Diphyllobothriasis was first reported in Malaysia in 2002. We are reporting a second case of diphyllobothriasis in Malaysia. The patient was a 37-year-old Chinese male seen at the outpatient clinic with a complaint of passing strands of white color flat worm in his stool. He had no other abdominal complaints. Laboratory and physical examinations were normal. Diphyllobothrium latum was confirmed by examination of the gravid proglottids passed out and the typical operculated eggs expelled from the ruptured proglottids. The patient had a history of eating raw fish. He was treated with a single dose of praziquantel.
Study site: Outpatient clinic, University Malaya Specialist Center (UMSC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Once-yearly, mass deworming with broad spectrum anthelmintics over a period of five years among four types of communities in Malaysia resulted in an overall education in the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiases by one-third to two-thirds. The reduction in prevalence of infection was highest among inhabitants in semi-urban settlements (65.5%), followed by those in the rural estates (53.0%) and high-rise flats (43.9%). Soil-transmitted helminthiases were only reduced by 35.5% in the urban slums. Reduction in infection with Trichuris trichiura was better than that with Ascaris lumbricoides whereas hook-infection was completely eliminated in some of the communities surveyed. The reduction in prevalence ofsoil-transmitted helminthiases by long-term, once-yearly deworming alone, without other supplementary interventions, reinforces the potential and feasibility of regular mass-deworming as an immediate and effective measure for the control ofsoil-transmitted helminthiases. This is of great public health significance especially in highly endemic communities where some form of intervention is urgently needed and facilities for other control measures such as the improvement of environmental sanitation and nutritional status and health education are neither feasible nor possible nor immediately available.
We report a 20-year-old college student presents with bilateral ankle edema associated with hypereosinophilia following a history of traveling in a rural area. Physical examinations and investigations failed to diagnose any underlying cause. She was treated with antihelminth medication and the edema subsided within a week and the eosinophil counts normalized within two weeks.
Data from the WHO state that up to 85% of cases of human schistosomiasis are from Africa. The common sites of this parasitic infection are the intestine and bladder. Testicular schistosomiasis is extremely rare but the number of reported cases worldwide has doubled over the past decade. The authors report a case of testicular schistosomiasis of a Myanmar immigrant in Malaysia who presented with a 6-month history of progressively enlarging left testicular swelling. His biochemical markers and cultures were not suggestive of an ongoing infection. Hence, a testicular malignancy was strongly suspected, for which, he underwent a left orchidectomy. Our clinical suspicion was proven wrong when the histopathology of the removed left testis revealed schistosomal eggs with granulamatous tissue formation. Subsequently, the patient was treated with praziquantel.
Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is characterized clinically by erythematous and slightly raised tracks, located especially on the feet. These tracks may be single or multiple, linear or serpiginous, more or less ramified and intertwined. The length is variable (up to many cm); the width ranges from 1 mm to 4 mm. Tracks are often accompanied by severe pruritus.
This letter advises the imminent formation of the Companion Animal Parasites Council for the Tropics (CAPCT). The CAPCT consists of region-specific (e.g., Asia-Pacific, Latin America and Caribbean, Africa) experts comprising academics, veterinarians, parasitologists, physicians and allied industry partners that will work together to inform, guide and develop best-practice recommendations for the optimal diagnosis, treatment and control of companion animal parasites in the tropics, with the aim of protecting the health of pets and that of the public.
Diphyllobothriasis is a disease caused by infection with adult tapeworms of the genus Diphyllobothrium. Humans acquire the infection by consuming the raw or inadequately cooked flesh, roe, liver, or other organs of infected fish. Diphyllobothrium latum infection has not been reported in Malaysia; we are reporting the first case. The patient was a 62 year old Chinese male seen at the outpatient clinic with complaints of watery stools and slight abdominal discomfort for four days. Physical examination was normal. He was treated for diarrhea. Two days after treatment, he passed out intact off-white proglottids in his stool. Diphyllobothriasis was confirmed by examination of these gravid proglottids; typical operculated eggs were seen after rupturing the gravid proglottids. The patient had a history of eating sashimi (Japanese raw fish). He was treated with a single dose of praziquantel and had been well since.
Study site: Gleneagles Intan Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Trials using albendazole and mebendazole, as single 400 mg dose treatments, against soil-transmitted helminths, were carried out in 7-9 and 10-12 years-old schoolchildren living in urban and rural environments in Penang, Malaysia. Both drugs were equally effective in treating trichuriasis and ascariasis in both age groups and environments. However, mebendazole is not so effective in the treatment for hookworms when compared to albendazole. It is suggested that albendazole should be considered the drug of choice for mass chemotherapy for Penang.
A cohort of one hundred 8-9 year old school children in Northeastern Peninsular Malaysia underwent stool examination, weight and height measurements. Seventy-three children were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and/or Trichuris trichiura. All infected children were treated with albendazole at baseline, 6 months and 9 months. Measurements were repeated on all but 2 children at 1 year. Repeat stool examination (n = 94) at 1 year revealed a marked reduction in the level of Ascaris infection and a modest reduction in Trichuris infection. There was no difference in net growth between treated children and uninfected controls. Post-hoc analysis by gender however revealed that infected girls (n = 33) experienced significantly higher increments in weight, height and weight for age. Furthermore, children found to be infected at baseline level but worm free at follow-up, were observed to have experienced greater increments in height and height for age. The evidence suggests that periodic antihelminthic treatment may have a positive effect on the growth of subsets of pre-adolescent children but it is emphasised that further work is required to validate these findings.
Serum IgG levels and complement C3 levels were assayed on Day 0, 1, 3-4, 7 and 56-70 post-treatment with diethylcarbamizine citrate (DEC) in a series to 26 patients with Brugia malayi infection and 6 volunteers without infection. On treatment, the microfilariae were cleared from the blood within 24 hours. The eosinophils decreased dramatically on Day 1 post-treatment but increased rapidly by Day 4 to 7 and then dropped to normal levels in 45 days. The serum IgG mean levels decreased briefly following treatment with DEC but then returned to original levels. However, the complement C3 levels gradually increased over the 2 months period of study reaching statistical significance levels (p less than 0.01) in patients with initial high blood microfilariae. The observation suggests that Brugia malayi infection probably induces a high rate of synthesis of complement C3 and this process continued in the post-treatment phase. Since, DEC treatment did not cause a decrease in complement C3 with the elimination of blood microfilariae, it would appear that the complement C3 is consumed following antibody attachment to the microfilariae as they enter the blood circulation.
Albendazole, a new anthelmintic drug was evaluated in Malaysia in 91 patients, with single or mixed infections of Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm. Albendazole was administered as a single dose of 400 mg, 600 mg, or 800 mg. The cure rate for Ascaris at all three doses was 100% at days 14 and 21 post-treatment; for hookworm it was 98.8%, 100% and 98%, respectively, at day 14 and 68.8%, 100% and 84%, respectively, at day 21; for Trichuris it was 31.2%, 57.1% and 42.3%, respectively, at day 14 and 27.3%, 60.9% and 48.0%, respectively, at day 21. The egg reduction rate at day 21 was 100% at all three doses for Ascaris, 94.5%, 100% and 96.1%, respectively, for hookworm; and 39.2%, 85.1% and 72.8%, respectively, for Trichuris. There were no side effects, and biochemical examination of blood and urine did not indicate any unfavourable changes. Based on this trial, the recommended dosage for Ascaris and hookworm is a 400 mg single dose, and for Trichuris is a 600 mg single dose. Albendazole appears to be more effective than other available anthelmintic drugs.
CGP 20376, a 5-methoxyl-6-dithiocarbamic-S- (2-carboxy-ethyl) ester derivative of benzothiazole was evaluated for its antifilarial properties and shown to be extremely effective against subperiodic Brugia malayi in the leaf-monkey, Presbytis cristata at oral doses of 20-100 mg/kg. The compound and/or its metabolites had complete micro- and microfilaricidal activities even when given at a single dose of 20 mg/kg. Lower doses had incomplete filaricidal action.
An elicitation exercise was conducted to collect and identify pressing questions concerning the study of helminths in livestock, to help guide research priorities. Questions were invited from the research community in an inclusive way. Of 385 questions submitted, 100 were chosen by online vote, with priority given to open questions in important areas that are specific enough to permit investigation within a focused project or programme of research. The final list of questions was divided into ten themes. We present the questions and set them briefly in the context of the current state of knowledge. Although subjective, the results provide a snapshot of current concerns and perceived priorities in the field of livestock helminthology, and we hope that they will stimulate ongoing or new research efforts.
This study was carried out to develop a health education learning package (HELP) about soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, and to evaluate what impact such a package could have in terms of reducing the incidence and intensity of STH infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in Pahang, Malaysia.