This paper introduces new forms of bivariate generalized Poisson (BGP) and bivariate negative binomial (BNB) regression models which can be fitted to bivariate and correlated count data with covariates. The BGP and BNB regression models can be fitted to bivariate count data with positive, zero or negative correlations. Applications of new BGP and BNB regression models are illustrated on Australian health survey data.
The Bradysia luctifica group is characterized for a number of species with an Oriental-Australasian distribution. The group includes the following species: Bradysia abrupta sp. n. (Malaysia: Pahang, Selangor), B. calicula sp. n. (Malaysia: Sabah), B. conflexa sp. n. (Malaysia: Pahang), B. fornicata sp. n. (Malaysia: Pahang), B. luctifica (Skuse, 1888) (Australia: South Australia, Indonesia: Ceram, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea), B. robusta Mohrig, 2015 (Papua New Guinea) and B. torosa sp. n. (Papua New Guinea: Bismarck Archipelago). The species are keyed and the new species are described and illustrated.
The genus Ceratothoa Dana, 1852, is revised for Australian waters. Ceratothoa is represented in Australia by nine species, including two new species: Ceratothoa barracuda sp. nov. described from Cairns and Ceratothoa globulus sp. nov. described from Lord Howe Island. Ceratothoa imbricata Fabricius, 1775 is redescribed, with Ceratothoa trillesi (Avdeev, 1979) and Ceratothoa huttoni Filhol, 1885 placed into junior synonymy; the preferred hosts are species of the genus Trachurus (Carangidae). Ceratothoa banksii (Leach, 1818) is validated and brought out of synonymy with Ceratothoa imbricata; host species are from the families Kyphosidae, Scombridae, Latridae, Carangidae, Mugilidae, Salmonidae, Scatophagidae, Pomatomidae and Hemiramphidae. Species excluded from the Australian fauna are Ceratothoa trigonocephala (Leach, 1818) with an unknown host identity and type locality; and Ceratothoa lineata Miers, 1876a, that here is transferred to the genus Mothocya Costa, 1851, with Mothocya ihi Bruce, 1986 placed into junior synonymy. Ceratothoa contracta (Miers, 1880), the New Zealand Ceratothoa novaezelandiae Filhol, 1885 and the East Pacific Ceratothoa gaudichaudii (Milne Edwards, 1840) are regarded here as species inquirenda. A key to the Australian species of Ceratothoa is presented.
The adults of Calochromini with male flabellate antennae were studied. Two new Calochromus Guérin-Méneville, 1833 species with flabellate antennae, C. kelantanensis spec. nov. and C. harauensis spec. nov. are described. Dumbrellia Lea, 1909 (Calochromini) is proposed as a new junior synonym of Plateros Bourgeois, 1879 (Lycinae: Platerodini). Flabellochromus Pic, 1925 is transferred to Calochromus from synonymy with Dumbrellia based on the similar shape of the pronotum. Consequently, Calochromus lamellatus Kleine, 1926, comb. nov. from Sarawak and Flabellochromus pallidus Pic, 1925, comb. nov. (=Calochromus (Flabellochromus) pallidus Pic, 1925) from Luzon are returned to Calochromus. New combinations are proposed for three Australian species previously classified in Dumbrellia: Plateros brevicornis (Lea, 1898), comb. nov. (=Calochromus brevicornis Lea, 1898), P. pilosicornis (Lea, 1898), comb. nov. (=C. pilosicornis Lea, 1898) and P. melancholica (Lea, 1921), comb. nov. Plateros barronensis nom. nov. is proposed to replace Plateros pilosicornis (Lea, 1898), a junior secondary homonym of P. pilosicornis (Blanchard, 1853) (=Lycus pilosicornis Blanchard, 1853).
To present several key factors that motivated Malaysian registered nurses to undertake a post-registration degree through an Australian university. The overall research study, from which this paper is drawn, looked at the professional learning of Malaysian registered nurses and the subsequent impact on their careers.
This paper describes the preliminary work required to understand cultural differences in palliative care in the United Kingdom and three countries in the Asia-Pacific region, in preparation for a cross-country study. The study is intended to address cultural understandings of palliative care, the role of the family in end of life care, what constitutes good care and the ethical issues in each country. Suggestions are then made to shape the scope of the study and to be considered as outcomes to improve care of the dying in these countries. It is anticipated that the method used to achieve consensus on cross-country palliative care issues will be both qualitative and quantitative. Identifying key priorities in the delivery and quality measures of palliative care will involve participants in focus groups, a Delphi survey and in the development of clinical indicators towards creating standards of palliative care common to the Asian Pacific region.
Bangithrips mei gen. et sp. n. is described from Peninsular Malaysia. The significance is discussed of outstanding structural autapomorphies that are commonly used in classifications of Thysanoptera. Argyrothrips ommatos described recently from northern Australia is recorded from Malaysia.
Using Illumina and Nanopore reads, we assembled a high-quality draft genome sequence of Allorhizobium vitis K309T (= ATCC 49767T, = NCPPB 3554T), a phytopathogenic strain isolated from a grapevine in Australia. The hybrid approach generated 50% fewer contigs and a 3-fold increase in the N50 value compared with the previous Illumina-only assembly.
In patients with darker skin types (Fitzpatrick phototypes III-VI), acne is often accompanied by post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). Further, acne-related pigmentation can pose a greater concern for the patient than the acne lesions. There has been little formal study of this acne-related PIH. Recently, the Asian Acne Board - an international group of dermatologists with interest in acne research - made a preliminary evaluation of the frequency and characteristics of PIH in seven Asian countries. A total of 324 sequential acne subjects were evaluated for the presence of PIH. The majority (80.2%) of subjects had mild to moderate acne and there were more females than males (63.0% vs 37.0%). In this population of patients consulting a dermatologist for acne, 58.2% (188/324) had PIH. The results also showed that pigmentation problems are often long lasting: at least 1 year for more than half of subjects and 5 years or longer in 22.3%. In accordance with our clinical experience, patients reported that PIH is quite bothersome, often as bothersome or more so than the acne itself and sometimes more problematic. Excoriation was commonly reported by patients, and may represent a modifiable risk factor that could potentially be improved by patient education.
A total of 209 randomly selected Malaysian university students (128 from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 81 from the University of New South Wales) completed a self-filled questionnaire enquiring about their smoking behaviour and psychosocial characteristics. The prevalence of smoking was 26.6 per cent among students in Malaysia and 18.8 per cent among students in Australia (average 23.4%). Both samples have similar patterns in terms of age of starting smoking, time of the day when they smoked, family and peer history of smoking, and whether or not they inhaled deeply during smoking. The smokers tend to be male, studying beyond the first year, staying with peers outside the hostel, having financial sources other than a scholarship, and abnormal mental health score. However, the smokers from the Australian samples were noted to smoke less and made fewer attempts at quitting the habit.
Ethnic minority groups (EMGs) are often subject to exclusion, marginalization and poverty. These characteristics render them particularly vulnerable to neglected diseases, a diverse group of diseases that comprise bacteria, ecto-parasites, fungi, helminths and viruses. Despite the health policy relevance, only little is known of the epidemiological profile of neglected diseases among EMGs. We reviewed country data from Australia, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam and found several overlaps between regions with high proportions of EMG population and high prevalence rates of neglected diseases (infections with soil-transmitted helminths, filarial worms, schistosomes, food-borne trematodes and cestodes). While the links are not always clearly evident and it is impossible to establish correlations among highly aggregated data without control variables-such as environmental factors-there appear indeed to be important linkages between EMGs, socio-economic status and prevalence of neglected diseases. Some determinants under consideration are lack of access to health care and general health status, poverty and social marginalization, as well as education and literacy. Further research is needed to deepen the understanding of these linkages and to determine their public health and socio-economic significance. In particular, there is a need for more data from all countries in the Western Pacific Region that is disaggregated below the provincial level. Selected case studies that incorporate other control variables-such as risk factors from the physical environment-might be useful to inform policy makers about the feasibility of prevention and control interventions that are targeted at high-risk EMGs.
The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes and desire of Malaysian patients for information about anaesthesia and compare the result to that of other similar studies in other countries namely Scotland, Canada, Australia and denMark. Two hundred and forty patients undergoing elective surgery were asked to complete a preoperative quentionnaire examining their desire for information relating to anaesthesia. As in all countries compared, most Malaysian patients were interested to know the time they could start to mobilize from the bed and the time to commence normal oral intake postoperatively. Information related to postoperative pain and pain relief was also highly desired. However, patients showed less interest towards information about perioperative anaesthetic or surgical procedures and drug used. Unlike Australian patients, the Malaysian patients showed less interest about perioperative complications. As in other countries, patients under the age of 50 years had a greater desire for information than those who were older. However there was no difference in desire for information between male and female patients. Patients who have had previous anaesthesia would ask more information compared to those who had none.