Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

  1. Kow CS, Aldeyab M, Hasan SS
    J Med Virol, 2021 04;93(4):1860-1861.
    PMID: 33118617 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.26638
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage*
  2. Kow CS, Hasan SS
    Int Immunopharmacol, 2021 Apr;93:107415.
    PMID: 33540249 DOI: 10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107415
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage
  3. Lau LG
    Med J Malaysia, 1999 Jun;54(2):270-2.
    PMID: 10972042
    We describe a case of adult chickenpox which was complicated by severe varicella pneumonia, mild hepatitis and thrombocytopenia. The hepatitis and the thrombocytopenia were asymptomatic clinically and were diagnosed on biochemistry and blood count results. These eventually improved without specific interventions. The pneumonia, however, deteriorated rapidly despite the early commencement of oxygen supplementation, acyclovir and antibiotic. Subsequently, systemic corticosteroid therapy was initiated and the patient was ventilated in the intensive care unit. The patient eventually recovered.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage*
  4. Mahmood S, Kiong KC, Tham CS, Chien TC, Hilles AR, Venugopal JR
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2020 Oct 14;21(7):285.
    PMID: 33057878 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-020-01810-0
    Currently, pharmaceutical research is directed wide range for developing new drugs for oral administration to target disease. Acyclovir formulation is having common issues of short half-life and poor permeability, causing messy treatment which results in patient incompliance. The present study formulates a lipid polymeric hybrid nanoparticles for antiviral acyclovir (ACV) agent with Phospholipon® 90G (lecithin), chitosan, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to improve controlled release of the drugs. The study focused on the encapsulation of the ACV in lipid polymeric particle and their sustained delivery. The formulation developed for the self-assembly of chitosan and lecithin to form a shell encapsulating acyclovir, followed by PEGylation. Optimisation was performed via Box-Behnken Design (BBD), forming nanoparticles with size of 187.7 ± 3.75 nm, 83.81 ± 1.93% drug-entrapped efficiency (EE), and + 37.7 ± 1.16 mV zeta potential. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images displayed spherical nanoparticles formation. Encapsulation of ACV and complexity with other physical parameters are confirmed through analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction. Nanoparticle produced was capable of achieving 24-h sustained release in vitro on gastric and intestinal environments. Ex vivo study proved the improvement of acyclovir's apparent permeability from 2 × 10-6 to 6.46 × 10-6 cm s-1. Acyclovir new formulation was achieved to be stable up to 60 days for controlled release of the drugs. Graphical abstract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage*
  5. Kumar V, Narayanan P, Shetty S, Mohammed AP
    BMJ Case Rep, 2021 Mar 01;14(3).
    PMID: 33649026 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2020-240267
    COVID-19 is caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 and is a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. In addition to respiratory symptoms, neurological manifestations have been associated with COVID-19. This is attributed to the neurotropic nature of coronaviruses. The authors present a case of Bell's palsy associated with COVID-19 in a term primigravida.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage
  6. Rajapakse S, de Silva NL, Weeratunga P, Rodrigo C, Sigera C, Fernando SD
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Oct 11;19(1):265.
    PMID: 31601215 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2678-2
    BACKGROUND: Carica papaya (CP) extract is becoming popular as an unlicensed herbal remedy purported to hasten recovery in dengue infection, mostly based on observations that it may increase platelet counts. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to critically analyze the evidence from controlled clinical trials on the efficacy and safety of CP extract in the treatment of dengue infection.

    METHODS: PubMed, LILACS and Google Scholar were searched for randomized or non-randomized trials enrolling patients with suspected or confirmed dengue where CP extract was compared, as a treatment measure, against standard treatment. Recovery of platelet counts as well as other clinical indicators of favourable outcome (duration of hospital stay, prevention of plasma leakage, life threatening complications, and mortality) were assessed.

    RESULTS: Nine studies (India-6, Pakistan-1, Indonesia-1, Malaysia-1) met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies showed an increase in platelet counts in patients receiving CP extract, while one study showed no significant difference between the two groups, and direct comparison was not possible in the remaining study. Serious adverse events were not reported. CP extract may reduce the duration of hospital stay (mean difference - 1.98 days, 95% confidence interval - 1.83 to - 2.12, 3 studies, 580 participants, low quality evidence), and cause improvement in mean platelet counts between the first and fifth day of treatment (mean difference 35.45, 95% confidence interval 23.74 to 47.15, 3 studies, 129 participants, low quality evidence). No evidence was available regarding other clinical outcomes.

    CONCLUSIONS: The clinical value of improvement in platelet count or early discharge is unclear in the absence of more robust indicators of favourable clinical outcome. Current evidence is insufficient to comment on the role of CP extract in dengue. There is a need for further well designed clinical trials examining the effect of CP on platelet counts, plasma leakage, other serious manifestations of dengue, and mortality, with clearly defined outcome measures.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage*
  7. Moghaddam E, Teoh BT, Sam SS, Lani R, Hassandarvish P, Chik Z, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2014;4:5452.
    PMID: 24965553 DOI: 10.1038/srep05452
    Baicalin, a flavonoid derived from Scutellaria baicalensis, is the main metabolite of baicalein released following administration in different animal models and human. We previously reported the antiviral activity of baicalein against dengue virus (DENV). Here, we examined the anti-DENV properties of baicalin in vitro, and described the inhibitory potentials of baicalin at different steps of DENV-2 (NGC strain) replication. Our in vitro antiviral experiments showed that baicalin inhibited virus replication at IC50 = 13.5 ± 0.08 μg/ml with SI = 21.5 following virus internalization by Vero cells. Baicalin exhibited virucidal activity against DENV-2 extracellular particles at IC50 = 8.74 ± 0.08 μg/ml and showed anti-adsorption effect with IC50 = 18.07 ± 0.2 μg/ml. Our findings showed that baicalin as the main metabolite of baicalein exerting in vitro anti-DENV activity. Further investigations on baicalein and baicalin to deduce its antiviral therapeutic effects are warranted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage
  8. Choong OK, Mehrbod P, Tejo BA, Omar AR
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:654712.
    PMID: 24707494 DOI: 10.1155/2014/654712
    Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) is a severe fatal immune-augmented disease in cat population. It is caused by FIP virus (FIPV), a virulent mutant strain of Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV). Current treatments and prophylactics are not effective. The in vitro antiviral properties of five circular Triple-Helix Forming Oligonucleotide (TFO) RNAs (TFO1 to TFO5), which target the different regions of virulent feline coronavirus (FCoV) strain FIPV WSU 79-1146 genome, were tested in FIPV-infected Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cells. RT-qPCR results showed that the circular TFO RNAs, except TFO2, inhibit FIPV replication, where the viral genome copy numbers decreased significantly by 5-fold log10 from 10(14) in the virus-inoculated cells to 10(9) in the circular TFO RNAs-transfected cells. Furthermore, the binding of the circular TFO RNA with the targeted viral genome segment was also confirmed using electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The strength of binding kinetics between the TFO RNAs and their target regions was demonstrated by NanoITC assay. In conclusion, the circular TFOs have the potential to be further developed as antiviral agents against FIPV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage
  9. Alhoot MA, Rathinam AK, Wang SM, Manikam R, Sekaran SD
    Int J Med Sci, 2013;10(6):719-29.
    PMID: 23630436 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.5037
    Despite the importance of DENV as a human pathogen, there is no specific treatment or protective vaccine. Successful entry into the host cells is necessary for establishing the infection. Recently, the virus entry step has become an attractive therapeutic strategy because it represents a barrier to suppress the onset of the infection. Four putative antiviral peptides were designed to target domain III of DENV-2 E protein using BioMoDroid algorithm. Two peptides showed significant inhibition of DENV when simultaneously incubated as shown by plaque formation assay, RT-qPCR, and Western blot analysis. Both DET4 and DET2 showed significant inhibition of virus entry (84.6% and 40.6% respectively) using micromolar concentrations. Furthermore, the TEM images showed that the inhibitory peptides caused structural abnormalities and alteration of the arrangement of the viral E protein, which interferes with virus binding and entry. Inhibition of DENV entry during the initial stages of infection can potentially reduce the viremia in infected humans resulting in prevention of the progression of dengue fever to the severe life-threatening infection, reduce the infected vector numbers, and thus break the transmission cycle. Moreover these peptides though designed against the conserved region in DENV-2 would have the potential to be active against all the serotypes of dengue and might be considered as Hits to begin designing and developing of more potent analogous peptides that could constitute as promising therapeutic agents for attenuating dengue infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage*
  10. Seow EL, Robert Ding PH
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Dec;60(5):637-41.
    PMID: 16515116
    This was an open-label, uncontrolled study with the aim of assessing the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. The study was conducted in Island Hospital, Penang beween January 2002 and December 2003. Thirty-three patients were enrolled in this study with ten defaulters. The overall sustained virological response (SVR) (Intention-To-Treat analysis) in naïve patients was 39.10%. However, when the study was adjusted to only include those who completed treatment and follow-up, overall SVR as 52.9%. Side-effects were tolerable in most patients with anaemia occurring in 22 patients (66.7%), leukopenia 23 patients (69.7%) and thrombocytopenia in 15 patients (45.5%). This study showed that pegylated interferon alfa-2b 1.5 mcg/kg/week plus ribavirin > 10.6 mg/kg/day is efficacious and safe to be used in the treatment of: chronic hepatitis C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage*
  11. Hamidah A, Yong JF, Zulkifli HI, Jamal R
    Med J Malaysia, 2002 Sep;57(3):353-6.
    PMID: 12440276
    We describe two cases of transfusion dependent thalassaemics with chronic hepatitis C virus infection whom were treated successfully with interferon and ribavirin, following failure of response or relapse after an initial response to interferon monotherapy. They had sustained virological response for more than twelve months after completing therapy. Transfusion requirements were significantly increased during the combination therapy, probably due to ribavirin-induced haemolysis. Serum ferritin level decreased significantly during the treatment. Combination therapy with interferon alfa and ribavirin may be a feasible treatment option for some nonresponders to prior interferon monotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage
  12. Rudramurthy GR, Swamy MK, Sinniah UR, Ghasemzadeh A
    Molecules, 2016 Jun 27;21(7).
    PMID: 27355939 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21070836
    Antimicrobial substances may be synthetic, semisynthetic, or of natural origin (i.e., from plants and animals). Antimicrobials are considered "miracle drugs" and can determine if an infected patient/animal recovers or dies. However, the misuse of antimicrobials has led to the development of multi-drug-resistant bacteria, which is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare practitioners and is a significant global threat. The major concern with the development of antimicrobial resistance is the spread of resistant organisms. The replacement of conventional antimicrobials by new technology to counteract antimicrobial resistance is ongoing. Nanotechnology-driven innovations provide hope for patients and practitioners in overcoming the problem of drug resistance. Nanomaterials have tremendous potential in both the medical and veterinary fields. Several nanostructures comprising metallic particles have been developed to counteract microbial pathogens. The effectiveness of nanoparticles (NPs) depends on the interaction between the microorganism and the NPs. The development of effective nanomaterials requires in-depth knowledge of the physicochemical properties of NPs and the biological aspects of microorganisms. However, the risks associated with using NPs in healthcare need to be addressed. The present review highlights the antimicrobial effects of various nanomaterials and their potential advantages, drawbacks, or side effects. In addition, this comprehensive information may be useful in the discovery of broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs for use against multi-drug-resistant microbial pathogens in the near future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage
  13. Rahman MA, Rahman MS, Bashir NMB, Mia R, Hossain A, Saha SK, et al.
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2021;23(5):1-11.
    PMID: 34347990 DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2021038285
    Since December 2019, a de novo pattern of pneumonia, later named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has caused grave upset throughout the global population. COVID-19 is associated with several comorbidities; thus, preventive and therapeutic strategies targeting those comorbidities along with the causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), seem imperative. In this state-of-the-art review, edible and medicinal mushrooms are featured in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 pathomanifestations, and comorbid issues. Because this is not an original research article, we admit our shortcomings in inferences. Yet we are hopeful that mushroom-based therapeutic approaches can be used to achieve a COVID-free world. Among various mushroom species, reishi or lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum) seem most suitable as anti-COVID agents for the global population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage
  14. Moshikur RM, Ali MK, Wakabayashi R, Moniruzzaman M, Goto M
    Mol Pharm, 2021 08 02;18(8):3108-3115.
    PMID: 34250805 DOI: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.1c00324
    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread across the world, and no specific antiviral drugs have yet been approved to combat this disease. Favipiravir (FAV) is an antiviral drug that is currently in clinical trials for use against COVID-19. However, the delivery of FAV is challenging because of its limited solubility, and its formulation is difficult with common organic solvents and water. To address these issues, four FAV ionic liquids (FAV-ILs) were synthesized as potent antiviral prodrugs and were fully characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The aqueous solubility and in vivo pharmacokinetic properties of the FAV-ILs were also evaluated. The FAV-ILs exhibited improved aqueous solubility by 78 to 125 orders of magnitude when compared with that of free FAV. Upon oral dosing in mice, the absolute bioavailability of the β-alanine ethyl ester FAV formulation was increased 1.9-fold compared with that of the control FAV formulation. The peak blood concentration, elimination half-life, and mean absorption time of FAV were also increased by 1.5-, 2.0-, and 1.5-fold, respectively, compared with the control. Furthermore, the FAV in the FAV-ILs exhibited significantly different biodistribution compared with the control FAV formulation. Interestingly, drug accumulation in the lungs and liver was improved 1.5-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively, compared with the control FAV formulation. These results indicate that the use of ILs exhibits potential as a simple, scalable strategy to improve the solubility and oral absorption of hydrophobic drugs, such as FAV.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage*
  15. Tan SS, Abu Hassan MR, Abdullah A, Ooi BP, Korompis T, Merican MI
    J Viral Hepat, 2010 Jun;17(6):410-8.
    PMID: 19758272 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2893.2009.01191.x
    Chronic hepatitis C is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in persons undergoing haemodialysis. This single-arm, open-label clinical trial investigated the safety and efficacy of an escalating dosage regimen of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alpha-2b in this patient population. Patients with chronic hepatitis C who were undergoing haemodialysis began treatment with PEG-IFN alpha-2b at a dose of 0.5 microg/kg/week, which was increased every 4 weeks to a maximum of 1 microg/kg/week. Treatment duration was 24 weeks for patients with genotype (G) 2 or 3 infection and 48 weeks for patients with G1 infection. The primary end point was sustained virological response (SVR). Of 46 patients screened, 34 (G1: 70.6%; G3: 29.4%) were treated and 23 (67.6%) completed treatment. Overall, 85.3% of patients experienced early virological response, 52.9% experienced end-of-treatment response, and 50% attained SVR, with a trend toward higher SVR rates in G3 compared with G1 patients (80%vs 37.5%; P = 0.06). Anaemia was the main reason for discontinuation of treatment. Patients with chronic hepatitis C who are undergoing haemodialysis can be successfully treated with an escalating dosage regimen of PEG-IFN alpha-2b monotherapy. G3-infected patients can attain high rates of SVR with only 24 weeks of therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage*
  16. Tajunisah I, Reddy SC, Tan LH
    Int Ophthalmol, 2009 Apr;29(2):85-90.
    PMID: 18026692
    A rare case of acute retinal necrosis caused by cytomegalovirus in an immunocompetent adult, diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction of vitreous aspirate, with good visual outcome after intravitreal and intravenous ganciclovir and oral prednisolone therapy, is reported. A 50-year-old healthy lady presented with redness and diminution of vision in her right eye of 10 days duration. She had anterior chamber inflammation, marked vitritis, and anterior retinal necrosis in the right eye. Blood and other investigations did not reveal any infectious diseases and HIV testing was negative. The retinal lesions and panuveitis resolved with treatment. Two months later she developed retinal detachment which was treated successfully. The best-corrected vision was 6/12 in the right eye. Seven cases of cytomegalovirus ocular infection in immunocompetent healthy adults, reported in the literature, were reviewed. The different presentations of this disease and the importance of suspecting this causative agent are highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage
  17. Lee HL, Phong TV, Rohani A
    PMID: 23413698
    This study was conducted to determine the inhibitory effects of ribavirin and hydroxyurea on dengue virus replication in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were infected with dengue-2 virus and fed ribavirin at a dose of 0.3 mg/ml and/or hydroxyurea at a dose of 6 mg/ml via artificial membrane feeding technique. The virus in infected mosquitoes was isolated using C6/36 cell culture. Peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) staining was used to detect dengue-infected C6/36 cells and to quantify the level of infection by determining the presence of infected cells. In mosquitoes treated with ribavirin alone, hydroxyurea alone or both drugs in combination had reductions in dengue infection rates of 87.72, 89.47 and 95.61%, respectively. The mortalities of female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes fed with these drugs were significantly higher than the control. Ribavirin also had an inhibitory effect on the fecundity of female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage
  18. Tan SS, Adlin Nadia Z
    Med J Malaysia, 2017 06;72(3):165-174.
    PMID: 28733564 MyJurnal
    AIM: To describe the clinical characteristic of hepatitis C (HCV) patients and the results of pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) therapy in a routine clinical practice.

    METHODS: A retrospective review of consecutive HCV patients treated with PegIFN/RBV in 2004 to 2012.

    RESULTS: A total of 273 patients received treatment. The mean age was 44.16 ± 10.5 years and 76% were male. The top 2 self-reported risks were blood or blood product transfusion before 1994 and injection drug use, found in 57.1% of patients. The predominant HCV genotype (GT) was 3 at 60.6%, second was GT1 at 36.1% and other GTs were uncommon at about 1% or less. About half of our patients have high baseline viral load (>800,000 iu/ml), 18.3% had liver cirrhosis and 22.3% had HIV co-infection. Co-morbid illness was found in 42.9%, hypertension and type 2 diabetes were the two most common. The overall sustained virological response (SVR) by intention-to-treat analysis were 54.9% (n=150/273), 41.2% (40/97) for GT1, 100% (5/5) for GT2 and 62% (101/163) for GT3. Subgroup analysis for HCV monoinfected, treatment naïve showed SVR of 49.2% (31/63) for GT1, 100% (5/5) for GT2 and 67% (69/103) for GT3. In HCV mono-infected and treatment experienced (n=29), the SVR was 28.6% (4/14) for GT1, 21.4% (69/103) for GT3. In the HIV/HCV co-infected, treatment naïve (n=56), the SVR was 28.6% (4/14) for GT1 and 64.3% (27/42) for GT3. Treatment naïve GT3 mono-infected patients had a statistically significant higher SVR compared to treatment experienced patients (P=0.001). In GT3 patients who achieved rapid virological response, the SVR was significantly higher at 85.2% (P< 0.001). The SVR for cirrhotics were low especially for GT1 at 21% (4/19) and 31% (4/13) based on all patients and treatment naïve HCV monoinfected respectively. In GT3 cirrhotics the corresponding SVR were 57.1% (16/28) and 60.9% (14/23). Premature discontinuation rate was 21.2% with the majority due to intolerable adverse events at 12.1%.

    CONCLUSIONS: In our routine clinical practice, the HCV patients we treated were young, predominantly of GT3 and many had difficult-to-treat clinical characteristics. The SVR of our patients were below those reported in Asian clinical trials but in keeping with some "real world" data.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage
  19. Zelenev A, Li J, Mazhnaya A, Basu S, Altice FL
    Lancet Infect Dis, 2018 02;18(2):215-224.
    PMID: 29153265 DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30676-X
    BACKGROUND: Chronic infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV are highly prevalent in the USA and concentrated in people who inject drugs. Treatment as prevention with highly effective new direct-acting antivirals is a prospective HCV elimination strategy. We used network-based modelling to analyse the effect of this strategy in HCV-infected people who inject drugs in a US city.

    METHODS: Five graph models were fit using data from 1574 people who inject drugs in Hartford, CT, USA. We used a degree-corrected stochastic block model, based on goodness-of-fit, to model networks of injection drug users. We simulated transmission of HCV and HIV through this network with varying levels of HCV treatment coverage (0%, 3%, 6%, 12%, or 24%) and varying baseline HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs (30%, 60%, 75%, or 85%). We compared the effectiveness of seven treatment-as-prevention strategies on reducing HCV prevalence over 10 years and 20 years versus no treatment. The strategies consisted of treatment assigned to either a randomly chosen individual who injects drugs or to an individual with the highest number of injection partners. Additional strategies explored the effects of treating either none, half, or all of the injection partners of the selected individual, as well as a strategy based on respondent-driven recruitment into treatment.

    FINDINGS: Our model estimates show that at the highest baseline HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs (85%), expansion of treatment coverage does not substantially reduce HCV prevalence for any treatment-as-prevention strategy. However, when baseline HCV prevalence is 60% or lower, treating more than 120 (12%) individuals per 1000 people who inject drugs per year would probably eliminate HCV within 10 years. On average, assigning treatment randomly to individuals who inject drugs is better than targeting individuals with the most injection partners. Treatment-as-prevention strategies that treat additional network members are among the best performing strategies and can enhance less effective strategies that target the degree (ie, the highest number of injection partners) within the network.

    INTERPRETATION: Successful HCV treatment as prevention should incorporate the baseline HCV prevalence and will achieve the greatest benefit when coverage is sufficiently expanded.

    FUNDING: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage*
  20. Ishaqui AA, Khan AH, Sulaiman SA, Alsultan M, Khan I
    Saudi Med J, 2020 Sep;41(9):1015-1021.
    PMID: 32893285 DOI: 10.15537/smj.2020.9.25249
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the comparative efficacy of oseltamivir alone and oseltamivir-antibiotic therapy for early relief of symptoms associated with severe influenza-A (non-H1N1) and influenza-B infection hospitalized patients.

    METHODS: In this retrospective multicenter study conducted from 2016-2019, enrolled patients were divided into 2 treatment groups. Group 1 patients were started on Antiviral drug (oseltamivir) alone therapy. Group 2 patients were initiated on Antiviral drug (oseltamivir) in combination with Antibiotic therapy. Using acute respiratory illness scoring, symptom severity score was assessed daily for 8 symptoms namely, fever, fatigue, headache, cough, sore throat, wheezing, muscle ache and nasal congestion. For each symptom the severity was scored from scale 0-3. Results: Overall mean ARI severity score was statistically significantly lower (p less than 0.05) on day 2 (14.65-vs-13.68), day 3 (12.95-vs-11.67) and day 4 (10.31-vs-9.12 ) for influenza-A (non-H1N1) while day 3 (12.52-vs-11.87) and day 4 (11.21-vs-10.18) for influenza-B patients for patients who were initiated on oseltamivir-antibiotic combination therapy. Fever, cough and nasal congestion showed statistically significant improvement within 4 days of initiation of combination treatment. Fatigue, sore throat and muscle ache improvement pattern was same for both treatment protocols.

    CONCLUSION: Oseltamivir-antibiotic combination treatment showed early resolution of some symptoms with cumulatively reduced mean symptom severity score in severe influenza infection hospitalized patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage*
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