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  1. Mustaffa F, Indurkar J, Shah M, Ismail S, Mansor SM
    Nat Prod Res, 2013;27(10):888-95.
    PMID: 22574706 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2012.678347
    This review describes the morphological, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Cinnamomum iners Reinw. ex Blume (Lauraceae). The plant grows wild in the lowland of Malaysia, India, Myanmar, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Brunei and Philippines. This plant is commonly used for its carminative, analgesic and antipyretic properties, for postpartum treatment, rheumatism and digestive ailments. This article enumerates an overview of phytochemical and pharmacological aspects that is useful to researchers for further exploration necessary for the development of this potential herb.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/chemistry
  2. Dua K, Sheshala R, Ling TY, Hui Ling S, Gorajana A
    PMID: 23286236
    At present, approximately 25%of drugs in modern pharmacopoeia are derived from plant sources (phytomedicines) that can be developed for the treatment of diseases and disorders. Many other drugs are synthetic analogues built on the prototype compounds isolated from plants. Cocos nucifera Linn. (Arecaceae), which is commonly known as coconut, is a plant possessing a lot of potential as an ingredient in traditional medicines for the treatment of metabolic disorders and particularly as an anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and analgesic agent. This review emphasizes on the recent literature and research findings that highlight the significant biological activities of C. nucifera Linn. such as its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and analgesic properties. This review can help researchers keen on exploiting the therapeutic potential of C. nucifera Linn. which may motivate them to further explore their commercial viability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/chemistry
  3. Al-Jbour ND, Beg MD, Gimbun J, Alam AKMM
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2019;16(4):272-294.
    PMID: 30674256 DOI: 10.2174/1567201816666190123121425
    Chitosan is a polycationic natural polymer which is abundant in nature. Chitosan has gained much attention as natural polymer in the biomedical field. The up to date drug delivery as well as the nanotechnology in controlled release of drugs from chitosan nanofibers are focused in this review. Electrospinning is one of the most established and widely used techniques for preparing nanofibers. This method is versatile and efficient for the production of continuous nanofibers. The chitosan-based nanofibers are emerging materials in the arena of biomaterials. Recent studies revealed that various drugs such as antibiotics, chemotherapeutic agents, proteins and anti-inflammatory analgesic drugs were successfully loaded onto electrospun nanofibers. Chitosan nanofibers have several outstanding properties for different significant pharmaceutical applications such as wound dressing, tissue engineering, enzyme immobilization, and drug delivery systems. This review highlights different issues of chitosan nanofibers in drug delivery applications, starting from the preparation of chitosan nanofibers, followed by giving an idea about the biocompatibility and degradation of chitosan nanofibers, then describing how to load the drug into the nanofibers. Finally, the major applications of chitosan nanofibers in drug delivery systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/chemistry*
  4. Devaraj S, Esfahani AS, Ismail S, Ramanathan S, Yam MF
    Molecules, 2010 Apr;15(4):2925-34.
    PMID: 20428088 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15042925
    Ethanolic extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza was used to evaluate the analgesic and toxicity effects in vivo. The extract was standardized using GC-MS, which showed that 1 mg of Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract contains 0.1238 mg of xanthorrhizol. The analgesic activity was studied in rats using three different models, namely the hot plate test, tail flick test and formalin-induced pain test. The acute oral toxicity was examined by the oral administration of standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract in mice at doses ranging from 300-5,000 mg/kg and observation for 14 days. Standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract did not show significant analgesic effect in the hot plate and tail flick tests. However, in the formalin-induced pain test, Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the paw licking time of rats in both early and late phases at doses 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. In the acute oral toxicity study, Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract did not show any toxic effects in mice at 5 g/kg. These experimental results suggest that the standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract showed peripheral and central antinociceptive activity associated with neurogenic pain as well as a relative absence of toxic effects which could compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/chemistry
  5. Ong HM, Mohamad AS, Makhtar N', Khalid MH, Khalid S, Perimal EK, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 Jan 7;133(1):227-33.
    PMID: 20920570 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.09.030
    Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. is a medicinal herbaceous plant that is commonly used by the Malay community in Malaysia to relieve pain often associated with mouth ulcers, toothache, sore throat, and stomach ache.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/chemistry
  6. Kamarudin N, Hisamuddin N, Ong HM, Ahmad Azmi AF, Leong SW, Abas F, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Aug 21;23(9).
    PMID: 30134576 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092099
    Curcuminoids derived from turmeric rhizome have been reported to exhibit antinociceptive, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We evaluated the peripheral and central antinociceptive activities of 5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (DHHPD), a novel synthetic curcuminoid analogue at 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg (intraperitoneal), through chemical and thermal models of nociception. The effects of DHHPD on the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems were evaluated through the capsaicin- and glutamate-induced paw licking tests. Results showed that DHHPD significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the writhing response produced by the 0.8% acetic acid injection. In addition, 1 and 3 mg/kg of DHHPD significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the licking time spent by each mouse in both phases of the 2.5% formalin test and increased the response latency of mice on the hot-plate. However, the effect produced in the latter was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist. Despite this, DHHPD decreased the licking latency of mice in the capsaicin- and glutamate-induced paw licking tests in a dose response manner. In conclusion, DHHPD showed excellent peripheral and central antinociceptive activities possibly by attenuation of the synthesis and/or release of pro-inflammatory mediators in addition to modulation of the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems without an apparent effect on the opioidergic system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/chemistry*
  7. Chin KY, Mark-Lee WF
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018;19(12):1359-1365.
    PMID: 28950813 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170925154025
    Mitragyna speciosa is a tropical plant with narcotic effects. The antinociceptive effects of its crude extracts, bioactive compounds and structurally modified derivatives have been examined in rodent models. This review aims to summarize the evidence on the antinociceptive effects of M. speciosa and its derivatives and explore whether they can offer an alternative to morphine in pain management. Methanolic and alkaloid extracts of M. speciosa were shown to attenuate the nociceptive response in rodents. Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine offered better antinociceptive effects than crude extracts. Structurally modified derivatives of 7-hydroxymitragynine, such as MGM-9, MGM- 15, MGM-16, demonstrated superior antinociceptive effects compared to morphine. M. speciosa and its derivatives mainly act on the opioid receptor, but receptor subtypes specificity differs between each compound. The tolerance and adverse side effects of M. speciosa and its derivatives are similar with morphine. The affinity of MGM-9 on kappa-opioid receptor could potentially limit the effects of drug dependence. In conclusion, M speciosa derivatives can offer alternatives to morphine in controlling chronic pain. Structural modification of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine can generate compounds with higher potency and lesser side-effects. Human clinical trials are required to validate the use of these compounds in clinical setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/chemistry
  8. Zakaria ZA, Abdul Rahim MH, Mohd Sani MH, Omar MH, Ching SM, Abdul Kadir A, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Apr 02;19(1):79.
    PMID: 30940120 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2486-8
    BACKGROUND: Methanol extract (MECN) of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves (family Acanthaceae) demonstrated peripherally and centrally mediated antinociceptive activity via the modulation of opioid/NO-mediated, but cGMP-independent pathway. In the present study, MECN was sequentially partitioned to obtain petroleum ether extract of C. nutans (PECN), which was subjected to antinociceptive study with aims of establishing its antinociceptive potential and determining the role of opioid receptors and L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (L-arg/NO/cGMP) pathway in the observed antinociceptive activity.

    METHODS: The antinociceptive potential of orally administered PECN (100, 250, 500 mg/kg) was studied using the abdominal constriction-, hot plate- and formalin-induced paw licking-test in mice (n = 6). The effect of PECN on locomotor activity was also evaluated using the rota rod assay. The role of opioid receptors was determined by pre-challenging 500 mg/kg PECN (p.o.) with antagonist of opioid receptor subtypes, namely β-funaltrexamine (β-FNA; 10 mg/kg; a μ-opioid antagonist), naltrindole (NALT; 1 mg/kg; a δ-opioid antagonist) or nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 1 mg/kg; a κ-opioid antagonist) followed by subjection to the abdominal constriction test. In addition, the role of L-arg/NO/cGMP pathway was determined by prechallenging 500 mg/kg PECN (p.o.) with L-arg (20 mg/kg; a NO precursor), 1H-[1, 2, 4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 2 mg/kg; a specific soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor), or the combinations thereof (L-arg + ODQ) for 5 mins before subjection to the abdominal constriction test. PECN was also subjected to phytoconstituents analyses.

    RESULTS: PECN significantly (p  0.05) affect the locomotor activity of treated mice. The antinociceptive activity of PECN was significantly (p  0.05) affected by ODQ. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of at least cinnamic acid in PECN.

    CONCLUSION: PECN exerted antinocicpetive activity at peripheral and central levels possibly via the activation of non-selective opioid receptors and modulation of the NO-mediated/cGMP-independent pathway partly via the synergistic action of phenolic compounds.

    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/chemistry
  9. Tang SY, Sivakumar M, Ng AM, Shridharan P
    Int J Pharm, 2012 Jul 1;430(1-2):299-306.
    PMID: 22503988 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2012.03.055
    The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of novel aspirin oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsion and water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) nano multiple emulsion formulations generated using ultrasound cavitation techniques. The anti-inflammatory activities of nanoemulsion and nano multiple emulsion were determined using the λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The analgesic activities of both nanoformulations were determined using acetic acid-induced writhing response and hot plate assay. For comparison, the effect of pretreatment with blank nanoemulsion and reference aspirin suspension were also studied for their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The results showed that oral administration of nanoemulsion and nano multiple emulsion containing aspirin (60 mg/kg) significantly reduced paw edema induced by λ-carrageenan injection. Both nanoformulations decreased the number of abdominal constriction in acetic acid-induced writhing model. Pretreatment with nanoformulations led to a significant increase in reaction time in hot plate assay. Nanoemulsion demonstrated an enhanced anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects compared to reference suspension while nano multiple emulsion exhibited a mild inhibitory effects in the three experimental animal model tests. The results obtained for nano multiple emulsion were relatively lower than reference. However, administration of blank nanoemulsion did not alter the nociceptive response significantly though it showed slight anti-inflammatory effect. These experimental studies suggest that nanoemulsion and nano multiple emulsion produced a pronounced anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in rats and may be candidates as new nanocarriers for pharmacological NSAIDs in the treatment of inflammatory disorders and alleviating pains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/chemistry
  10. Sakeena MH, Yam MF, Elrashid SM, Munavvar AS, Azmin MN
    J Oleo Sci, 2010;59(12):667-71.
    PMID: 21099145
    Ketoprofen is a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug has been used in the treatment of various kinds of pains, inflammation and arthritis. However, oral administration of ketoprofen produces serious gastrointestinal adverse effects. One of the promising methods to overcome these adverse effects is to administer the drug through the skin. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects from topically applied ketoprofen entrapped palm oil esters (POEs) based nanoemulsion and to compare with market ketoprofen product, Fastum(®) gel. The novelty of this study is, use of POEs for the oil phase of nanoemulsion. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic studies were performed on rats by carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema test and carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia pain threshold test to compare the ketoprofen entrapped POEs based nanoemulsion formulation and market formulation. Results indicated that there are no significant different between ketoprofen entrapped POEs nanoemulsion and market formulation in carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema study and carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia pain threshold study. However, it shows a significant different between POEs nanoemulsion formulation and control group in these studies at p<0.05. From these results it was concluded that the developed nanoemulsion have great potential for topical application of ketoprofen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/chemistry
  11. Zakaria ZA, Abdul Rahim MH, Roosli RAJ, Mohd Sani MH, Marmaya NH, Omar MH, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2019;2019:6593125.
    PMID: 31467905 DOI: 10.1155/2019/6593125
    Methanolic extract of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves (MECN) has been reported to exert antinociceptive activity. The present study aimed to elucidate the possible antinociceptive mechanisms of a lipid-soluble fraction of MECN, which was obtained after sequential extraction in petroleum ether. The petroleum ether fraction of C. nutans (PECN), administered orally to mice, was (i) subjected to capsaicin-, glutamate-, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-, bradykinin-induced nociception model; (ii) prechallenged (intraperitoneal (i.p.)) with 0.15 mg/kg yohimbine, 1 mg/kg pindolol, 3 mg/kg caffeine, 0.2 mg/kg haloperidol, or 10 mg/kg atropine, which were the respective antagonist of α2-adrenergic, β-adrenergic, adenosinergic, dopaminergic, or muscarinic receptors; and (iii) prechallenged (i.p.) with 10 mg/kg glibenclamide, 0.04 mg/kg apamin, 0.02 mg/kg charybdotoxin, or 4 mg/kg tetraethylammonium chloride, which were the respective inhibitor of ATP sensitive-, small conductance Ca2+-activated-, large conductance Ca2+-activated-, or nonselective voltage-activated-K+ channel. Results obtained demonstrated that PECN (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) inhibited all models of nociception described earlier. The antinociceptive activity of 500 mg/kg PECN was significantly (P<0.05) attenuated when prechallenged with all antagonists or K+ channel blockers. However, only pretreatment with apamin and charybdotoxin caused full inhibition of PECN-induced antinociception. The rest of the K+ channel blockers and all antagonists caused only partial inhibition of PECN antinociception, respectively. Analyses on PECN's phytoconstituents revealed the presence of antinociceptive-bearing bioactive compounds of volatile (i.e., derivatives of γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, and lupeol) and nonvolatile (i.e., cinnamic acid) nature. In conclusion, PECN exerts a non-opioid-mediated antinociceptive activity involving mainly activation of adenosinergic and cholinergic receptors or small- and large-conductance Ca2+-activated-K+ channels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/chemistry
  12. Zakaria ZA, Raden Mohd Nor RN, Hanan Kumar G, Abdul Ghani ZD, Sulaiman MR, Rathna Devi G, et al.
    Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 2006 Dec;84(12):1291-9.
    PMID: 17487238
    The present study was carried out to establish the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties of the aqueous extract of Melastoma malabathricum leaves in experimental animals. The antinociceptive activity was measured using abdominal constriction, hot-plate, and formalin tests, whereas the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities were measured using carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests, respectively. The extract, which was obtained after soaking the air-dried leaves in distilled water for 72 h and then preparing in concentrations of 10%, 50%, and 100% (v/v), was administered subcutaneously 30 min prior to subjection to the above mentioned assays. At all concentrations tested, the extract was found to exhibit significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activities in a concentration-independent manner. Our findings that the aqueous extract of M. malabathricum possesses antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activities supports previous claims on its traditional uses to treat various ailments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/chemistry
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