Displaying all 17 publications

  1. Qamaruz-Zaman N, Milke MW
    Waste Manag, 2012 Dec;32(12):2426-30.
    PMID: 22819598 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2012.06.023
    Research was conducted to determine suitable chemical parameters as indicators of odor from decomposing food wastes. Prepared food scraps were stored in 18 l plastic buckets (2 kg wet weight each) at 20 °C and 8 °C to reproduce high and low temperature conditions. After 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of storage, the odor from the buckets were marked to an intensity scale of 0 (no odor) to 5 (intense) and the corresponding leachate analyzed for volatile fatty acids, ammonia and total organic carbon. A linear relationship between odor intensity and the measured parameter indicates a suitable odor indicator. Odor intensified with longer storage period and warmer surroundings. The study found ammonia and isovaleric acid to be promising odor indicators. For this food waste mixture, offensive odors were emitted if the ammonia and isovaleric acid contents exceeded 360 mg/l and 940 mg/l, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonia/chemistry*
  2. Jung YH, Kim S, Yang TH, Lee HJ, Seung D, Park YC, et al.
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2012 Nov;35(9):1497-503.
    PMID: 22644062 DOI: 10.1007/s00449-012-0739-8
    Oil palm fronds are the most abundant lignocellulosic biomass in Malaysia. In this study, fronds were tested as the potential renewable biomass for ethanol production. The soaking in aqueous ammonia pretreatment was applied, and the fermentability of pretreated fronds was evaluated using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The optimal pretreatment conditions were 7 % (w/w) ammonia, 80 °C, 20 h of pretreatment, and 1:12 S/L ratio, where the enzymatic digestibility was 41.4 % with cellulase of 60 FPU/g-glucan. When increasing the cellulase loading in the hydrolysis of pretreated fronds, the enzymatic digestibility increased until the enzyme loading reached 60 FPU/g-glucan. With 3 % glucan loading in the SSF of pretreated fronds, the ethanol concentration and yield based on the theoretical maximum after 12 and 48 h of the SSF were 7.5 and 9.7 g/L and 43.8 and 56.8 %, respectively. The ethanol productivities found at 12 and 24 h from pretreated fronds were 0.62 and 0.36 g/L/h, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonia/chemistry*
  3. Aziz HA, Adlan MN, Zahari MS, Alias S
    Waste Manag Res, 2004 Oct;22(5):371-5.
    PMID: 15560441
    The presence of ammoniacal nitrogen (N-NH3) in leachate is one of the problems normally faced by landfill operators. Slow leaching of wastes producing nitrogen and no significant mechanism for transformation of N-NH3 in the landfills causes a high concentration of ammoniacal nitrogen in leachate over a long period of time. A literature review showed that the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen from leachate was not well documented and to date, there were limited studies in Malaysia on this aspect, especially in adsorption treatment. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the suitability of activated carbon, limestone and a mixture of both materials as a filtering medium, in combination with other treatments capable of attenuating ammoniacal nitrogen which is present in significant quantity (between 429 and 1909 mg L(-1)) in one of the landfill sites in Malaysia. The results of the study show that about 40% of ammoniacal nitrogen with concentration of more than 1000 mg L(-1) could be removed either by activated carbon or a mixture of carbon with limestone at mixture ratio of 5:35. This result shows that limestone is potentially useful as a cost-effective medium to replace activated carbon for ammoniacal nitrogen removal at a considerably lower cost.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonia/chemistry*
  4. Qamaruz-Zaman N, Abdul-Sukor NS, Ab-Rahman SA, Yaacof N
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 May;26(13):13658-13663.
    PMID: 30955198 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-04808-9
    Path analysis has been largely used in marketing research but has recently been applied in an environmental management context. This study evaluated the potential of path analysis in identifying the influence of moisture content on odor from decomposing food waste. Food waste with varying moisture content was monitored for odor concentration, microbial population density, oxygen uptake rate, volatile fatty acids, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide. These various parameters were later analyzed using SmartPLS 3.0 software to produce the path analysis model using simultaneous equation modeling. Results indicate that odor concentration of food waste was not directly affected by moisture content (not significant, t-statistical 1.46  1.96) and subsequently odor. In order to manage food waste-related odors, it is recommended that the waste be kept at a moisture content lower than 40%. This is especially critical if prolonged storage is unavoidable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonia/chemistry
  5. Qamaruz-Zaman N, Kun Y, Rosli RN
    Waste Manag, 2015 Jan;35:187-90.
    PMID: 25445259 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2014.09.017
    Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonia/chemistry
  6. Abu Amr SS, Aziz HA, Adlan MN
    Waste Manag, 2013 Jun;33(6):1434-41.
    PMID: 23498721 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2013.01.039
    The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of employing persulfate reagent in the advanced oxidation of ozone to treat stabilized landfill leachate in an ozone reactor. A central composite design (CCD) with response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the relationships between operating variables, such as ozone and persulfate dosages, pH, and reaction time, to identify the optimum operating conditions. Quadratic models for the following four responses proved to be significant with very low probabilities (<0.0001): COD, color, NH3-N, and ozone consumption (OC). The obtained optimum conditions included a reaction time of 210 min, 30 g/m(3) ozone, 1g/1g COD0/S2O8(2-) ratio, and pH 10. The experimental results were corresponded well with predicted models (COD, color, and NH3-N removal rates of 72%, 96%, and 76%, respectively, and 0.60 (kg O3/kg COD OC). The results obtained in the stabilized leachate treatment were compared with those from other treatment processes, such as ozone only and persulfate S2O8(2-) only, to evaluate its effectiveness. The combined method (i.e., O3/S2O8(2-)) achieved higher removal efficiencies for COD, color, and NH3-N compared with other studied applications. Furthermore, the new method is more efficient than ozone/Fenton in advanced oxidation process in the treatment of the same studied leachate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonia/chemistry
  7. Abu Amr SS, Aziz HA
    Waste Manag, 2012 Sep;32(9):1693-8.
    PMID: 22633680 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2012.04.009
    Ozonation, combined with the Fenton process (O(3)/H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+)), was used to treat matured landfill leachate. The effectiveness of the Fenton molar ratio, Fenton concentration, pH variance, and reaction time were evaluated under optimum operational conditions. The optimum removal values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, and NH(3)-N were found to be 65%, 98%, and 12%, respectively, for 90 min of ozonation using a Fenton molar ratio of 1 at a Fenton concentration of 0.05 mol L(-1) (1700 mg/L) H(2)O(2) and 0.05 mol L(-1) (2800 mg/L) Fe(2+) at pH 7. The maximum removal of NH(3)-N was 19% at 150 min. The ozone consumption for COD removal was 0.63 kg O(3)/kg COD. To evaluate the effectiveness, the results obtained in the treatment of stabilized leachate were compared with those obtained from other treatment processes, such as ozone alone, Fenton reaction alone, as well as combined Fenton and ozone. The combined method (i.e., O(3)/H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+)) achieved higher removal efficiencies for COD, color, and NH(3)-N compared with other studied applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonia/chemistry
  8. Damayanti A, Ujang Z, Salim MR, Olsson G
    Water Sci Technol, 2011;63(8):1701-6.
    PMID: 21866771
    Biofouling is a crucial factor in membrane bioreactor (MBR) applications, particularly for high organic loading operations. This paper reports a study on biofouling in an MBR to establish a relationship between critical flux, Jc, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) (ranging from 5 to 20 g L-1) and volumetric loading rate (6.3 kg COD m-3 h-1) of palm oil mill effluent (POME). A lab-scale 100 L hybrid MBR consisting of anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic reactors was used with flat sheet microfiltration (MF) submerged in the aerobic compartment. The food-to-microorganism (F/M) ratio was maintained at 0.18 kg COD kg-1 MLSSd-1. The biofouling tendency of the membrane was obtained based on the flux against the transmembrane pressure (TMP) behaviour. The critical flux is sensitive to the MLSS. At the MLSS 20 g L-1 the critical flux is about four times lower than that for the MLSS concentration of 5 g L-1. The results showed high removal efficiency of denitrification and nitrification up to 97% at the MLSS concentration 20 g L-1. The results show that the operation has to compromise between a high and a low MLSS concentration. The former will favour a higher removal rate, while the latter will favour a higher critical flux.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonia/chemistry
  9. Ab Halim MH, Nor Anuar A, Azmi SI, Jamal NS, Wahab NA, Ujang Z, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2015 Jun;185:445-9.
    PMID: 25851807 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.03.024
    With inoculum sludge from a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed with synthetic wastewater were operated at different high temperatures (30, 40 and 50±1°C) to study the formation of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) for simultaneous organics and nutrients removal with a complete cycle time of 3h. The AGS were successfully cultivated with influent loading rate of 1.6CODg(Ld)(-1). The COD/N ratio of the influent wastewater was 8. The results revealed that granules developed at 50°C have the highest average diameter, (3.36mm) with 98.17%, 94.45% and 72.46% removal efficiency observed in the system for COD, ammonia and phosphate, respectively. This study also demonstrated the capabilities of AGS formation at high temperatures which is suitable to be applied for hot climate conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonia/chemistry
  10. Rushdi AI, bin Abas MR, Didyk BM
    Environ Sci Technol, 2003 Jan 1;37(1):16-21.
    PMID: 12542285
    The occurrence of n-alkanoic acids, amides, and nitriles in samples of aerosol particulate matter from Kuala Lumpur and Santiago suggests that emissions from cooking and biomass burning are the primary sources of these organic markers in the atmosphere. It is proposed that fatty acids react with ammonia during biomass burning or combustion to produce amides and nitriles, which can be applied as useful biomarker tracers. To test this hypothesis, nonadecanoic acid and hexadecanamide were used as reactants in hydrous pyrolysis experiments. These experiments produced amides and nitriles and indicated that ammonia is an essential agent in their formation. Thus amides and nitriles are of utility as indicators for input from combustion and biomass burning in the ambient atmosphere.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonia/chemistry
  11. Dadrasnia A, Azirun MS, Ismail SB
    BMC Biotechnol, 2017 Nov 28;17(1):85.
    PMID: 29179747 DOI: 10.1186/s12896-017-0395-9
    BACKGROUND: When the unavoidable waste generation is considered as damaging to our environment, it becomes crucial to develop a sustainable technology to remediate the pollutant source towards an environmental protection and safety. The development of a bioengineering technology for highly efficient pollutant removal is this regard. Given the high ammonia nitrogen content and chemical oxygen demand of landfill leachate, Bacillus salmalaya strain 139SI, a novel resident strain microbe that can survive in high ammonia nitrogen concentrations, was investigated for the bioremoval of ammonia nitrogen from landfill leachate. The treatability of landfill leachate was evaluated under different treatment parameters, such as temperature, inoculum dosage, and pH.

    RESULTS: Results demonstrated that bioaugmentation with the novel strain can potentially improve the biodegradability of landfill leachate. B. salmalaya strain 139SI showed high potential to enhance biological treatment given its maximum NH3-N and COD removal efficiencies. The response surface plot pattern indicated that within 11 days and under optimum conditions (10% v/v inoculant, pH 6, and 35 °C), B. salmalaya strain139SI removed 78% of ammonia nitrogen. At the end of the study, biological and chemical oxygen demands remarkably decreased by 88% and 91.4%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that ammonia ions covered the cell surface of B. salmalaya strain139SI.

    CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, novel resistant Bacillus salmalaya strain139SI significantly reduces the chemical oxygen demand and NH3-N content of landfill leachate. Leachate treatment by B. salmalaya strain 139SI within 11 days.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonia/chemistry
  12. Mohamed Ramli N, Giatsis C, Md Yusoff F, Verreth J, Verdegem M
    PLoS One, 2018;13(4):e0195862.
    PMID: 29659617 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195862
    The experimental set-up of this study mimicked recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) where water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and turbidity were controlled and wastes produced by fish and feeding were converted to inorganic forms. A key process in the RAS was the conversion of ammonia to nitrite and nitrite to nitrate through nitrification. It was hypothesized that algae inclusion in RAS would improve the ammonia removal from the water; thereby improving RAS water quality and stability. To test this hypothesis, the stability of the microbiota community composition in a freshwater RAS with (RAS+A) or without algae (RAS-A) was challenged by introducing an acute pH drop (from pH 7 to 4 during three hours) to the system. Stigeoclonium nanum, a periphytic freshwater microalga was used in this study. No significant effect of the algae presence was found on the resistance to the acute pH drop on ammonia conversion to nitrite and nitrite conversion to nitrate. Also the resilience of the ammonia conversion to the pH drop disruption was not affected by the addition of algae. This could be due to the low biomass of algae achieved in the RAS. However, with regard to the conversion step of nitrite to nitrate, RAS+A was significantly more resilient than RAS-A. In terms of overall bacterial communities, the composition and predictive function of the bacterial communities was significantly different between RAS+A and RAS-A.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonia/chemistry
  13. Moradihamedani P, Abdullah AH
    Water Sci Technol, 2018 Jan;77(1-2):346-354.
    PMID: 29377819 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2017.545
    Removal of low-concentration ammonia (1-10 ppm) from aquaculture wastewater was investigated via polysulfone (PSf)/zeolite mixed matrix membrane. PSf/zeolite mixed matrix membranes with different weight ratios (90/10, 80/20, 70/30 and 60/40 wt.%) were prepared and characterized. Results indicate that PSf/zeolite (80/20) was the most efficient membrane for removal of low-concentration ammonia. The ammonia elimination by PSf/zeolite (80/20) from aqueous solution for 10, 7, 5, 3 and 1 ppm of ammonia was 100%, 99%, 98.8%, 96% and 95% respectively. The recorded results revealed that pure water flux declined in higher loading of zeolite in the membrane matrix due to surface pore blockage caused by zeolite particles. On the other hand, ammonia elimination from water was decreased in higher contents of zeolite because of formation of cavities and macrovoids in the membrane substructure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonia/chemistry
  14. Mojiri A, Aziz HA, Zaman NQ, Aziz SQ, Zahed MA
    J Environ Manage, 2014 Jun 15;139:1-14.
    PMID: 24662109 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.02.017
    Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is one of the various methods of biological treatments used for treating wastewater and landfill leachate. This study investigated the treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater by adding a new adsorbent (powdered ZELIAC; PZ) to the SBR technique. ZELIAC consists of zeolite, activated carbon, lime stone, rice husk ash, and Portland cement. The response surface methodology and central composite design were used to elucidate the nature of the response surface in the experimental design and describe the optimum conditions of the independent variables, including aeration rate (L/min), contact time (h), and ratio of leachate to wastewater mixture (%; v/v), as well as their responses (dependent variables). Appropriate conditions of operating variables were also optimized to predict the best value of responses. To perform an adequate analysis of the aerobic process, four dependent parameters, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), and phenols, were measured as responses. The results indicated that the PZ-SBR showed higher performance in removing certain pollutants compared with SBR. Given the optimal conditions of aeration rate (1.74 L/min), leachate to wastewater ratio (20%), and contact time (10.31 h) for the PZ-SBR, the removal efficiencies for color, NH3-N, COD, and phenols were 84.11%, 99.01%, 72.84%, and 61.32%, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonia/chemistry
  15. Halim AA, Aziz HA, Johari MA, Ariffin KS, Adlan MN
    J Hazard Mater, 2010 Mar 15;175(1-3):960-4.
    PMID: 19945216 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.10.103
    The performance of a carbon-mineral composite adsorbent used in a fixed bed column for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and aggregate organic pollutant (COD), which are commonly found in landfill leachate, was evaluated. The breakthrough capacities for ammoniacal nitrogen and COD adsorption were 4.46 and 3.23 mg/g, respectively. Additionally, the optimum empty bed contact time (EBCT) was 75 min. The column efficiency for ammoniacal nitrogen and COD adsorption using fresh adsorbent was 86.4% and 92.6%, respectively, and these values increased to 90.0% and 93.7%, respectively, after the regeneration process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonia/chemistry*
  16. Sim CH, Yusoff MK, Shutes B, Ho SC, Mansor M
    J Environ Manage, 2008 Jul;88(2):307-17.
    PMID: 17467147
    Putrajaya Wetlands in Malaysia, a 200ha constructed wetland system consisting of 24 cells, was created in 1997-1998 to treat surface runoff caused by development and agricultural activities from an upstream catchment before entering Putrajaya Lake (400ha). It was designed for stormwater treatment, flood control and amenity use. The water quality improvement performance of a section of the wetland cells is described. The nutrient removal performance was 82.11% for total nitrogen, 70.73% for nitrate-nitrogen and 84.32% for phosphate, respectively, along six wetland cells from Upper North UN6 to UN1 from April to December 2004. Nutrient removal in pilot scale tank systems, simulating a constructed wetland and planted with examples of common species at Putrajaya, the Common Reed Phragmites karka and Tube Sedge Lepironia articulata, and the capacity of these species to retain nutrients in above and below-ground plant biomass and substrate is reported. The uptake of nutrients by the Common Reed and Tube Sedge from the pilot tank system was 42.1% TKN; 28.9% P and 17.4% TKN; 26.1% P, respectively. The nutrient uptake efficiency of the Common Reed was higher in above-ground than in below-ground tissue. The results have implications for plant species selection in the design of constructed wetlands in Malaysia and for optimizing the performance of these systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonia/chemistry
  17. Ab Halim MH, Nor Anuar A, Abdul Jamal NS, Azmi SI, Ujang Z, Bob MM
    J Environ Manage, 2016 Dec 15;184(Pt 2):271-280.
    PMID: 27720606 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.09.079
    The effect of temperature on the efficiency of organics and nutrients removal during the cultivation of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) in biological treatment of synthetic wastewater was studied. With this aim, three 3 L sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with influent loading rate of 1.6 COD g (L d)(-1) were operated at different high temperatures (30, 40 and 50 °C) for simultaneous COD, phosphate and ammonia removal at a complete cycle time of 3 h. The systems were successfully started up and progressed to steady state at different cultivation periods. The statistical comparison of COD, phosphate and ammonia for effluent from the three SBRs revealed that there was a significant difference between groups of all the working temperatures of the bioreactors. The AGS cultivated at different high temperatures also positively correlated with the accumulation of elements including carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, silicon, iron, aluminium, calcium and magnesium that played important roles in the granulation process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonia/chemistry
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