Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 45 in total

  1. Faisal T, Taib MN, Ibrahim F
    Med Biol Eng Comput, 2010 Mar;48(3):293-301.
    PMID: 20016950 DOI: 10.1007/s11517-009-0561-x
    Even though the World Health Organization criteria's for classifying the dengue infection have been used for long time, recent studies declare that several difficulties have been faced by the clinicians to apply these criteria. Accordingly, many studies have proposed modified criteria to identify the risk in dengue patients based on statistical analysis techniques. None of these studies utilized the powerfulness of the self-organized map (SOM) in visualizing, understanding, and exploring the complexity in multivariable data. Therefore, this study utilized the clustering of the SOM technique to identify the risk criteria in 195 dengue patients. The new risk criteria were defined as: platelet count less than or equal 40,000 cells per mm(3), hematocrit concentration great than or equal 25% and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) rose by fivefold the normal upper limit for AST/alanine aminotransfansferase (ALT) rose by fivefold the normal upper limit for ALT. The clusters analysis indicated that any dengue patient fulfills any two of the risk criteria is consider as high risk dengue patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood
  2. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Nazarina AR, Mun KS, Goh KL
    Malays J Pathol, 2008 Dec;30(2):103-7.
    PMID: 19291919 MyJurnal
    Transaminase enzymes, alanine (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), have been reported to be raised and implicated to have prognostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Ki67, a marker of cellular proliferative activity, has also been noted to be increased in HCC. A study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur to determine the possible association of proliferative activity, as determined by Ki67, with the transaminase enzymes. 31 cases of histologically diagnosed HCC who underwent tumour resection were retrieved from departmental archives. The patients' ages ranged between 40 to 79 years with a mean of 58.3 years. There was a male preponderance with M:F = 2.9:1. Ethnic Chinese formed 83.9% of the cases. 4 microm sections, cut from the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumour tissue block of each case, were immunohistochemically stained with Ki67 (DAKO monoclonal MIB-1) using the commercial DakoCytomation EnVision+System-HRP kit. The latest ALT and AST levels, assayed within 7 days prior to tumour resection, were retrieved from the patients' case records. 24 (77.4%) HCC demonstrated elevation of either ALT and/or AST. 27 (87.1%) HCC were immunopositive for Ki67. Ki67 immunoexpression was significantly correlated with raised transaminases (p<0.05). Hypothetically, the mechanism by which this phenomenon may occur may simply be release of transaminases due to destruction of hepatocytes by the cancer. Thus rising levels of the transaminases could signal a more rapid growth of the tumour and these routinely performed tests can be of prognostic value in management of HCC patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood*
  3. Chin JH, Abas HH, Sabariah I
    Trop Biomed, 2008 Apr;25(1):9-16.
    PMID: 18600199
    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (Family: Lamiaceae) or locally known as Misai Kucing has been widely used in Malaysia for treating kidney problems, gout, and diabetes. This study aims to evaluate the possible toxic effect after following fourteen days oral administration of methanol extract of O. stamineus in female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Control groups were treated orally with distilled water (vehicle) while the four test groups were treated up to fourteen days with 0.5 g/kg, 1 g/kg, 3 g/kg and 5 g/kg body weight of methanol extract of O. stamineus respectively. Toxicity of the methanol extract of O. stamineus was evaluated by the incident of lethality, side-cage observation and blood serum biochemical parameters. No lethality or adverse toxic signs were seen during the experimental period. A significant decrease in several serum biochemical parameters i.e. AST and ALT and increase in liver weight was observed in young female SD rat after being fed fourteen days with methanol extract of O. stamineus. No delayed toxic effect and lethality was observed in all rats during fourteen days of recovery period. In conclusion, methanol extract of O. stamineus within these range and treatment duration would not cause any severe toxic effects and organ damages in rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood
  4. Eeran TD
    Med J Malaysia, 1977 Jun;31(4):326-7.
    PMID: 927241
    Matched MeSH terms: Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood
  5. Kadum Yakob H, Manaf Uyub A, Fariza Sulaiman S
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2012 Aug 1;142(3):663-8.
    PMID: 22705121 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.05.035
    Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) P. H. Raven (Family: Onagraceae), as a traditional Malay herbal medicine,has been used to treat gastrointestinal complaints such as diarrhea and dysentery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood
  6. Faisal T, Taib MN, Ibrahim F
    J Med Syst, 2012 Apr;36(2):661-76.
    PMID: 20703665 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-010-9532-x
    With the dramatic increase of the worldwide threat of dengue disease, it has been very crucial to correctly diagnose the dengue patients in order to decrease the disease severity. However, it has been a great challenge for the physicians to identify the level of risk in dengue patients due to overlapping of the medical classification criteria. Therefore, this study aims to construct a noninvasive diagnostic system to assist the physicians for classifying the risk in dengue patients. Systematic producers have been followed to develop the system. Firstly, the assessment of the significant predictors associated with the level of risk in dengue patients was carried out utilizing the statistical analyses technique. Secondly, Multilayer perceptron neural network models trained via Levenberg-Marquardt and Scaled Conjugate Gradient algorithms was employed for constructing the diagnostic system. Finally, precise tuning for the models' parameters was conducted in order to achieve the optimal performance. As a result, 9 noninvasive predictors were found to be significantly associated with the level of risk in dengue patients. By employing those predictors, 75% prediction accuracy has been achieved for classifying the risk in dengue patients using Scaled Conjugate Gradient algorithm while 70.7% prediction accuracy were achieved by using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood
  7. Tan PC, Jacob R, Quek KF, Omar SZ
    Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol, 2006 Oct;46(5):446-50.
    PMID: 16953861
    In a retrospective analysis of 192 cases of presumed hyperemesis gravidarum, there were no biochemical markers that predicted hospital readmission. There was, however, statistically significant negative predictive value in abnormal liver function tests. This could represent acute self-limited illness with a component of hepatitis as the cause for the clinical presentation, rather than hyperemesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood
  8. Lopez JB, Balasegaram M, Thambyrajah V, Timor J
    Malays J Pathol, 1996 Dec;18(2):95-9.
    PMID: 10879229
    This study was undertaken to see if liver function tests (LFT) served a worthwhile purpose in the investigation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sera from 80 HCC, 76 benign liver disease (BLD) and 152 healthy adult (HA) subjects were assayed for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin and albumin. Cut-off values were determined from the HA. ALP, GGT, AST and albumin were abnormal in about 90% of the HCC. With the exception of bilirubin, the LFT were abnormal more frequently in HCC than in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, the conditions which preceed it. Raised ALP in the presence of normal bilirubin was more often a feature of HCC than BLD although this relationship was not statistically significant. It seems unlikely that LFT serve a useful function in HCC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood
  9. Mak JW, Navaratnam V, Grewel JS, Mansor SM, Ambu S
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 1993 Apr;48(4):591-6.
    PMID: 8480868
    A clinical trial on the efficacy of a single oral dose of ivermectin at 20, 50, 100, and 200 micrograms/kg was carried out in 40 subjects with subperiodic Brugia malayi microfilaremia. There was no significant difference in the clearance of microfilaremia in the four treatment groups, and the lowest geometric mean microfilarial count (GMC) achieved in the 40 subjects was 8.8/ml or 8.3% of the initial count (106.1/ml), at two weeks post-treatment. The GMC started to increase at one month post-treatment and by six months was 22.2% of the initial GMC. Only 27.5%, 23.1%, 15.0%, and 18.9% of subjects were amicrofilaremic at two, four, 12, and 24 weeks post-treatment, respectively. Mild fever in 35% of the subjects was the primary side reaction and was more common in those with microfilarial counts > or = 500/ml (85.7%) than in those with counts < 500/ml (32%). The clearance of B. malayi microfilaremia by ivermectin was less rapid than that reported for Wuchereria bancrofti. The smaller number of side reactions encountered in the present study compared with those reported for bancroftian filariasis is probably related to the lower microfilarial density in the present subjects. Since ivermectin at a single oral dose of 20-200 micrograms/kg can reduce the GMC to less than 10% at two weeks and maintain it below 25% of the initial level even at six months post-treatment, it is recommended that the drug be seriously evaluated for use in the control of brugian filariasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood
  10. Tan DS, Dimitrakakis M, Zaini Rahman M, Fang R, Collett D, Ooi BG, et al.
    PMID: 3024325
    Icteric patients with clinical and biochemical evidence of liver disease, admitted into various hospitals in Malaysia, were investigated to determine the cause of their infection. Of these patients, 11.0% (16/145) were found positive for IgM anti-HAV (EIA), 4.1% (6/145) for IgM anti-HBc (EIA), 1.0% (1/102) for IgM anti-CMV (ELISA), 17.2% (16/64) for rising titres of leptospiral agglutinin, and none for heterophile antibody of EBV. Hepatitis NANB accounted for 67.9% of cases. The mean serum transaminases (ALT and AST) values in patients with hepatitis A and B were higher (more than 500IU) than in patients with leptospirosis or non-A, non-B hepatitis, whereas serum bilirubin levels were higher in patients with hepatitis A and leptospirosis than in patients with hepatitis B.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood
  11. Choong MF, Mak JW
    Trop. Med. Parasitol., 1991 Mar;42(1):71-2.
    PMID: 1675809
    The Presbytis cristata--Brugia malayi model, now established as a reliable non-human primate model for the experimental screening of potential filaricides, was monitored at monthly intervals for changes in the liver and renal function tests and also for alkaline phosphatase levels during infection. Animals infected with 200-400 infective larvae became patient at 50-90 days post-infection and geometric mean microfilarial counts were above 1000 per ml from the fourth month onwards. There were no significant changes in the biochemical parameters monitored throughout the period of observation. This is an important observation as any changes seen in these parameters during experimental drug studies can be attributed to drug reaction or toxicity and this will be invaluable in decision making as to drug safety.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood
  12. Reid HA
    Lancet, 1975 Mar 15;1(7907):622-3.
    PMID: 47960
    Among a series of 101 patients bitten by sea-snakes in Malaya in the years 1957-64, 80% were fishermen. Bathers and divers are occasionally bitten. Before sea-snake antivenom became available the mortality-rate (despite the high toxicity of sea-snake venom) was only 10%; however, of 11 with serious poisoning, 6 died. Subsequently 10 patients with serious poisoning received specific sea-snake antivenom; 2 patients, admitted moribund, temporarily improved but died, and 8 patients recovered dramatically. In serious poisoning the suitable dosage of intravenous sea-snake antivenom is 3000-10,000 units; in mild poisoning 1000-2000 units should suffice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood
  13. Aurpibul L, Bunupuradah T, Sophan S, Boettiger D, Wati DK, Nguyen LV, et al.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2015 Jun;34(6):e153-8.
    PMID: 25970117 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000693
    We determined the prevalence and incidence of liver dysfunction before and after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood
  14. Md Sani SS, Han WH, Bujang MA, Ding HJ, Ng KL, Amir Shariffuddin MA
    BMC Infect Dis, 2017 07 21;17(1):505.
    PMID: 28732476 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-017-2601-8
    BACKGROUND: Existing biomarkers such as AST, ALT and hematocrit have been associated with severe dengue but evidence are mixed. Recently, interests in creatine kinase as a dengue biomarker have risen. These biomarkers represent several underlying pathophysiological processes in dengue. Hence, we aimed to assess AST, ALT, CK and hematocrit in identification of severe dengue and to assess the correlational relationship amongst common biomarkers of dengue.

    METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of confirmed dengue patients who were warded in Kuala Lumpur Hospital between December 2014 and January 2015. CK, AST, ALT, hematocrit, platelet count, WBC and serum albumin were taken upon ward admission and repeated at timed intervals. Composite indices based on admission AST and ALT were analyzed. Correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination were computed.

    RESULTS: Among the 365 cases reviewed, twenty-two (6%) patients had severe dengue. AST and ALT were found to be good at identification of severe dengue. The AST2/ALT composite index was the most accurate (AUC 0.83; 95% CI 0.73 - 0.93). Optimal cutoff was 402 with a sensitivity of 59.1% (95% CI: 36.4 - 79.3%) and specificity of 92.4% (95% CI: 89.1 - 95.0%). Modified cutoff of 653 had a sensitivity of 40.9% (95% CI: 20.7 - 63.7%) and specificity of 97.4% (95% CI: 95.1 - 98.8%). Our analyses also suggested that several underlying biological processes represented by biomarkers tested were unrelated despite occurring in the same disease entity. Also, markers of plasma leakage were discordant and AST was likely hepatic in origin.

    CONCLUSIONS: The composite index AST2/ALT may be used as a marker for identification of severe dengue based on admission AST and ALT, with two choices of cutoff values, 402 and 653. AST is most likely of liver origin and CK does not provide additional value.

    Matched MeSH terms: Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood
  15. Arshad MK, Bin Mohamad Fathil MF, Gopinath SC, Ruslinda AR, Md Nor MN, Lam HY, et al.
    Curr Med Chem, 2016;23(37):4270-4284.
    PMID: 27719655
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major threat to global health, estimated to be the cause 30 % (17.3 million in 2008) of deaths every year, and the number of deaths caused by CVD is expected to increase further, reaching 23.3 million by 2030. Hence, there is a growing demand for simpler sample extraction, rapid screening results, and intervention of the subsequent analysis in emergency units. In this paper, we reviewed CVD biomarkers in blood- and saliva-based specimens. The history of cardiac biomarkers indicates that in the beginning, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) was a widely accepted 'gold standard' marker due to its high specificity and selectivity. Considering the advantages of salivary-based cardiac biomarkers, we examined correlations between non-invasive (salivary) and invasive (blood) diagnoses, and it was found that C-reactive protein (CRP) provides a better correlation. Despite the low abundance of salivary CRP, several reports displayed the detection limit down to pg/ml using existing technologies. Thus, salivary CRP has the potential to be used for future forefront diagnostics for the early assessment of cardiac risks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood
  16. Chuah KH, Wan Yusoff WNI, Sthaneshwar P, Nik Mustapha NR, Mahadeva S, Chan WK
    Liver Int, 2019 07;39(7):1315-1324.
    PMID: 30825254 DOI: 10.1111/liv.14084
    INTRODUCTION: MACK-3 (combination of hoMa, Ast and CK18) was reported to be a good biomarker for the diagnosis of fibrotic non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, there is no external validation to date.

    AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of MACK-3 for the diagnosis of fibrotic NASH.

    METHODOLOGY: Consecutive adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients who had liver biopsy in a university hospital were included. MACK-3 was calculated using the online calculator using the following variables: fasting glucose, fasting insulin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and cytokeratin 18 (CK18). MACK-3 cut-offs ≤0.134 and ≥0.550 were used to predict absence and presence of fibrotic NASH, respectively. Histopathological examination of liver biopsy specimen was reported according to the NASH Clinical Research Network Scoring System.

    RESULTS: Data for 196 subjects were analysed. MACK-3 was good for diagnosis of fibrotic NASH (area under receiver-operating characteristics curve [AUROC] 0.80), comparable to the Fibrosis-4 index (FIB4) and the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) and superior to the BARD score and CK18. MACK-3 was good for diagnosis of active NASH (AUROC 0.81) and was superior to other blood fibrosis tests. The overall accuracy, percentage of subjects in grey zone, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of MACK-3 for diagnosis of fibrotic NASH was 79.1%, 46.9%, 100%, 43.8%, 43.1% and 100%, respectively, while for diagnosis of active NASH was 90.0%, 39.3%, 84.2%, 81.4%, 88.9% and 74.5%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: MACK-3 is promising as a non-invasive test for active NASH and fibrotic NASH and may be useful to identify patients who need more aggressive intervention.

    Matched MeSH terms: Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood
  17. Tan PC, Aziz AZ, Ismail IS, Omar SZ
    Clin Biochem, 2012 Oct;45(15):1192-6.
    PMID: 22659058 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2012.05.025
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine transaminases (ALT) and aspartate transaminases (AST) levels and prevalent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
    DESIGN AND METHODS: Random plasma glucose, GGT, ALT and AST and the 50-g glucose challenge test were done on antenatal women followed by diagnostic 3-point 75-g oral glucose tolerance test within two weeks. GDM was diagnosed by ADA (2011) criteria.
    RESULTS: The GDM rate was 12.2% (319/2610). Mean GGT level was higher in GDM women, 18 ± 12 vs. 16 ± 11 IU/L; P=0.03. The risk for GDM was higher for women in the highest GGT quartile band compared to the lowest: RR 1.35 95%CI 1.0-1.8; P=0.04. However, after adjustment for confounders, GGT was no longer associated with GDM. There was no correlation between ALT and AST levels and GDM.
    CONCLUSIONS: Liver transaminases do not predict GDM in contrast to type 2 diabetes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood*
  18. Amzar N, Iqbal M
    J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol, 2017;36(4):293-307.
    PMID: 29431062 DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2017019824
    Liver diseases still represents a major health burden worldwide. Moreover, medicinal plants have gained popularity in the treatment of several diseases, including liver disease. Clidemia hirta possesses many medicinal properties for healing several diseases and for health maintenance. However, the hepatoprotective effects and antioxidative potential of C. hirta have not been fully investigated. In the present study, we evaluated the hepatoprotective and antioxidative potential of C. hirta against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injuries and oxidative damage in a murine model. Various biochemical changes associated with liver damage and oxidative stress were measured. The mice were pretreated for 14 consecutive days with aqueous extract of C. hirta at selected doses (150 mg/kg body weight [b.w.], 300 mg/kg b.w. and 600 mg/kg b.w.) followed by two doses of CCl4 (1.0 mL/kg b.w.) orally on days 14 and 15. All animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last dose of CCl4 or saline. Blood and liver tissues were taken quickly for biochemical and histopathological studies to assess the derangement in the functioning of liver. The development of oxidative stress was observed through the escalation of hepatic lipid peroxidation, depletion of glutathione, and reduced antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and quinone reductase). Hepatic damage was evaluated by measuring serum transaminase (ALT and AST). In addition, CCl4-induced hepatic damage was further evaluated using histopathological assessments. However, most of these changes were dependently ameliorated by the pretreatment of mice with a C. hirta dose. These results indicate that the hepatoprotective effect of C. hirta might be due to its antioxidant and free-radical scavenging properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood
  19. Nájera F, Hearn AJ, Ross J, Nathan S, Revuelta L
    Vet Res Commun, 2014 Sep;38(3):265-9.
    PMID: 24839119 DOI: 10.1007/s11259-014-9605-2
    Box-traps for capturing wild cats are widely used by researchers since it is one of the most effective methods for trapping these species. Although they are extensively utilised, the effects on the physiology of trapped felids remain unclear. Researchers frequently make judgements regarding the safety of such capture devices by examination of external injuries but often fail to take into consideration other physiological parameters. To assess the effects of capture events on selected serum biochemistry values of free-ranging Bornean leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis borneoensis) six free-ranging leopard cats (four males, two females) were trapped by using box-traps in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Blood was collected by jugular venipucture after chemical immobilization with a mixture of tiletamine and zolazepam. Blood was analysed for 17 serum biochemistry parameters. The most consistent and significantly higher value found in both sexes was aspartate aminotransferase (AST), followed by high mean value of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Both mean values exceeded the upper limit of the reference range for captive leopard cats. These results demonstrate that captured leopard cats by box-traps undergo physical exertion and consequently some type of muscle injury/damage. Researchers and wildlife managers should be aware of the physiological response of trapped felids when using box-traps. Devices that facilitate the prompt removal of leopard cats from the traps would be useful for researchers to avoid further damage while live trapping this species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood
  20. Chan WK, Sthaneshwar P, Nik Mustapha NR, Mahadeva S
    PLoS One, 2014;9(9):e105903.
    PMID: 25184298 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105903
    The utility of Cytokeratin-18 fragment, namely CK18Asp396 (M30), for the diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is currently uncertain. We aimed to provide further data in this area among multi-ethnic Asian subjects with NAFLD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood*
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