Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 134 in total

  1. Jantan I, Arshad L, Septama AW, Haque MA, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Govender NT
    Phytother Res, 2023 Mar;37(3):1036-1056.
    PMID: 36343627 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.7671
    The worldwide spreading of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed a serious threat to health, economic, environmental, and social aspects of human lives. Currently, there are no approved treatments that can effectively block the virus although several existing antimalarial and antiviral agents have been repurposed and allowed use during the pandemic under the emergency use authorization (EUA) status. This review gives an updated overview of the antiviral effects of phytochemicals including alkaloids, flavonoids, and terpenoids against the COVID-19 virus and their mechanisms of action. Search for natural lead molecules against SARS-CoV-2 has been focusing on virtual screening and in vitro studies on phytochemicals that have shown great promise against other coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV. Until now, there is limited data on in vivo investigations to examine the antiviral activity of plants in SARS-CoV-2-infected animal models and the studies were performed using crude extracts. Further experimental and preclinical investigations on the in vivo effects of phytochemicals have to be performed to provide sufficient efficacy and safety data before clinical studies can be performed to develop them into COVID-19 drugs. Phytochemicals are potential sources of new chemical leads for the development of safe and potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
  2. Al-Harrasi A, Behl T, Upadhyay T, Chigurupati S, Bhatt S, Sehgal A, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2022 Jun;29(28):42404-42432.
    PMID: 35362883 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-022-19770-2
    The human coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by a novel coronavirus; the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Natural products, secondary metabolites show positive leads with antiviral and immunotherapy treatments using genomic studies in silico docking. In addition, it includes the action of a mechanism targeting the SARS-CoV-2. In this literature, we aimed to evaluate the antiviral movement of the NT-VRL-1 unique terpene definition to Human coronavirus (HCoV-229E). The effects of 19 hydrolysable tannins on the SARS-CoV-2 were therefore theoretically reviewed and analyzed utilising the molecular operating surroundings for their C-Like protease 3CLpro catalytic dyad residues Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (MOE 09). Pedunculagin, tercatan, and castalin were detected as interacting strongly with SARS-receptor Cov-2's binding site and catalytic dyad (Cys145 and His41). SARS-CoV-2 methods of subunit S1 (ACE2) inhibit the interaction of the receiver with the s-protein once a drug molecule is coupled to the s-protein and prevent it from infecting the target cells in alkaloids. Our review strongly demonstrates the evidence that natural compounds and their derivatives can be used against the human coronavirus and serves as an area of research for future perspective.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
  3. Shirbhate E, Patel P, Patel VK, Veerasamy R, Sharma PC, Sinha BN, et al.
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2021;21(8):1004-1016.
    PMID: 33280595 DOI: 10.2174/1389557520666201204162103
    The novel coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic that emerged from Wuhan, China, and has spread all around the world, affecting 216 countries or territories with 21,732,472 people infected and 770,866 deaths globally (as per WHO COVID-19 updates of August 18, 2020). Continuous efforts are being made to repurpose the existing drugs and develop vaccines for combating this infection. Despite, to date, no certified antiviral treatment or vaccine exists. Although, few candidates have displayed their efficacy in in vitro studies and are being repurposed for COVID- 19 treatment. This article summarizes synthetic and semi-synthetic compounds displaying potent activity in clinical uses or studies on COVID-19 and also focuses on the mode of action of drugs being repositioned against COVID-19.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
  4. Hassan MZ, Osman H, Ali MA, Ahsan MJ
    Eur J Med Chem, 2016 Nov 10;123:236-255.
    PMID: 27484512 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2016.07.056
    Coumarins have received a considerable attention in the last three decades as a lead structures for the discovery of orally bioavailable non-peptidic antiviral agents. A lot of structurally diverse coumarins analogues were found to display remarkable array of affinity with the different molecular targets for antiviral agents and slight modifications around the central motif result in pronounced changes in its antiviral spectrum. This manuscript thoroughly reviews the design, discovery and structure-activity relationship studies of the coumarin analogues as antiviral agents focusing mainly on lead optimization and its development into clinical candidates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/pharmacology*
  5. Bandyopadhyay S, Abiodun OA, Ogboo BC, Kola-Mustapha AT, Attah EI, Edemhanria L, et al.
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2022;40(22):11467-11483.
    PMID: 34370622 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2021.1959401
    Medicinal plants as rich sources of bioactive compounds are now being explored for drug development against COVID-19. 19 medicinal plants known to exhibit antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects were manually curated, procuring a library of 521 metabolites; this was virtually screened against NSP9, including some other viral and host targets and were evaluated for polypharmacological indications. Leads were identified via rigorous scoring thresholds and ADMET filtering. MM-GBSA calculation was deployed to select NSP9-Lead complexes and the complexes were evaluated for their stability and protein-ligand communication via MD simulation. We identified 5 phytochemical leads for NSP9, 23 for Furin, 18 for ORF3a, and 19 for IL-6. Ochnaflavone and Licoflavone B, obtained from Lonicera japonica (Japanese Honeysuckle) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice), respectively, were identified to have the highest potential polypharmacological properties for the aforementioned targets and may act on multiple pathways simultaneously to inhibit viral entry, replication, and disease progression. Additionally, MD simulation supports the robust stability of Ochnaflavone and Licoflavone B against NSP9 at the active sites via hydrophobic interactions, H-bonding, and H-bonding facilitated by water. This study promotes the initiation of further experimental analysis of natural product-based anti-COVID-19 therapeutics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
  6. Essa RZ, Wu YS, Batumalaie K, Sekar M, Poh CL
    Pharmacol Rep, 2022 Dec;74(6):1166-1181.
    PMID: 36401119 DOI: 10.1007/s43440-022-00432-6
    The global pandemic of COVID-19 is a serious public health concern. Over 625 million confirmed cases and more than 6 million deaths have been recorded worldwide. Although several vaccines and antiviral medications have been developed, their efficacy is limited by the emerging new SARS-CoV-2 strains. Peptide-based therapeutics is a fast-growing class of new drugs and have unique advantages over large proteins and small molecules. Antiviral peptides (AVPs) are short polycationic antivirals with broad-spectrum effects, which have been shown to exert both prophylactic and therapeutic actions against reported coronaviruses. The potential therapeutic targets of AVPs are located either on the virus (e.g., E-protein and S-protein) to prohibit viral binding or host cells, particularly, those present on the cell surface (e.g., ACE2 and TMPRSS2). Despite AVPs having promising antiviral effects, their efficacy is limited by low bioavailability. Thus, nanoformulation is a prerequisite for prolonged bioavailability and efficient delivery. This review aimed to present an insight into the therapeutic AVP targets on both virus and host cells by discussing their antiviral activities and associated molecular mechanisms. Besides, it described the technique for discovering and developing possible AVPs based on their targets, as well as the significance of using nanotechnology for their efficient delivery against SARS-CoV-2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
  7. Ben Hadda T, Berredjem M, Almalki FA, Rastija V, Jamalis J, Emran TB, et al.
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2022;40(19):9429-9442.
    PMID: 34033727 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2021.1930161
    Remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine derivatives form two important classes of heterocyclic compounds. They are known for their anti-malarial biological activity. This research aims to analyze the physicochemical properties of remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine compounds by the computational approach. DFT, docking, and POM analyses also identify antiviral pharmacophore sites of both compounds. The antiviral activity of hydroxychloroquine compound's in the presence of zinc sulfate and azithromycin is evaluated through its capacity to coordinate transition metals (M = Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Ru, Pt). The obtained bioinformatic results showed the potent antiviral/antibacterial activity of the prepared mixture (Hydroxychloroquine/Azithromycin/Zinc sulfate) for all the opportunistic Gram-positive, Gram-negative in the presence of coronavirus compared with the complexes Polypyridine-Ruthenium-di-aquo. The postulated zinc(II) complex of hydroxychloroquine derivatives are indeed an effective antibacterial and antiviral agent against coronavirus and should be extended to other pathogens. The combination of a pharmacophore site with a redox [Metal(OH2)2] moiety is of crucial role to fight against viruses and bacteria strains. [Formula: see text]Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
  8. Al-Hatamleh MAI, Hatmal MM, Alshaer W, Rahman ENSEA, Mohd-Zahid MH, Alhaj-Qasem DM, et al.
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2021 Apr 05;896:173930.
    PMID: 33545157 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.173930
    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which emerged in December 2019 and caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, took the world by surprise with an unprecedented public health emergency. Since this pandemic began, extraordinary efforts have been made by scientists to understand the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and to fight the infection by providing various preventive, diagnostic and treatment opportunities based on either novel hypotheses or past experiences. Despite all the achievements, COVID-19 continues to be an accelerating health threat with no specifically approved vaccine or therapy. This review highlights the recent advances in COVID-19 infection, with a particular emphasis on nanomedicine applications that can help in the development of effective vaccines or therapeutics against COVID-19. A novel future perspective has been proposed in this review based on utilizing polymersome nano-objects for effectively suppressing the cytokine storm, which may reduce the severity of COVID-19 infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/pharmacology*
  9. Tan RSL, Hassandarvish P, Chee CF, Chan LW, Wong TW
    Carbohydr Polym, 2022 Aug 15;290:119500.
    PMID: 35550778 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2022.119500
    The coronavirus pandemic, COVID-19 has a global impact on the lives and livelihoods of people. It is characterized by a widespread infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), where infected patients may develop serious medical complications or even face death. Development of therapeutic is essential to reduce the morbidity and mortality of infected patients. Chitosan is a versatile biomaterial in nanomedicine and exhibits anti-microbial, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory properties. This review highlights the progress in chitosan design and application pertaining to the anti-viral effects of chitosan and chitosan derivatives (hydroxypropyl trimethylammonium, sulfate, carboxymethyl, bromine, sialylglycopolymer, peptide and phosphonium conjugates) as a function of molecular weight, degree of deacetylation, type of substituents and their degree and site of substitution. The physicochemical attributes of these polymeric therapeutics are identified against the possibility of processing them into nanomedicine which can confer a higher level of anti-viral efficacy. The designs of chitosan for the purpose of targeting SARS-CoV-2, as well as the ever-evolving strains of viruses with a broad spectrum anti-viral activity to meet pandemic preparedness at the early stages of outbreak are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
  10. Ayipo YO, Ahmad I, Najib YS, Sheu SK, Patel H, Mordi MN
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2023 Mar;41(5):1959-1977.
    PMID: 35037841 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2022.2026818
    The nsp3 macrodomain and nsp12 (RdRp) enzymes are strongly implicated in the virulent regulation of the host immune response and viral replication of SARS-CoV-2, making them plausible therapeutic targets for mitigating infectivity. Remdesivir remains the only FDA-approved small-molecule inhibitor of the nsp12 in clinical conditions while none has been approved yet for the nsp3 macrodomain. In this study, 69,067 natural compounds from the IBScreen database were screened for efficacious potentials with mechanistic multitarget-directed inhibitory pharmacology against the dual targets using in silico approaches. Standard and extra precision (SP and XP) Maestro glide docking analyses were employed to evaluate their inhibitory interactions against the enzymes. Four compounds, STOCK1N-45901, 03804, 83408, 08377 consistently showed high XP scores against the respective targets and interacted strongly with pharmacologically essential amino acid and RNA residues, in better terms than the standard, co-crystallized inhibitors, GS-441524 and remdesivir. Further assessments through the predictions of ADMET and mutagenicity distinguished STOCK1N-45901, a natural derivative of o-hydroxybenzoate as the most promising candidate. The ligand maintained a good conformational and thermodynamic stability in complex with the enzymes throughout the trajectories of 100 ns molecular dynamics, indicated by RMSD, RMSF and radius of gyration plots. Its binding free energy, MM-GBSA was recorded as -54.24 and -31.77 kcal/mol against the respective enzyme, while its structure-activity relationships confer high probabilities as active antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antiinfection, antitussive and peroxidase inhibitor. The IBScreen database natural product, STOCK1N-45901 (2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexyl o-hydroxybenzoate) is thus recommended as a potent inhibitor of dual nsp3 and nsp12 of SARS-CoV-2 for further study. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
  11. Sea YL, Gee YJ, Lal SK, Choo WS
    J Appl Microbiol, 2023 Jan 23;134(1).
    PMID: 36626776 DOI: 10.1093/jambio/lxac036
    Cannabis is a plant notorious for its psychoactive effect, but when used correctly, it provides a plethora of medicinal benefits. With more than 400 active compounds that have therapeutic properties, cannabis has been accepted widely as a medical treatment and for recreational purposes in several countries. The compounds exhibit various clinical benefits, which include, but are not limited to, anticancer, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. Among the vast range of compounds, multiple research papers have shown that cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, have antiviral effects. Recently, scientists found that both compounds can reduce severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral infection by downregulating ACE2 transcript levels and by exerting anti-inflammatory properties. These compounds also act as the SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitors that block viral replication. Apart from cannabinoids, terpenes in cannabis plants have also been widely explored for their antiviral properties. With particular emphasis on four different viruses, SARS-CoV-2, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and herpes simplex virus-1, this review discussed the role of cannabis compounds in combating viral infections and the potential of both cannabinoids and terpenes as novel antiviral therapeutics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
  12. Lee MF, Anasir MI, Poh CL
    Virology, 2023 Mar;580:10-27.
    PMID: 36739680 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2023.01.016
    Dengue infections pose a critical threat to public health worldwide. Since there are no clinically approved antiviral drugs to treat dengue infections caused by the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, there is an urgent need to develop effective antivirals. Peptides are promising antiviral candidates due to their specificity and non-toxic properties. The DENV envelope (E) protein was selected for the design of antiviral peptides due to its importance in receptor binding and viral fusion to the host cell membrane. Twelve novel peptides were designed to mimic regions containing critical amino acid residues of the DENV E protein required for interaction with the host. A total of four peptides were identified to exhibit potent inhibitory effects against at least three or all four DENV serotypes. Peptide 3 demonstrated all three modes of action: cell protection and inhibition of post-infection against all four DENV serotypes, whereas direct virus-inactivating effects were only observed against DENV-2, 3, and 4. Peptide 4 showed good direct virus-inactivating effects against DENV-2 (74.26%) as well as good inhibitions of DENV-1 (80.37%) and DENV-4 (72.22%) during the post-infection stage. Peptide 5 exhibited direct virus-inactivating effects against all four DENV serotypes, albeit at lower inhibition levels against DENV-1 and DENV-3. It also exhibited highly significant inhibition of DENV-4 (89.31%) during post-infection. Truncated peptide 5F which was derived from peptide 5 showed more significant inhibition of DENV-4 (91.58%) during post-infection and good direct virus-inactivating effects against DENV-2 (77.55%) at a lower concentration of 100 μM. Peptide 3 could be considered as the best antiviral candidate for pre- and post-infection treatments of DENV infections in regions with four circulating dengue serotypes. However, if the most predominant dengue serotype for a particular region could be identified, peptides with significantly high antiviral activities against that particular dengue serotype could serve as more suitable antiviral candidates. Thus, peptide 5F serves as a more suitable antiviral candidate for post-infection treatment against DENV-4.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
  13. Norshidah H, Leow CH, Ezleen KE, Wahab HA, Vignesh R, Rasul A, et al.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol, 2023;13:1061937.
    PMID: 36864886 DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2023.1061937
    An increase in the occurrence of viral infectious diseases is a global concern for human health. According to a WHO report, dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most common viral diseases affecting approximately 400 million people annually, with worsening symptoms in nearly 1% of cases. Both academic and industrial researchers have conducted numerous studies on viral epidemiology, virus structure and function, source and route of infection, treatment targets, vaccines, and drugs. The development of CYD-TDV or Dengvaxia® vaccine has been a major milestone in dengue treatment. However, evidence has shown that vaccines have some drawbacks and limitations. Therefore, researchers are developing dengue antivirals to curb infections. DENV NS2B/NS3 protease is a DENV enzyme essential for replication and virus assembly, making it an interesting antiviral target. For faster hit and lead recognition of DENV targets, methods to screen large number of molecules at lower costs are essential. Similarly, an integrated and multidisciplinary approach involving in silico screening and confirmation of biological activity is required. In this review, we discuss recent strategies for searching for novel DENV NS2B/NS3 protease inhibitors from the in silico and in vitro perspectives, either by applying one of the approaches or by integrating both. Therefore, we hope that our review will encourage researchers to integrate the best strategies and encourage further developments in this area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
  14. Hui LY, Mun CS, Sing LC, Rajak H, Karunakaran R, Ravichandran V
    Med Chem, 2023;19(3):297-309.
    PMID: 35713125 DOI: 10.2174/1573406418666220616110351
    BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 is causing a disaster through coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), affecting the world population with a high mortality rate. Although numerous scientific efforts have been made, we do not have any specific drug for COVID-19 treatment.

    OBJECTIVE: Aim of the present study was to analyse the molecular interaction of nitrogen heterocyclic based drugs (hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir and lomefloxacin) with various SARSCoV- 2 proteins (RdRp, PLPro, Mpro and spike proteins) using a molecular docking approach.

    METHODS: We have performed docking study using PyRx software, and Discovery Studio Visualizer was used to visualise the molecular interactions. The designed nitrogen heterocyclic analogues were checked for Lipinski's rule of five, Veber's Law and Adsorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) threshold. After obtaining the docking results of existing nitrogen heterocyclic drugs, we modified the selected drugs to get molecules with better affinity against SARS-CoV-2.

    RESULTS: Hydroxychloroquine bound to RdRp, spike protein, PLPro and Mpro at -5.2, -5.1, -6.7 and -6.0 kcal/mol, while remdesivir bound to RdRp, spike protein, PLPro, and Mpro at -6.1, -6.9, -6.4 and -6.9 kcal/mol, respectively. Lomefloxacin bound to RdRp, spike protein, PLPro and Pro at -6.4, -6.6, -7.2 and -6.9 kcal/mol. ADME studies of all these compounds indicated lipophilicity and high gastro intestine absorbability. The modified drug structures possess better binding efficacy towards at least one target than their parent compounds.

    CONCLUSION: The outcome reveals that the designed nitrogen heterocyclics could contribute to developing the potent inhibitory drug SARS-CoV-2 with strong multi-targeted inhibition ability and reactivity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
  15. Moghadamtousi SZ, Kadir HA, Hassandarvish P, Tajik H, Abubakar S, Zandi K
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:186864.
    PMID: 24877064 DOI: 10.1155/2014/186864
    Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae family) and its polyphenolic compound curcumin have been subjected to a variety of antimicrobial investigations due to extensive traditional uses and low side effects. Antimicrobial activities for curcumin and rhizome extract of C. longa against different bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites have been reported. The promising results for antimicrobial activity of curcumin made it a good candidate to enhance the inhibitory effect of existing antimicrobial agents through synergism. Indeed, different investigations have been done to increase the antimicrobial activity of curcumin, including synthesis of different chemical derivatives to increase its water solubility as well ass cell up take of curcumin. This review aims to summarize previous antimicrobial studies of curcumin towards its application in the future studies as a natural antimicrobial agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/pharmacology*
  16. James SA, Yam WK
    Comput Biol Chem, 2021 Jun;92:107499.
    PMID: 33932782 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2021.107499
    Rhinoviruses (RV), especially Human rhinovirus (HRVs) have been accepted as the most common cause for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). Pleconaril, a broad spectrum anti-rhinoviral compound, has been used as a drug of choice for URTIs for over a decade. Unfortunately, for various complications associated with this drug, it was rejected, and a replacement is highly desirable. In silico screening and prediction methods such as sub-structure search and molecular docking have been widely used to identify alternative compounds. In our study, we have utilised sub-structure search to narrow down our quest in finding relevant chemical compounds. Molecular docking studies were then used to study their binding interaction at the molecular level. Interestingly, we have identified 3 residues that is worth further investigation in upcoming molecular dynamics simulation systems of their contribution in stable interaction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
  17. Thong QX, Wong CL, Ooi MK, Kueh CL, Ho KL, Alitheen NB, et al.
    J Gen Virol, 2018 09;99(9):1227-1238.
    PMID: 30041713 DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.001116
    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNv) causes white tail disease (WTD) in giant freshwater prawns, which leads to devastating economic losses in the aquaculture industry. Despite extensive research on MrNv, there is still no antiviral agent to treat WTD. Thus, the main aim of this study was to identify potential anti-MrNv molecules. A 12-mer phage-displayed peptide library was biopanned against the MrNv virus-like particle (VLP). After four rounds of biopanning, two dominant phages harbouring the amino acid sequences HTKQIPRHIYSA and VSRHQSWHPHDL were selected. An equilibrium binding assay in solution was performed to determine the relative dissociation constant (KDrel) of the interaction between the MrNv VLP and the selected fusion phages. Phage-HTKQIPRHIYSA has a KDrel value of 92.4±22.8 nM, and phage-VSRHQSWHPHDL has a KDrel value of 12.7±3.8 nM. An in-cell elisa was used to determine the inhibitory effect of the synthetic peptides towards the entry of MrNv VLP into Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells. Peptides HTKQIPRHIYSA and VSRHQSWHPHDL inhibited the entry of the MrNv VLP into Sf9 cells with IC50 values of 30.4±3.6 and 26.5±8.8 µM, respectively. Combination of both peptides showed a significantly higher inhibitory effect with an IC50 of 4.9±0.4 µM. An MTT assay revealed that the viability of MrNv-infected cells increased to about 97 % in the presence of both peptides. A real-time RT-PCR assay showed that simultaneous application of both peptides significantly reduced the number of MrNv per infected cell, from 97±9 to 11±4. These peptides are lead compounds which can be further developed into potent anti-MrNv agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/pharmacology*
  18. Hanna GS, Choo YM, Harbit R, Paeth H, Wilde S, Mackle J, et al.
    J Nat Prod, 2021 11 26;84(11):3001-3007.
    PMID: 34677966 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.1c00625
    The pressing need for SARS-CoV-2 controls has led to a reassessment of strategies to identify and develop natural product inhibitors of zoonotic, highly virulent, and rapidly emerging viruses. This review article addresses how contemporary approaches involving computational chemistry, natural product (NP) and protein databases, and mass spectrometry (MS) derived target-ligand interaction analysis can be utilized to expedite the interrogation of NP structures while minimizing the time and expense of extraction, purification, and screening in BioSafety Laboratories (BSL)3 laboratories. The unparalleled structural diversity and complexity of NPs is an extraordinary resource for the discovery and development of broad-spectrum inhibitors of viral genera, including Betacoronavirus, which contains MERS, SARS, SARS-CoV-2, and the common cold. There are two key technological advances that have created unique opportunities for the identification of NP prototypes with greater efficiency: (1) the application of structural databases for NPs and target proteins and (2) the application of modern MS techniques to assess protein-ligand interactions directly from NP extracts. These approaches, developed over years, now allow for the identification and isolation of unique antiviral ligands without the immediate need for BSL3 facilities. Overall, the goal is to improve the success rate of NP-based screening by focusing resources on source materials with a higher likelihood of success, while simultaneously providing opportunities for the discovery of novel ligands to selectively target proteins involved in viral infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/pharmacology*
  19. Khalifa SAM, Yosri N, El-Mallah MF, Ghonaim R, Guo Z, Musharraf SG, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2021 May;85:153311.
    PMID: 33067112 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2020.153311
    BACKGROUND: Starting December 2019, mankind faced an unprecedented enemy, the COVID-19 virus. The world convened in international efforts, experiences and technologies in order to fight the emerging pandemic. Isolation, hygiene measure, diagnosis, and treatment are the most efficient ways of prevention and intervention nowadays. The health organizations and global care systems screened the available resources and offered recommendations of approved and proposed medications. However, the search for a specific selective therapy or vaccine against COVID-19 remains a challenge.

    METHODS: A literature search was performed for the screening of natural and derived bio-active compounds which showed potent antiviral activity against coronaviruses using published articles, patents, clinical trials website (https://clinicaltrials.gov/) and web databases (PubMed, SCI Finder, Science Direct, and Google Scholar).

    RESULTS: Through the screening for natural products with antiviral activities against different types of the human coronavirus, extracts of Lycoris radiata (L'Hér.), Gentiana scabra Bunge, Dioscorea batatas Decne., Cassia tora L., Taxillus chinensis (DC.), Cibotium barometz L. and Echinacea purpurea L. showed a promising effect against SARS-CoV. Out of the listed compound Lycorine, emetine dihydrochloride hydrate, pristimerin, harmine, conessine, berbamine, 4`-hydroxychalcone, papaverine, mycophenolic acid, mycophenolate mofetil, monensin sodium, cycloheximide, oligomycin and valinomycin show potent activity against human coronaviruses. Additionally, it is worth noting that some compounds have already moved into clinical trials for their activity against COVID-19 including fingolimod, methylprednisolone, chloroquine, tetrandrine and tocilizumab.

    CONCLUSION: Natural compounds and their derivatives could be used for developing potent therapeutics with significant activity against SARS-COV-2, providing a promising frontline in the fighting against COVID-19.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/pharmacology*
  20. Ahmad MA, Lim YH, Chan YS, Hsu CY, Wu TY, Sit NW
    Acta Pharm, 2022 Jun 01;72(2):317-328.
    PMID: 36651512 DOI: 10.2478/acph-2022-0013
    This study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and biological activities of the leaf extracts of Syzygium myrtifolium Walp. (Myrtaceae). The results indicate that the leaf extracts of S. myrtifolium contain various classes of phytochemicals (alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, tannins and triterpenoids) and possess antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. Ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol, and water extracts exhibited significantly higher (p < 0.05) oxygen radical absorbance capacity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power than the hexane and chloroform extracts. However, all extracts exhibited stronger inhibitory activity against four tested species of yeasts (minimal inhibitory concentration: 0.02-0.31 mg mL-1) than against six tested species of bacteria (minimal inhibitory concentration: 0.16-1.25 mg mL-1). The ethanolic extract offered the highest protection of Vero cells (viability > 70 %) from the cytopathic effect caused by the Chikungunya virus while the ethyl acetate extract showed significant replication inhibitory activity against the virus (p < 0.001) using the replicon-enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
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