The blood clam, Tegillarca granosa, is widely cultivated in China. We isolated 6 microsatellite loci from T. granosa and used them to investigate genetic diversity and population structure of 5 widely distributed populations of blood clam collected from eastern and southeastern China. The allele number per locus varied from 4 to 9, and the polymorphism information content value was 0.301 to 0.830. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.304 to 0.460 and 0.556 to 0.621, respectively; the population from Yueqing had the smallest observed heterozygosity. In the neighbor-joining tree, Shandong, Fenghua and Yueqing populations clustered together, and there was geographic divergence between Shandong and Guangxi populations. Some microsatellite loci that were isolated from these mainland China samples were not found in blood clams collected from Malaysia.
A study was carried out to determine the effect of enzyme concentration, temperature and incubation time of bromelain on nitrogen content (NC) and degree of hydrolysis (DH) of hydrolysate from cockle (Anadara granosa) meat wash water. Protein precipitation of cockle meat wash water was conducted at pH 4. The precipitate was then hydrolyzed using bromelain at concentrations of 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5% (enzyme/substrate). The best enzyme concentration was subsequently used to study the effect of incubation temperature at 30, 45 and 60°C. The best temperature was then used to determine the effect of incubation time at 0, 24 and 48 hours. Increasing bromelain concentration from 0 to 2.5% produced an increase in NC and DH. Similarly, increasing the incubation time from 0 to 48 hours also increased the value of NC and DH. However, while the increasing of incubation temperature from 30 to 60°C produced an increase in NC, no significant difference was observed for DH.
Natural radionuclides such as 210 Po and 210 Pb were analyzed in soft part of cockle (Anadara granosa) obtained from Kuala Selangor in the west coast Peninsular of Malaysia. The activity levels of both nuclides fluctuated within the size of cockles from 41.3 ± 2.5 Bq/kg to 114 ± 7 Bq/kg and 12.9 ± 1.7 Bq/kg to 96.8 ± 5.3 Bq/kg in dry weight (dwt) for 210 Po and 210 Pb, respectively. The level activity in wet weight (wwt) also varied from 8.60 ± 0.52 Bq/kg to 25.70 ± 1.63 Bq/kg and 2.47 ± 0.40 Bq/kg to 19.27 ± 1.05 Bq/kg for 210 Po and 210 Pb, respectively, probably related to the different of metabolic rate and growth of cockles. Activity ratio of 210 Po/ 210 Pb in dry weight also fluctuated from 0.93 to 6.41 with not related to the decay of 210 Pb.
The concentrations were ranged from 1.35 ± 0.16 to 2.22 ± 0.34 µg/g (dry weight) and 2.65 ± 0.34 to 4.36 ± 0.53 µg/g (dry weight) for Cd and Pb, respectively, in blood cockle Anadara granosa from four sites of Sabang River, namely, Kampung Sambir, Kampung Tambirat, Beliong Temple, and Kampung Tanjung Apong, which are located at Asajaya, Sarawak, Malaysia. All values exceeded safety limits set by Malaysian Food Regulation (1985). It may be the cause of serious human health problems after long term consumption. Thus, consumer should have consciousness about such type of seafood from mentioned sites and need further investigation.
A study was carried out to determine the process parameters and optimization for the hydrolysis of protein precipitate from cockle (Anadara granosa) meat wash water. Precipitation of the protein in the wash water was done using pH manipulation (pH3-8). The precipitate was hydrolyzed using hydrochloric acid (HCl) and optimized for HCl volume, HCl concentration and hydrolysis time using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite rotatable design. Based on the results, hydrolysis of cockle meat wash water precipitate was carried out by precipitation of the wash water at pH4. Optimum condition for the hydrolysis of 2.0 g of cockle meat wash water precipitate was 25 mL of 1 N HCl for 10 h which resulted in nitrogen content (NC) of 0.7% and degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 55%. NC and DH were significantly influenced only by the hydrolysis time.
The spatial distribution of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (tPAHs) was quantified in aquacultures located in intertidal mudflats of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia in order to investigate bioaccumulation of PAH in blood cockles, Anadara granosa (A. granosa). Fifty-four samples from environmental matrices and A. granosa were collected. The sampling locations were representative of a remote area as well as PAH-polluted areas. The relationship of increased background levels of PAH to anthropogenic PAH sources in the environment and their effects on bioaccumulation levels of A. granosa are investigated in this study. The levels of PAH in the most polluted station were found to be up to ten-fold higher than in remote areas in blood cockle. These high concentrations of PAHs reflected background contamination, which originates from distant airborne and waterborne transportation of contaminated particles. The fraction and source identification of PAHs, based on fate and transport considerations, showed a mix of petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. The relative biota-sediment accumulation factors (RBSAF), relative bioaccumulation factors from filtered water (RBAFw), and from suspended particulate matter (SPM) (RBAFSP) showed higher bioaccumulations of the lower molecular weight of PAHs (LMWs) in all stations, except Kuala Juru, which showed higher bioaccumulation of the higher molecular weight of PAHs (HMWs). Calculations of bioaccumulation factors showed that blood cockle can accumulate PAHs from sediment as well as water samples, based on the physico-chemical characteristics of habitat and behaviour of blood cockles. Correlations among concentrations of PAHs in water, SPM, sediment and A. granosa at the same sites were also found. Identification of PAH levels in different matrices showed that A. granosa can be used as a good biomonitor for LMW of PAHs and tPAHs in mudflats. Considering the toxicity and carcinogenicity of PAHs, the bioaccumulation by blood cockles are a potential hazard for both blood cockles and their consumers.
Aimed of this study was to determine the presence of Vibrio cholerae in cockles (Anadara granosa)
from different coasts in Malaysia and to measure the biosafety of V. cholerae in raw cockles at wet market in Malaysia using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in combination with the most probable number (MPN) method. A total of 100 samples from 4 different wet markets in the West and East were examined for the presence of V. cholerae. The prevalence of V. cholerae between the two coasts was not significant different. In fact, the 74% of samples from West coast area was found positive while the 69% for samples collected in the East coast. West coast samples showed a prevalence of 60% for the wet market A=, 64% for B=, 88% for C= and 84% for the market D); East coast samples showed the same percentage with 72% for the wet markets E, F and H, followed by wet market G with 60%.With the MPN-PCR method, using 80 samples of raw cockles obtained from 4 wet markets, the occurrence of V. cholerae detected was of 95%. The frequency of V. cholerae in raw cockles obtained from wet market I and L was higher (100%) compared to other wet market (Wet market B=, 90%; Wet market C=, 95%).The density of V. cholerae detected in all samples ranged from 24000 MPN/g, but most of the samples (24 samples) were in category >24000 MPN/g concentration. V. cholerae was present in raw cockles in higher number. Hence, these results demonstrate the presence of pathogenic V.cholerae in cockles harvested and reveal the potential risk of illness associated with their consumption. This study will be the first biosafety assessment of V. choleare in raw cockles in Malaysia and it will provide significant insights about Malaysian scenario.
A total of sixty V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from local cockles (Anadara granosa) were investigated by their antibiotic resistance patterns and plasmid profiles. The isolates showed multiple resistances towards most of the antibiotics tested. All strains of V. parahaemolyticus isolated harbored 1-3 plasmids, with sizes ranging from 2.7 to 54 kb. All V. parahaemolyticus strains showed high multiple antibiotics in frequencies of 0.58 – 0.94 indicating that the strains were derived from high-risk sources. In addition, no particular plasmid profile was predictive of a particular pattern of antibiotic susceptibility. These findings are essential because of the suggested involvement of seafood especially shellfish and environment in transmission of this pathogen to human. Thus, indicating that seafood may be a source of food- acquired antibiotic resistant bacteria to consumer.
Cockle (Anadara granosa) meat wash water precipitate was hydrolyzed using bromelain. Experiments were carried out to determine optimum conditions for temperature, enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) to obtain the highest value of nitrogen content (NC) and degree of hydrolysis (DH). Results revealed that the optimum conditions for temperature, enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time were 33.7°C, 1.45% (E/S) and 28.42 hrs, respectively. At the optimum condition, hydrolysis of cockle meat wash water precipitate using bromelain resulted in a NC of 0.6% and DH of 48%. The NC and DH were significantly influenced by temperature, enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time. When the bromelain concentration, hydrolysis time and temperature were increased, the values of NC and DH also increased. The hydrolysate produced contained flavor compounds found in clam and oyster which were 3-methylbutanol and 1-pentanol. The compound 3-MCPD was not found in the hydrolysate.
This study was undertaken to assess the levels of trace metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in two common species of cockles (Anadara granosa and Anadara inaequivalvis) from two coastal areas in Thailand (Pattani Bay) and Malaysia (the Setiu Wetlands). A total of 350 cockles were collected in February and September 2014. Trace metals were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. We observed that cockles in both areas had a higher accumulation of metals in September. Notably, the biota-sediment accumulation (BSAF) of Cd was highest in both areas. A strong positive correlation of Cd with the length of the cockles at Pattani Bay (r(2) = 0.597) and the Setiu Wetlands (r(2) = 0.675) was noted. It was suggested that As could be a limiting element (BSAF < 1) of cockles obtained from Pattani Bay. In comparison with the permissible limits set by the Thailand Ministry of Public Health and the Malaysia Food Regulations, mean values of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were within acceptable limits, but the maximum values of Cd and Pb exceeded the limits for both areas. Regular monitoring of trace metals in cockles from both areas is suggested for more definitive contamination determination.
Molecular typing methods have been widely applied for many purposes. In this study, such methods were adopted as DNA fingerprinting tools to determine the origin and divergence of virulent Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains found in local seafood. Although not all strain carry virulent tdh and trh gene, increasing prevalence demands an effective fingerprinting scheme which can constantly monitor and trace the sources of such emerging food pathogens. By using ERIC-, RAPD-, and BOX-PCR methods, 33 Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from local Malaysia bloody clam (Anadara granosa) and Lala (Orbicularia orbiculata) with confirmed presence of tdh and trh gene were characterised, followed by determination of clonal relatedness among virulent strains using cluster analysis and discriminatory index. This study also involved application of Immunomagnetic Separation (IMS) Method which significantly improved the specificity of strain isolation. Cluster analysis using Unweighted Pair Group Mathematical Averaging (UPGMA) and Dice Coefficient shown clustering according to isolation food source, IMS level and haemolysin gene possessed. Nevertheless, different DNA fingerprinting methods generated different clustering at different similarity cut-off percentage, regardless as individual or as composite dendrograms. ERIC- and RAPD-PCR composite fingerprinting relatively shown the highest discriminatory index at following similarity cutoff percentage: 0.68 at 50%; 0.83 at 65%; and 0.93 at 75%. Discriminatory power increased with similarity cut-off percentage. However, result also suggested that BOX-PCR might be an effective fingerprinting tool, as it generated three clusters with no single-colony isolate at 70% similarity cut-off. This study not only achieved its objective to determine clonal relatedness among virulent strains from local seafood via characterisation, but also speculated the best possible combination of molecular typing methods to effectively do so.
This article contains data on the bacterial communities and its diversity associated with Anadara granosa. The A. granosa samples were obtained from two major estuaries in Penang, Malaysia using a culture dependent and 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing approaches. A. granosa, a commercial blood cockles and popular seafoods, is fragile to the surrounding environments. Thus, our research focused to better understand the bacterial communities and it diversity in the A. granosa, as well as on the generation of a metagenomic library from A. granosa to further understanding on it diversity. The bacteria Vibrionaceae (34.1%) was predominant in the A. granosa from both environments followed by Enterobacteriaceae (33.3%) and Bacillaceae (16.75%). Vibrio sp., Klebsiella sp., and Bacillus subtilis were the most abundant species present. The data generated in this research is the first metagenomic examination of A. granosa and will provide as a baseline to understand the bacterial communities associated with A. granosa and its surrounding natural environments.
This study was aimed to determine the ovarian maturation stages of wild and captive orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea fed with different diets via gonadosomatic status, oocyte diameter and histological examinations. Captive crabs were fed with blood cockle, Anadara granosa, or fish, Decapterus spp. Through the histological examinations, ovarian maturation stages of wild and captive S. olivaceawas classified into four stages: Immature (Stage 1), Early maturing (Stage 2), Pre-maturing (Stage 3) and Fully matured (Stage 4). Gonadosomatic Index of wild and captive crabs remained low during immature and 2 but increased significantly (p<0.05) in pre-maturing and 4 ovaries. Oocytes size were significantly different (p<0.05) in all ovarian maturation stages of wild and captive crabs. Follicle cells surround the oocyte of immature ovary and small yolk globules start to appear in early maturing ovary with large nucleus size. Oocyte size increased significantly (p<0.05) and yolk globule obviously appeared in pre-maturing ovary. Large and fused yolk globules appeared in the oocytes of fully matured ovary with nucleus was barely visible. The present study revealed that, ovarian maturation stages of S. olivacea are closely related to its morphological appearance and cellular development.
The cockle, Anadara granosa, was experimentally exposed to low (0.1 mg/L) and sublethal (1.0 mg/L) doses of copper (Cu) for a period of 24 hrs. Significant increase in Cu concentrations in whole tissues and hepatopancreas compared to control animals were observed. In order to study the effect of copper exposure at molecular levels, a subtractive cDNA library was constructed from the hepatopancreas of cockles exposed to 1.0 mg/L Cu. Screening of the subtractive cDNA library using reverse northern analysis resulted in several differentially expressed genes, including one that codes for metallothionein (MT). The complete coding sequence of the MT gene (designated as AnaMT2) reveals an open reading frame of 234 bp in length that encodes a 77 amino acid polypeptide as revealed by the deduced amino acid composition. Although showing similarities with other molluscan MTs, AnaMT2 can be distinguished by its lower glycine and higher asparagine and proline content. Expression analysis of the AnaMT2 by northern analysis indicated higher mRNA level in cockle exposed to 1.0 mg/L Cu and was undetectable in those treated with 0.1 mg/L. This suggests that AnaMT2 represents a primarily inducible MT not highly expressed under basal conditions.
This study was carried out to know the bacteria population density in the blood cockle (Anadara granosa) and green lipped mussel (Perna viridis), to analyse the bacteria resistance towards antibiotics and antimicrobial activity of isolates against selected pathogen. Samples of blood cockle and green lipped mussel were obtained from five areas in Kedah and Negeri Sembilan. Bacterial population densities in mussels and cockles were 3 x 102 - 8 x 108 cFulmL and 5 x 102 - 5 x 108 cFulmL, respectively. A total of 162 isolates were obtained, of which 131 isolates were from mussels and 31 isolates were from cockles. Vibrio sp. was the most dominant genus in both types of samples. Antibiotic testing of all isolates showed most were resistant to Penicillin (10 U) and most were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (5 Jig). Most isolates (160/162) showed resistance to at least two antibiotics and 10 isolates were resistant to more than five antibiotics. Multiple antibiotic resistance indices (MAR) were calculated based on the antibiotic resistance results. Most isolates had a MAR index value of 02 which indicated the isolates were not contaminated with antibiotic residues. The highest index value was 0 .7 . Fifteen out of 39 isolates which produced beta-lactamase enzyme were tested for antimicrobial activity against selected pathogen. Results indicated that antimicrobial activity were varies among the isolates. Isolate smii-Ip produced antimicrobial activity against six out of the nine tested pathogen and none of the isolates active against Pseudomonas mirabilis.
Po²¹⁰ can be accumulated in various environmental materials, including marine organisms, and contributes to the dose of natural radiation in seafood. The concentration of this radionuclide in the marine environment can be influenced by the operation of a coal burning power plant but existing studies regarding this issue are not well documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the Po²¹⁰ concentration level in marine organisms from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia which is very near to a coal burning power plant station and to assess its impact on seafood consumers.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different cooking methods on the allergenicity of cockle and to identify proteins most frequently bound by IgE antibodies using a proteomics approach. Raw, boiled, fried and roasted extracts of the cockle were prepared. The protein profiles of the extracts were obtained by separation using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). IgE-immunoblotting was then performed with the use of individual sera from patients with cockle allergy and the major IgE-binding proteins were analyzed by mass-spectrometry. SDS-PAGE of raw extract showed 13 protein bands. Smaller numbers of protein bands were detected in the boiled, fried and roasted extracts. The 2-DE gel profile of the raw extract further separated the protein bands to ~50 protein spots with molecular masses between 13 to 180 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) values ranging from 3 to 10. Immunoblotting of raw extract exhibited 11 IgE-binding proteins with two proteins of 36 and 40 kDa as the major IgE-binding proteins, while the boiled extract revealed 3 IgE-binding proteins. Fried and roasted extracts only showed a single IgE-binding protein at 36 kDa. 2-DE immunoblotting of raw extract demonstrated 5 to 20 IgE reactive spots. Mass spectrometry analysis led to identification of 2 important allergens, tropomyosin (36 kDa) and arginine kinase (40 kDa). Heated extracts showed a reduction in the number of IgE-reactive bands compared with raw extract, which suggest that thermal treatment can be used as a tool in attempting to reduce cockle allergenicity. The degree of allergenicity of cockle was demonstrated in the order raw > boiled > fried ≈ roasted. Two important allergens reacting with more than 50% of patients' sera identified using mass spectrometric approaches were tropomyosin and arginine kinase. Thus, allergens found in this study would help in component based diagnosis, management of cockle allergic patients and to the standardisation of allergenic test products as tools in molecular allergology.
Molluscan shells are attracting research interest due to the diverse application properties possessed. As shells are very similar to bones, this study was conducted to analyze the mineral and physiochemical composition of Cockle (Anadara granosa) shell and three other types of molluscan shell, namely Strombus canarium, Oliva sayana and Terebra dislocata as potential biomaterial for bone tissue engineering applications. Approximately 200 g of shells from each species were processed and powdered for the purpose of this study. Carbon was analyzed using the carbon analyzer while minerals and heavy metals through ICP-MS. The phase purity and crystallographic structures of the powders were identified using X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) while the chemical functionality was determined using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer. The analysis showed that Cockle shells contained higher content of calcium and carbon including varying amount of other minor elements comparatively. However, all four types of shell powders were found to contain below detectable levels of toxic elements. Physiochemical analysis on phase purity and crystallographic structures showed similar characteristics of carbonate group present in all four shell types. A predominantly aragonite form of calcium carbonate was detected in both XRD diffractogram and FTIR spectra for all samples. Our findings demonstrated that different types of molluscan shells have almost similar mineral and physiochemical characteristics and a predominantly aragonite form of calcium carbonate that provides a strong basis for their use as a potential bone tissues engineering material.