15 beads of calcium alginate with inoculum size of 4 % (v/v; 5.4 × 10(7) cells/ml) produced 23.48 U/mL of polygalacturonase compared to free cells of 18.54 U/ml. There was about 26.6 % increment in polygalaturonase production. However, in this study, there was 296.6 % of increment in polygalacturonase production after improvement parameters compared to before improvement parameters of calcium alginate bead immobilization cells (5.92 U/ml). This research has indicated that optimized physical parameters of calcium alginate bead immobilization cells have significantly enhanced the production of polygalacturonase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alginates/chemistry
  9. Ong WD, Tey BT, Quek SY, Tang SY, Chan ES
    J Food Sci, 2015 Jan;80(1):E93-E100.
    PMID: 25529579 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12729
    Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion-gel systems containing high oil payloads are of increasing interest for food applications because of the reduction in encapsulation cost, consumption frequency or volume of food products. This study shows a facile approach to prepare stable alginate-based O/W emulsions at high oil loading using a mixture of nonionic surfactants (Tween 80 and Span 20) as a template to form gelled-emulsions. The synergistic effects of alginate and surfactants on the O/W emulsion properties were evaluated in terms of oil droplet size and emulsion stability. At 2% (w/v) of alginate and 1% (w/v) of surfactants, the size distribution of oil droplets was narrow and monomodal, even at an oil loading of 70% (v/v). The emulsions formed were stable against phase separation. The oil droplet size could be further reduced to below 1 μm using a high-shear homogenizer. The emulsions formed could be easily molded and gelled into solids of different shapes via ionic gelation. The findings of this study create possible avenues for applications in food industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alginates/chemistry*
  10. Cheong KW, Mirhosseini H, Hamid NS, Osman A, Basri M, Tan CP
    Molecules, 2014 Jun 24;19(6):8691-706.
    PMID: 24962400 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19068691
    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of main emulsion components namely, modified starch, propylene glycol alginate (PGA), sucrose laurate and sucrose stearate on creaming index, cloudiness, average droplet size and conductivity of soursop beverage emulsions. Generally, the use of different emulsifiers or a mixture of emulsifiers has a significant (p < 0.05) effect on the response variables studied. The addition of PGA had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on the creaming index at 55 °C, while PGA-stabilized (PGA1) emulsions showed low creaming stability at both 25 °C and 55 °C. Conversely, the utilization of PGA either as a mixture or sole emulsifier, showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher cloudiness, as larger average droplet size will affect the refractive index of the oil and aqueous phases. Additionally, the cloudiness was directly proportional to the mean droplet size of the dispersed phase. The inclusion of PGA into the formulation could have disrupted the properties of the interfacial film, thus resulting in larger droplet size. While unadsorbed ionized PGA could have contributed to higher conductivity of emulsions prepared at low pH. Generally, emulsions prepared using sucrose monoesters or as a mixture with modified starch emulsions have significantly (p < 0.05) lower creaming index and conductivity values, but higher cloudiness and average droplet size.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alginates/chemistry*
  11. Tan WS, Ting AS
    Bioresour Technol, 2014 May;160:115-8.
    PMID: 24405651 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.12.056
    This study evaluated the use of alginate-immobilized bentonite to remove Cu(II) as an alternative to mitigate clogging problems. The adsorption efficacy (under the influence of time, pH and initial Cu(II) concentration) and reusability of immobilized-bentonite (1% w/v bentonite) was tested against plain alginate beads. Results revealed that immobilized bentonite demonstrated significantly higher sorption efficacy compared to plain alginate beads with 114.70 and 94.04 mg Cu(II) adsorbed g(-1) adsorbent, respectively. Both sorbents were comparable in other aspects where sorption equilibrium was achieved within 6 h, with optimum pH between pH 4 and 5 for adsorption, displayed maximum adsorption capacity at initial Cu(II) concentrations of 400 mg l(-1), and demonstrated excellent reusability potential with desorption greater than 90% throughout three consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles. Both sorbents also conformed to Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model. Immobilized bentonite is therefore recommended for use in water treatments to remove Cu(II) without clogging the system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alginates/chemistry*
  12. Arip MN, Heng LY, Ahmad M, Ujang S
    Talanta, 2013 Nov 15;116:776-81.
    PMID: 24148473 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2013.07.065
    The characteristics of a potentiometric biosensor for the determination of permethrin in treated wood based on immobilised cells of the fungus Lentinus sajor-caju on a potentiometric transducer are reported this paper. The potentiometric biosensor was prepared by immobilisation of the fungus in alginate gel deposited on a pH-sensitive transducer employing a photocurable acrylic matrix. The biosensor gave a good response in detecting permethrin over the range of 1.0-100.0 µM. The slope of the calibration curve was 56.10 mV/decade with detection limit of 1.00 µM. The relative standard deviation for the sensor reproducibility was 4.86%. The response time of the sensor was 5 min at optimum pH 8.0 with 1.00 mg/electrode of fungus L. sajor-caju. The permethrin biosensor performance was compared with the conventional method for permethrin analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analytical results agreed well with the HPLC method (at 95% confidence limit). There was no interference from commonly used organophosphorus pesticides such as diazinon, parathion, paraoxon, and methyl parathion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alginates/chemistry
  13. Tamilvanan S, Karmegam S
    Pharm Dev Technol, 2012 Jul-Aug;17(4):494-501.
    PMID: 21609308 DOI: 10.3109/10837450.2010.550622
    Methyl salicylate-lactose physical mixture (1:1 and 1:1.5 ratios) was incorporated into calcium alginate beads by a coacervation method involving an ionotropic gelation/polyelectrolyte complexation approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alginates/chemistry*
  14. Ngah WS, Fatinathan S
    J Environ Sci (China), 2010;22(3):338-46.
    PMID: 20614774
    The study examined the adsorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution onto chitosan, chitosan-GLA and chitosan-alginate beads. Several important parameters influencing the adsorption of Pb(II) ions such as initial pH, adsorbent dosage and different initial concentration of Pb(II) ions were evaluated. The mechanism involved during the adsorption process was explored based on ion exchange study and using spectroscopic techniques. The adsorption capacities obtained based on non-linear Langmuir isotherm for chitosan, chitosan-GLA and chitosan-alginate beads in single metal system were 34.98, 14.24 and 60.27 mg/g, respectively. However, the adsorption capacity of Pb(II) ions were reduced in the binary metal system due to the competitive adsorption between Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions. Based on the ion exchange study, the release of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+ ions played an important role in the adsorption of Pb(II) ions by all three adsorbents but only at lower concentrations of Pb(II) ions. Infrared spectra showed that the binding between Pb(II) ions and the adsorbents involved mostly the nitrogen and oxygen atoms. All three adsorbents showed satisfactory adsorption capacities and can be considered as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alginates/chemistry
  15. Voo WP, Ravindra P, Tey BT, Chan ES
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2011 Mar;111(3):294-9.
    PMID: 21216192 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2010.11.010
    A comparative study on the stability and potential of alginate and pectin based beads for production of poultry probiotic cells using MRS medium in repeated batch fermentation was conducted. The bead cores, made of three types of materials, i.e., ca-alginate, ca-pectinate and ca-alginate/pectinate, were compared. The effect of single and double layer coatings using chitosan and core material, respectively, on the bead stability and cell production were also studied. The pectin based beads were found to be more stable than that of the alginate beads and their stability was further improved by coating with chitosan. The cell concentration in pectin based beads was comparable to that in the alginate beads. On the other hand, pectin based beads gave significantly lower cell concentration in the growth medium for the initial fermentation cycles when compared to the alginate beads. In conclusion, pectin was found to be potential encapsulation material for probiotic cell production owing to its stability and favourable microenvironment for cell growth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alginates/chemistry*
  16. Karunanithi P, Murali MR, Samuel S, Raghavendran HRB, Abbas AA, Kamarul T
    Carbohydr Polym, 2016 08 20;147:294-303.
    PMID: 27178935 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.03.102
    Presence of sulfated polysaccharides like heparan sulphate has often been implicated in the regulation of chondrogenesis. However, recently there has been a plethora of interest in the use of non-animal extracted analogs of heparan sulphate. Here we remodeled alginate (1.5%) by incorporating fucoidan (0.5%), a natural sulphated polysaccharide extracted from seaweeds to form a composite hydrogel (Al-Fu), capable of enhancing chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). We confirmed the efficiency of fucoidan incorporation by FTIR and EDX analysis. Further, its ability to support hMSC attachment and chondrogenic differentiation was confirmed by SEM, biochemical glycosaminoglycan quantification, real-time quantitative PCR and immunocytochemical analyses of chondrogenic markers Sox-9, Collagen II, Aggrecan and COMP. Effect of Al-Fu hydrogel on hMSC hypertrophy was also confirmed by the downregulation of hypertrophic genes Collagen X and Runx2. This composite scaffold can hence be used as a cartilage biomimetic biomaterial to drive hMSC chondrogenesis and for other cartilage repair based therapies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alginates/chemistry*
  17. Lee PM, Lee KH, Siaw YS
    PMID: 8260581
    Aminoacylase I (E.C. was immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate beads coated with polyethyleneimine for the production of L-phenylalanine by the hydrolysis of a racemic mixture of N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine. The operational stability in terms of batch operation and continuous reaction in packed-bed bioreactor were studied. Kinetic constants, Km and Vmax values of free and immobilized enzymes were studied. Polyethyleneimine treatment was found to enhance the operational stability of the enzyme though its activity was substantially reduced. When polyethyleneimine-coated calcium alginate beads were packed into packed bed bioreactor, it was stable for at least 25 days under continuous operation without appreciable loss of activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alginates/chemistry*
  18. Fareez IM, Lim SM, Zulkefli NAA, Mishra RK, Ramasamy K
    Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins, 2018 09;10(3):543-557.
    PMID: 28493103 DOI: 10.1007/s12602-017-9284-8
    The susceptibility of probiotics to low pH and high temperature has limited their use as nutraceuticals. In this study, enhanced protection of probiotics via microencapsulation was achieved. Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 were immobilised within polymeric matrix comprised of alginate (Alg) with supplementation of cellulose derivatives (methylcellulose (MC), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)). L. plantarum LAB12 encapsulated in Alg-HPMC(1.0) and Alg-MC(1.0) elicited improved survivability (91%) in simulated gastric conditions and facilitated maximal release (∼100%) in simulated intestinal condition. Alg-HPMC(1.0) and Alg-MC(1.0) significantly reduced (P 7 log CFU g-1. Alg-MC and Alg-HPMC improved the survival of LAB12 against simulated gastric condition (9.24 and 9.55 log CFU g-1, respectively), temperature up to 90 °C (9.54 and 9.86 log CFU g-1, respectively) and 4-week of storage at 4 °C (8.61 and 9.23 log CFU g-1, respectively) with sustained release of probiotic in intestinal condition (>9 log CFU g-1). These findings strongly suggest the potential of cellulose derivatives supplemented Alg bead as protective micro-transport for probiotic strains. They can be safely incorporated into new functional food or nutraceutical products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alginates/chemistry*
  19. Supramaniam J, Adnan R, Mohd Kaus NH, Bushra R
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Oct 15;118(Pt A):640-648.
    PMID: 29894784 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.06.043
    Magnetic nanocellulose alginate hydrogel beads are produced from the assembly of alginate and magnetic nanocellulose (m-CNCs) as a potential drug delivery system. The m-CNCs were synthesized from cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) that were isolated from rice husks (RH) by co-precipitation method and were incorporated into alginate-based hydrogel beads with the aim of enhancing mechanical strength and regulating drug release behavior. Ibuprofen was chosen as a model drug. The prepared CNCs, m-CNCs and the alginate hydrogel beads were characterized by various physicochemical techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer studies (VSM). Besides the magnetic property, the presence of m-CNCs increased the integrity of the alginate hydrogel beads and the swelling percentage. The drug release study exhibited a controlled release profiles and based on the drug release data, the drug release mechanism was analyzed and discussed based on mathematical models such as Korsmeyer-Peppas and Peppas-Sahlin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alginates/chemistry*
  20. Sim PF, Furusawa G, Teh AH
    Sci Rep, 2017 10 20;7(1):13656.
    PMID: 29057942 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-13288-1
    AlyQ from Persicobacter sp. CCB-QB2 is an alginate lyase with three domains - a carbohydrate-binding domain modestly resembling family 16 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM16), a family 32 CBM (CBM32) domain, and an alginate lyase domain belonging to polysaccharide lyase family 7 (PL7). Although AlyQ can also act on polyguluronate (poly-G) and polymannuronate (poly-M), it is most active on alginate. Studies with truncated AlyQ showed that the CBM32 domain did not contribute to enhancing AlyQ's activity under the assayed conditions. Nevertheless, it could bind to cleaved but not intact alginate, indicating that the CBM32 domain recognises alginate termini. The crystal structure containing both CBM32 and catalytic domains show that they do not interact with one another. The CBM32 domain contains a conserved Arg that may bind to the carboxyl group of alginate. The catalytic domain, meanwhile, shares a conserved substrate-binding groove, and the presence of two negatively charged Asp residues may dictate substrate specificity especially at subsite +1. As Persicobacter sp. CCB-QB2 was unable to utilise alginate, AlyQ may function to help the bacterium degrade cell walls more efficiently.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alginates/chemistry
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