STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Antibody testing results between the years 2013 and 2015 with relevant patient demographic data and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion history were retrieved. Cumulative alloimmunization incidence and evanescence to MUT and Mur were estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis in relation to the number of RBC units transfused and time.
RESULTS: Of 70,543 selected patients, 6186 nonalloimmunized subjects with available antibody testing results posttransfusion were identified. Cumulative alloimmunization incidence for MUT increased from 0.12% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03-0.21) to 0.63% (95% CI, 0.25-1.01), while for Mur it increased from 0.04% (95% CI, 0-0.09) to 0.42% (95% CI, 0.05-0.79) when a patient was transfused 2 RBC units as compared to 12. Both antibodies had high evanescence rates and at 1 year, anti-MUT and -Mur will be detected in only 45% (95% CI, 35%-57%) and 27% (95% CI, 17%-43%), respectively, of previously positive patients. MUT and Mur immunogenicity was estimated to be 1.7 and 1.2 times higher than E when their rate of evanescence was taken into account.
CONCLUSION: Antibodies to MUT and Mur develop following multiple RBC exposures. Immunogenicity of MUT/Mur and evanescence rates of the corresponding antibodies is higher compared to anti-E. Appropriate selection of antibody screening cells is needed in view of the high prevalence, immunogenicity, and evanescence of the antibodies.
METHODS: Articles that report genetic polymorphisms, genotype frequencies and allele frequencies in CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 were retrieved from the PubMed database.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: A total of 86 studies that fulfilled the eligibility criteria representing different ethnic populations of SEEA, ie, Burmese, Chinese, Japanese, Karen ethnic minority, Korean, Malaysian, Philippino, Singaporean, Taiwanese, Thai, Indonesian, and Vietnamese, were included in the analysis. In general, the genotype frequencies across SEEA populations are comparable. The CYP2C9*1/*1 (69.3%-99.1%), *1/*3 (2.3%-20.1%) and *3/*3 (0%-2.2%) genotypes are reported in most SEEA populations. Six major CYP2C19 genotypes, ie, *1/*1 (6.25%-88.07%), *1/*2 (21.5%-86.46%), *1/*3 (0.8%-15.8%), *2/*2 (3.4%-14.5%), *2/*3 (0%-7.3%) and *3/*3 (0%-10.2%), are reported in most SEEA populations. Major CYP2D6 genotypes include *10/*10 (0%-69.6%), *1/*1 (0%-61.21%) and *1/*10 (0%-62.0%). Major CYP3A5 genotypes are *3/*3 (2.0%-71.4%), *1/*3 (16.0%-57.1%) and *1/*1 (0%-82.0%). Genotyping of abnormal genotypes of CYP2C9 (*1/*3), CYP2C19 (*1/*2, *1/*3), CYP3A5 (*1/*3) and CYP2D6 (*5/*10) associated with IM (Intermediate metabolizer) status, may be clinically beneficial in SEEA populations. Similarly, with CYP2C19 (*2/*2, *2/*3), CYP2D6 (*5/*5 ) linked to PM (Poor metabolizer), CYP2D6 (*10/*10, *1/*5 and to lesser extent *1/*4, *2/*5, *10/*41, *10/*49, *10/*14) and CYP3A5 (*1/*1) associated with EM (extensive metabolizer).
WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Sufficient number of studies has provided comparable results in general. This review suggests that comparable genotype frequencies of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 exist among the SEEA populations. It is noted that more research data are reported from East Asians compared with South-East Asians. Concerned efforts are required to establish partnerships among SEEA countries that will ensure sufficient data from South-East Asian countries which will assist in establishing the databases for SEEA populations.
METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed of published studies from 1950 to 2010 using keyword searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews, and BIOSIS Previews.
RESULTS: In all, 477 abstracts were identified and data extracted from 93 studies, comprising 17,976 IBD patients and 27,350 age- and sex-matched controls. Major nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-2 variants in Western Crohn's disease (CD) patients were not associated with CD in Han Chinese, Japanese, South Korean, Indian, and Malaysian populations. New NOD2 mutations were, however, associated with CD in Malaysians (JW1), Han Chinese, and Indians (P268S). Autophagy-related protein 16-linked 1 (ATG16L1) was not associated with CD in East Asians (odds ratio [OR] 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-1.13). Interleukin (IL)-23R was associated with CD in South Koreans (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.16-2.82) and a single nucleotide polymorphism in IL-23R (Gly149Arg) was protective of CD in Han Chinese (OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.15-0.60). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily gene-15 (SF15) polymorphisms were associated with CD (OR 2.68; 95% CI 1.86-3.86), while TNF-308 polymorphisms (OR 1.82; 95% CI 1.15-2.9), cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 (OR 2.75; 95% CI 1.22-6.22) and MICA allele (OR 2.41; 95% CI 1.89-3.07) were associated with ulcerative colitis in Asians.
CONCLUSIONS: Genetic mutations of IBD in Asians differ from Caucasians. New mutations and susceptibility genes identified in Asian IBD patients provide an opportunity to explore new disease-associated mechanisms in this population of rising incidence.