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  1. Watts GF, Gidding S, Wierzbicki AS, Toth PP, Alonso R, Brown WV, et al.
    J Clin Lipidol, 2014 Mar-Apr;8(2):148-72.
    PMID: 24636175 DOI: 10.1016/j.jacl.2014.01.002
    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a dominantly inherited disorder present from birth that markedly elevates plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and causes premature coronary heart disease. There are at least 20 million people with FH worldwide, but the majority remains undetected, and current treatment is often suboptimal. To address this major gap in coronary prevention we present, from an international perspective, consensus-based guidance on the care of FH. The guidance was generated from seminars and workshops held at an international symposium. The recommendations focus on the detection, diagnosis, assessment, and management of FH in adults and children and set guidelines for clinical purposes. They also refer to best practice for cascade screening and risk notifying and testing families for FH, including use of genetic testing. Guidance on treatment is based on risk stratification, management of noncholesterol risk factors, and the safe and effective use of low-density lipoprotein-lowering therapies. Recommendations are given on lipoprotein apheresis. The use of emerging therapies for FH is also foreshadowed. This international guidance acknowledges evidence gaps but aims to make the best use of contemporary practice and technology to achieve the best outcomes for the care of FH. It should accordingly be used to inform clinical judgment and be adjusted for country-specific and local healthcare needs and resources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage
  2. Ajdari Z, Abd Ghani M, Khan Ayob M, Bayat S, Mokhtar M, Abbasiliasi S, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:252647.
    PMID: 24701147 DOI: 10.1155/2014/252647
    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most common chronic diseases in human. Along with chemical therapy traditional medication is used as hypocholesterolemic remedy, however, with unfavorable side effects. Recently, Monascus fermented product (MFP) has become a popular hypocholesterolemic natural supplement. In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic activity of Monascus purpureus FTC5391 fermented product ethanolic extract (MFPe) was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Results showed that MFPe not only reduced the serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, TG concentration, and TC/HDL-C ratio but also increased the HDL-C. Further, solid phase extraction (SPE) was carried out to obtain the hypocholesterolemic bioactive fraction. The high polar fraction of SPE increased the HDL-C (42%) and decreased the TC (53.3%), LDL-C (47%), and TG (50.7%) levels as well as TC/HDL-C ratio (69.1%) in serum. The GC-MS results of the active fraction revealed two main compounds, isosorbide and erythritol, which act as coronary vasodilator compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage*
  3. Ooi LG, Liong MT
    Int J Mol Sci, 2010;11(6):2499-522.
    PMID: 20640165 DOI: 10.3390/ijms11062499
    Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits upon consumption, while prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be used as alternative supplements to exert health benefits, including cholesterol-lowering effects on humans. Past in vivo studies showed that the administration of probiotics and/or prebiotics are effective in improving lipid profiles, including the reduction of serum/plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides or increment of HDL-cholesterol. However, other past studies have also shown that probiotics and prebiotics had insignificant effects on lipid profiles, disputing the hypocholesterolemic claim. Additionally, little information is available on the effective dosage of probiotics and prebiotics needed to exert hypocholesterolemic effects. Probiotics and prebiotics have been suggested to reduce cholesterol via various mechanisms. However, more clinical evidence is needed to strengthen these proposals. Safety issues regarding probiotics and/or prebiotics have also been raised despite their long history of safe use. Although probiotic-mediated infections are rare, several cases of systemic infections caused by probiotics have been reported and the issue of antibiotic resistance has sparked much debate. Prebiotics, classified as food ingredients, are generally considered safe, but overconsumption could cause intestinal discomfort. Conscientious prescription of probiotics and/or prebiotics is crucial, especially when administering to specific high risk groups such as infants, the elderly and the immuno-compromised.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage*
  4. Cheurfa M, Abdallah HH, Allem R, Noui A, Picot-Allain CMN, Mahomoodally F
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2019 Jan;123:98-105.
    PMID: 30292622 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.10.002
    Aqueous and ethanol extracts prepared from leaves of Olea europaea L. were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant and in vivo hypocholesterolemic effect. The result of administration of O. europaea leaf extracts on serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) in hypercholesterolaemic mice was evaluated. In addition, rutin and luteolin, reported to occur naturally in O. europaea leaves, were docked against HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol metabolism. Mice treated with both extracts showed reduced total cholesterol (246.6 and 163.4 mg/dl, for mice groups treated with respective extracts) and LDL (150.16 and 81.28 mg/dl, for mice groups treated with respective extracts) levels as compared to the hypercholesterolaemic group (total cholesterol 253.00 mg/dl and LDL 160.00 mg/dl). Mice treated with aqueous extract (200 mg/kg body weight) showed significantly reduced triglyceride and VLDL levels as compared to the group treated with atorvastatine. HDL level of mice administered with O. europaea aqueous extract was comparable to the atorvastatine-treated group. The ethanol extract of O. europeae leaves was a potent antioxidant (IC50 69.15 mg/ml, % inhibition 54.98, 82.63 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g extract, 7.53 mol of Fe2+/g extract, and % inhibition 49.71, for the DPPH, β-carotene bleaching, total antioxidant capacity, FRAP, and ferric thiocyanate assays, respectively). Docking studies revealed that rutin showed higher binding affinity with HMG-CoA reductase as compared to luteolin. Data gathered from this study support the development of a prophylactic biomedicine from O. europaea leaves for the management of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage*
  5. Heng WK, Ng YP, Ooi GS, Habshoh J, Nurazlin J, Nor Azah MN, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 12;74(6):477-482.
    PMID: 31929472
    BACKGROUND: Simvastatin is usually taken in the evening due to the circadian rhythm of hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis. The degree of reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and the level of adherence to different administration time remained unknown in the Malaysian population. This study aims to investigate the effect of simvastatin on the percentage changes of lipid profile and the level of adherence to when simvastatin was instructed to be taken at different timing.

    METHODS: Nine primary care health clinics across Malaysia participated in this study. 147 statin-naive subjects were selected through convenient sampling and randomised into one of the three arms (after breakfast, after dinner or before bedtime). Differences on percentage reduction of LDL-C from baseline and level of adherence among the three groups at week-16 were compared. The main outcomes measured in this study were the percentage change of lipid parameters and the percentage of high-adherence (MMAS=8) at week-16.

    RESULTS: 59.2% of the patients were male. The mean age of the study population was 53.93± 10.85 years. Most of the patients were Malays (69.4%); followed by Indians (22.4%) and Chinese (8.2%). LDL-C decreased from 4.26 (Standard Deviation, SD1.01) to 2.36 (SD0.69)mmol/L at week-16 for patients taking simvastatin before bedtime; an absolute reduction of 44.95%.The differences of LDL-C percentage reduction between three arms were significantly different (p<0.001). The greatest LDL-C reduction was observed when simvastatin was taken before bedtime and revealed 56.2% patients with high-adherence at week-16.

    CONCLUSION: Simvastatin showed superior LDL-reduction and higher level of adherence when being instructed to be taken before bedtime.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage
  6. Al Batran R, Al-Bayaty F, Al-Obaidi MM, Hussain SF, Mulok TZ
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:724718.
    PMID: 25215291 DOI: 10.1155/2014/724718
    Epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated significant associations between atherosclerosis and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg). We had investigated the effect of andrographolide (AND) on atherosclerosis induced by Pg in rabbits. For experimental purpose, we separated thirty male white New Zealand rabbits into 5 groups. Group 1 received standard food pellets; Groups 2-5 were orally challenged with Pg; Group 3 received atorvastatin (AV, 5 mg/kg), and Groups 4-5 received 10 and 20 mg/kg of AND, respectively, over 12 weeks. Groups treated with AND showed significant decrease in TC, TG, and LDL levels (P<0.05) and significant increase in HDL level in the serum of rabbits. Furthermore, the treated groups (G3-G5) exhibited reductions in interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as compared to atherogenicgroup (G2). The histological results showed that the thickening of atherosclerotic plaques were less significant in treated groups (G3-G5) compared with atherogenicgroup (G2). Also, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) staining decreased within the plaques of atherogenicgroup (G2), while it was increased in treated groups (G3-G5). Lastly, groups treated with AV and AND (G3-G5) showed significant reduction of CD36 expression (P<0.05) compared to atherogenicgroup (G2). These results substantially proved that AND contain antiatherogenic activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage
  7. Stein EA, Dann EJ, Wiegman A, Skovby F, Gaudet D, Sokal E, et al.
    J Am Coll Cardiol, 2017 Aug 29;70(9):1162-1170.
    PMID: 28838366 DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.06.058
    BACKGROUND: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH), a rare genetic disorder, is characterized by extremely elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and accelerated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Statin treatment starts at diagnosis, but no statin has been formally evaluated in, or approved for, HoFH children.

    OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to assess the LDL-C efficacy of rosuvastatin versus placebo in HoFH children, and the relationship with underlying genetic mutations.

    METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, 12-week, crossover study of rosuvastatin 20 mg versus placebo, followed by 12 weeks of open-label rosuvastatin. Patients discontinued all lipid-lowering treatment except ezetimibe and/or apheresis. Clinical and laboratory assessments were performed every 6 weeks. The relationship between LDL-C response and genetic mutations was assessed by adding children and adults from a prior HoFH rosuvastatin trial.

    RESULTS: Twenty patients were screened, 14 randomized, and 13 completed the study. The mean age was 10.9 years; 8 patients were on ezetimibe and 7 on apheresis. Mean LDL-C was 481 mg/dl (range: 229 to 742 mg/dl) on placebo and 396 mg/dl (range: 130 to 700 mg/dl) on rosuvastatin, producing a mean 85.4 mg/dl (22.3%) difference (p = 0.005). Efficacy was similar regardless of age or use of ezetimibe or apheresis, and was maintained for 12 weeks. Adverse events were few and not serious. Patients with 2 defective versus 2 negative LDL receptor mutations had mean LDL-C reductions of 23.5% (p = 0.0044) and 14% (p = 0.038), respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: This first-ever pediatric HoFH statin trial demonstrated safe and effective LDL-C reduction with rosuvastatin 20 mg alone or added to ezetimibe and/or apheresis. The LDL-C response in children and adults was related to underlying genetic mutations. (A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Rosuvastatin in Children and Adolescents With Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia [HYDRA]; NCT02226198).

    Matched MeSH terms: Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage
  8. Andriani Y, Tengku-Muhammad TS, Mohamad H, Saidin J, Syamsumir DF, Chew GS, et al.
    Molecules, 2015 Mar 09;20(3):4410-29.
    PMID: 25759957 DOI: 10.3390/molecules20034410
    In vitro and in vivo studies of the activity of Phaleria macrocarpa Boerl (Thymelaeaceae) leaves against the therapeutic target for hypercholesterolemia were done using the HDL receptor (SR-BI) and hypercholesterolemia-induced Sprague Dawley rats. The in vitro study showed that the active fraction (CF6) obtained from the ethyl acetate extract (EMD) and its component 2',6',4-trihydroxy-4'-methoxybenzophenone increased the SR-BI expression by 95% and 60%, respectively. The in vivo study has proven the effect of EMD at 0.5 g/kgbw dosage in reducing the total cholesterol level by 224.9% and increasing the HDL cholesterol level by 157% compared to the cholesterol group. In the toxicity study, serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) activity were observed to be at normal levels. The liver histology also proved no toxicity and abnormalities in any of the treatment groups, so it can be categorized as non-toxic to the rat liver. The findings taken together show that P. macrocarpa leaves are safe and suitable as an alternative control and prevention treatment for hypercholesterolemia in Sprague Dawley rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage*
  9. Nawawi H, Osman NS, Annuar R, Khalid BA, Yusoff K
    Atherosclerosis, 2003 Aug;169(2):283-91.
    PMID: 12921980
    Adhesion molecules and cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of intimal injury in atherosclerosis but their relationship with endothelial function remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of atorvastatin on soluble adhesion molecules, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow mediated dilatation (FMD) in patients with familial (FH) and non-familial hypercholesterolaemia (NFH). A total of 74 patients (27 FH and 47 NFH) were recruited. Fasting lipid profiles, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), E-selectin, IL-6 and FMD were measured at baseline, 2 weeks, 3 and 9 months post-atorvastatin treatment (FH--80 mg/day, NFH--10 mg/day). In both groups, compared to baseline, sICAM-1 levels were significantly reduced at 2 weeks, further reduced at 3 months and maintained at 9 months (P<0.0001). The IL-6 levels were significantly reduced at 3 months and 9 months compared to baseline for FH (P<0.005) and NFH (P<0.0001). In both groups, the FMD at 2 weeks was higher than baseline (P<0.005), with progressive improvement up to 9 months. FMD was negatively correlated with sICAM-1 and IL-6. In conclusion, both low and high doses of atorvastatin lead to early progressive improvement in endothelial function in patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia. sICAM-1 and IL-6 levels reflect endothelial dysfunction in these patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage
  10. Leporowski A, Godman B, Kurdi A, MacBride-Stewart S, Ryan M, Hurding S, et al.
    Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res, 2018 Dec;18(6):655-666.
    PMID: 30014725 DOI: 10.1080/14737167.2018.1501558
    BACKGROUND: Prescribing of lipid-lowering agents (LLAs) has increased worldwide including in Scotland with increasing prevalence of coronary heart disease, and higher dose statins have been advocated in recent years. There have also been initiatives to encourage prescribing of generic versus patented statins to save costs without compromising care. There is a need to document these initiatives and outcomes to provide future direction.

    METHOD: Assessment of utilization (items dispensed) and expenditure of key LLAs (mainly statins) between 2001 and 2015 in Scotland alongside initiatives.

    RESULTS: Multiple interventions over the years have increased international nonproprietary name prescribing (99% for statins) and preferential prescribing of generic versus patented statins, and reduced inappropriate prescribing of ezetimibe. This resulted in a 50% reduction in expenditure of LLAs between 2001 and 2015 despite a 412% increase in utilization, increased prescribing of higher dose statins (71% in 2015) especially atorvastatin following generic availability, and reduced prescribing of ezetimibe (reduced by 72% between 2010 and 2015). As a result, the quality of prescribing has improved.

    CONCLUSION: Generic availability coupled with multiple measures has resulted in appreciable shifts in statin prescribing behavior and reduced ezetimibe prescribing, resulting in improvements in both the quality and efficiency of prescribing.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage
  11. Chan KW, Ismail M, Mohd Esa N, Imam MU, Ooi J, Khong NMH
    Food Funct, 2018 Feb 21;9(2):925-936.
    PMID: 29313544 DOI: 10.1039/c7fo01109a
    Kenaf is one of the important commercial fiber crops worldwide and defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) is a secondary by-product from the kenaf industry. Thus, efforts to turn this low-cost agricultural waste into value-added functional food ingredients will definitely bring advantageous impacts to the community health, environment and economy. The present study was aimed to investigate the cardioprotective properties of DKSM and its phenolics-saponins rich extract (PSRE) in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats via atherogenic diet feeding and dietary interventions were conducted by incorporating DKSM (15% and 30%) and equivalent levels of PSRE (2.3% and 4.6%, respectively, equivalent to the total content of phenolics and saponins in DKSM groups) into the atherogenic diets. After 10 weeks of DKSM and PSRE supplementation, the hepatosomatic index, hepatosteatosis, serum lipid profile, Castelli risk indexes as well as hepatic and renal functions of hypercholesterolemic rats were significantly improved (p < 0.05). Besides, the levels of hepatic Hmgcr and serum Pcsk9 were lowered, along with transcriptional upregulations of hepatic Cyp7a1, Abca1, Lcat, ApoA2 and ApoE (p < 0.05). The gene expression of hepatic Ldlr was marginally enhanced by DKSM supplementation (p > 0.05), but superiorly upregulated by PSRE (p < 0.05). The combined results showed that hypercholesterolemia and the atherogenic risk in rats were effectively attenuated by DKSM and PSRE supplementation, possibly via modulations of multiple vital processes in hepatic cholesterol metabolism. Furthermore, phenolics and saponins may be the bioactives conferring DKSM and PSRE with their anti-hypercholesterolemic properties. In conclusion, DKSM and PSRE are prospective cardioprotective functional food ingredients for hypercholesterolemic individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage*
  12. Yusuf S, Joseph P, Dans A, Gao P, Teo K, Xavier D, et al.
    N Engl J Med, 2021 01 21;384(3):216-228.
    PMID: 33186492 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2028220
    BACKGROUND: A polypill comprising statins, multiple blood-pressure-lowering drugs, and aspirin has been proposed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    METHODS: Using a 2-by-2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned participants without cardiovascular disease who had an elevated INTERHEART Risk Score to receive a polypill (containing 40 mg of simvastatin, 100 mg of atenolol, 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide, and 10 mg of ramipril) or placebo daily, aspirin (75 mg) or placebo daily, and vitamin D or placebo monthly. We report here the outcomes for the polypill alone as compared with matching placebo, for aspirin alone as compared with matching placebo, and for the polypill plus aspirin as compared with double placebo. For the polypill-alone and polypill-plus-aspirin comparisons, the primary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest, heart failure, or revascularization. For the aspirin comparison, the primary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Safety was also assessed.

    RESULTS: A total of 5713 participants underwent randomization, and the mean follow-up was 4.6 years. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was lower by approximately 19 mg per deciliter and systolic blood pressure was lower by approximately 5.8 mm Hg with the polypill and with combination therapy than with placebo. The primary outcome for the polypill comparison occurred in 126 participants (4.4%) in the polypill group and in 157 (5.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 1.00). The primary outcome for the aspirin comparison occurred in 116 participants (4.1%) in the aspirin group and in 134 (4.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.10). The primary outcome for the polypill-plus-aspirin comparison occurred in 59 participants (4.1%) in the combined-treatment group and in 83 (5.8%) in the double-placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.97). The incidence of hypotension or dizziness was higher in groups that received the polypill than in their respective placebo groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: Combined treatment with a polypill plus aspirin led to a lower incidence of cardiovascular events than did placebo among participants without cardiovascular disease who were at intermediate cardiovascular risk. (Funded by the Wellcome Trust and others; TIPS-3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01646437.).

    Matched MeSH terms: Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage*
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