Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 32 in total

  1. Mehrali M, Shirazi FS, Mehrali M, Metselaar HS, Kadri NA, Osman NA
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2013 Oct;101(10):3046-57.
    PMID: 23754641 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.34588
    Functionally graded material (FGM) is a heterogeneous composite material including a number of constituents that exhibit a compositional gradient from one surface of the material to the other subsequently, resulting in a material with continuously varying properties in the thickness direction. FGMs are gaining attention for biomedical applications, especially for implants, owing to their reported superior composition. Dental implants can be functionally graded to create an optimized mechanical behavior and achieve the intended biocompatibility and osseointegration improvement. This review presents a comprehensive summary of biomaterials and manufacturing techniques researchers employ throughout the world. Generally, FGM and FGM porous biomaterials are more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous biomaterials. Therefore, our discussion is intended to give the readers about successful and obstacles fabrication of FGM and porous FGM in dental implants that will bring state-of-the-art technology to the bedside and develop quality of life and present standards of care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
  2. Mansouri N, SamiraBagheri
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Apr 1;61:906-21.
    PMID: 26838922 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.12.094
    The actual in vivo tissue scaffold offers a three-dimensional (3D) structural support along with a nano-textured surfaces consist of a fibrous network in order to deliver cell adhesion and signaling. A scaffold is required, until the tissue is entirely regenerated or restored, to act as a temporary ingrowth template for cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. This review depicts some of the most significant three dimensional structure materials used as scaffolds in various tissue engineering application fields currently being employed to mimic in vivo features. Accordingly, some of the researchers' attempts have envisioned utilizing graphene for the fabrication of porous and flexible 3D scaffolds. The main focus of this paper is to evaluate the topographical and topological optimization of scaffolds for tissue engineering applications in order to improve scaffolds' mechanical performances.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  3. Siew EL, Rajab NF, Osman AB, Sudesh K, Inayat-Hussain SH
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2007 May;81(2):317-25.
    PMID: 17120221
    Among the various biomaterials available for tissue engineering and therapeutic applications, microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates offer the most diverse range of thermal and mechanical properties. In this study, the biocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB); containing 50 mol % of 4-hydroxybutyrate] copolymer produced by Delftia acidovorans was evaluated. The cytotoxicity, mode of cell death, and genotoxicity of P(3HB-co-4HB) extract against V79 and L929 fibroblast cells were assessed using MTT assay, acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, and alkaline comet assay, respectively. Our results demonstrate that P(3HB-co-4HB) treated on both cell lines were comparable with clinically-used Polyglactin 910, where more than 60% of viable cells were observed following 72-h treatment at 200 mg/mL. Further morphological investigation on the mode of cell death showed an increase in apoptotic cells in a time-dependent manner in both cell lines. On the other hand, P(3HB-co-4HB) at 200 mg/mL showed no genotoxic effects as determined by alkaline comet assay following 72-h treatment. In conclusion, our study indicated that P(3HB-co-4HB) compounds showed good biocompatibility in fibroblast cells suggesting that it has potential to be used for future medical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
  4. Ginebra MP, Aparicio C, Engel E, Navarro M, Javier Gil F, Planell JA
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:65-6.
    PMID: 15468821
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
  5. Chahal S, Kumar A, Hussian FSJ
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2019 10;30(14):1308-1355.
    PMID: 31181982 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2019.1630699
    Electrospinning is a promising and versatile technique that is used to fabricate polymeric nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Ideal scaffolds should be biocompatible and bioactive with appropriate surface chemistry, good mechanical properties and should mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) of bone. Selection of the most appropriate material to produce a scaffold is an important step towards the construction of a tissue engineered product. Bone tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field, where the principles of engineering are applied on bone-related biochemical reactions. Scaffolds, cells, growth factors, and their interrelation in microenvironment are the major concerns in bone tissue engineering. This review covers the latest development of biomimetic electrospun polymeric biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. It includes the brief details to bone tissue engineering along with bone structure and ideal bone scaffolds requirements. Details about various engineered materials and methodologies used for bone scaffolds development were discussed. Description of electrospinning technique and its parameters relating their fabrication, advantages, and applications in bone tissue engineering were also presented. The use of synthetic and natural polymers based electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering and their biomineralization processes were discussed and reviewed comprehensively. Finally, we give conclusion along with perspectives and challenges of biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering based on electrospun nanofibers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
  6. Thomas B, Gupta K
    J Esthet Restor Dent, 2017 Nov 12;29(6):435-441.
    PMID: 28703476 DOI: 10.1111/jerd.12317
    OBJECTIVE: Nano-hydroxyapatite-added GIC has been developed to improve the physical properties of conventional GIC. However, biological response of periodontal cells to this potentially useful cervical restorative material has been unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro response of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts to hydroxyapatite-added GIC.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three categories of materials, namely, test group 1 (cGIC or type IX GIC), test group 2 (HA-GIC or hydroxyapatite-added GIC), and positive control (glass cover slips) were incubated with human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. The samples were viewed under scanning electron microscope to study the morphological characteristics of fibroblasts. Additionally, elemental analysis was performed to differentiate between the two test groups based on surface chemical composition.

    RESULTS: Test group 1 (cGIC) exhibited cells with curled up morphology, indicative of poor attachment to the substrate. Test group 2 (Ha-GIC) exhibited cells with flattened morphology and numerous cellular extensions such as lamellipodia and blebs, indicative of good attachment to the substrate. The test group 2 (Ha-GIC) demonstrated higher surface elemental percentages of calcium and phosphorus.

    CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this study, it may be concluded that hydroxyapatite-added GIC is more biocompatible than conventional GIC (type IX), probably attributed to high elemental percentages of calcium and phosphorus.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The search for an ideal cervical restorative dental material has been ever elusive. Hydroxyapatite-added GIC is a simple and economical dental material to fabricate from basic conventional GIC. The results from this study strengthen its candidature for cervical and root surface restorations which may later require soft tissue augmentation. The possibility of connective tissue adhesion to this material is an exciting prospect in the field of periorestorative dentistry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  7. Zulkifli FH, Hussain FSJ, Harun WSW, Yusoff MM
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Feb 01;122:562-571.
    PMID: 30365990 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.10.156
    This study is focusing to develop a porous biocompatible scaffold using hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with improved cellular adhesion profiles and stability. The combination of HEC and PVA were synthesized using freeze-drying technique and characterized using SEM, ATR-FTIR, TGA, DSC, and UTM. Pore size of HEC/PVA (2-40 μm) scaffolds showed diameter in a range of both pure HEC (2-20 μm) and PVA (14-70 μm). All scaffolds revealed high porosity above 85%. The water uptake of HEC was controlled by PVA cooperation in the polymer matrix. After 7 days, all blended scaffolds showed low degradation rate with the increased of PVA composition. The FTIR and TGA results explicit possible chemical interactions and mass loss of blended scaffolds, respectively. The Tg values of DSC curved in range of HEC and PVA represented the miscibility of HEC/PVA blend polymers. Higher Young's modulus was obtained with the increasing of HEC value. Cell-scaffolds interaction demonstrated that human fibroblast (hFB) cells adhered to polymer matrices with better cell proliferation observed after 7 days of cultivation. These results suggested that biocompatible of HEC/PVA scaffolds fabricated by freeze-drying method might be suitable for skin tissue engineering applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
  8. Pourshahrestani S, Kadri NA, Zeimaran E, Towler MR
    Biomater Sci, 2018 Dec 18;7(1):31-50.
    PMID: 30374499 DOI: 10.1039/c8bm01041b
    Immediate control of uncontrolled bleeding and infection are essential for saving lives in both combat and civilian arenas. Inorganic well-ordered mesoporous silica and bioactive glasses have recently shown great promise for accelerating hemostasis and infection control. However, to date, there has been no comprehensive report assessing their specific mechanism of action in accelerating the hemostasis process and exerting an antibacterial effect. After providing a brief overview of the hemostasis process, this review presents a critical overview of the recently developed inorganic mesoporous silica and bioactive glass-based materials proposed for hemostatic clinical applications and specifically investigates their unique characteristics that render them applicable for hemostatic applications and preventing infections. This article also identifies promising new research directions that should be undertaken to ascertain the effectiveness of these materials for hemostatic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  9. Baradaran S, Moghaddam E, Nasiri-Tabrizi B, Basirun WJ, Mehrali M, Sookhakian M, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 Apr;49:656-668.
    PMID: 25686995 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.01.050
    The effect of the addition of an ionic dopant to calcium phosphates for biomedical applications requires specific research due to the essential roles played in such processes. In the present study, the mechanical and biological properties of Ni-doped hydroxyapatite (HA) and Ni-doped HA mixed with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were evaluated. Ni (3wt.% and 6wt.%)-doped HA was synthesized using a continuous precipitation method and calcined at 900°C for 1h. The GNP (0.5-2wt.%)-reinforced 6% Ni-doped HA (Ni6) composite was prepared using rotary ball milling for 15h. The sintering process was performed using hot isostatic pressing at processing conditions of 1150°C and 160MPa with a 1-h holding time. The results indicated that the phase compositions and structural features of the products were noticeably affected by the Ni and GNPs. The mechanical properties of Ni6 and 1.5Ni6 were increased by 55% and 75% in hardness, 59% and 163% in fracture toughness and 120% and 85% in elastic modulus compared with monolithic HA, respectively. The in-vitro biological behavior was investigated using h-FOB osteoblast cells in 1, 3 and 5days of culture. Based on the osteoblast results, the cytotoxicity of the products was indeed affected by the Ni doping. In addition, the effect of GNPs on the growth and proliferation of osteoblast cells was investigated in Ni6 composites containing different ratios of GNPs, where 1.5wt.% was the optimum value.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  10. Saidin S, Chevallier P, Abdul Kadir MR, Hermawan H, Mantovani D
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2013 Dec 1;33(8):4715-24.
    PMID: 24094179 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2013.07.026
    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coated implant is more susceptible to bacterial infection as the micro-structure surface which is beneficial for osseointegration, could also become a reservoir for bacterial colonisation. The aim of this study was to introduce the antibacterial effect of silver (Ag) to the biomineralised HA by utilising a polydopamine film as an intermediate layer for Ag and HA immobilisation. Sufficient catechol groups in polydopamine were required to bind chemically stainless steel 316 L, Ag and HA elements. Different amounts of Ag nanoparticles were metallised on the polydopamine grafted stainless steel by varying the immersion time in silver nitrate solution from 12 to 24 h. Another polydopamine layer was then formed on the metallised film, followed by surface biomineralisation in 1.5 Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) solution for 3 days. Several characterisation techniques including X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Contact Angle showed that Ag nanoparticles and HA agglomerations were successfully immobilised on the polydopamine film through an element reduction process. The Ag metallisation at 24 h has killed the viable bacteria with 97.88% of bactericidal ratio. The Ag was ionised up to 7 days which is crucial to prevent bacterial infection during the first stage of implant restoration. The aged functionalised films were considered stable due to less alteration of its chemical composition, surface roughness and wettability properties. The ability of the functionalised film to coat complex and micro scale metal make it suitable for dental and orthopaedic implants application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  11. Vigneswari S, Murugaiyah V, Kaur G, Abdul Khalil HPS, Amirul AA
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Sep 01;66:147-155.
    PMID: 27207048 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.03.102
    The main focus of this study is the incorporation of collagen peptides to fabricate P(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] nano-fiber construct to further enhance surface wettability and support cell growth while harbouring desired properties for biodegradable wound dressing. Simultaneous electrospinning of nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct was carried out using dual syringe system. The wettability of the constructs increased with the increase in 4HB molar fraction from 20mol% 4HB [53.2°], P(3HB-co-35mol%4HB)[48.9°], P(3HB-co-50mol%4HB)[44.5°] and P(3HB-co-82mol%4HB) [37.7°]. In vitro study carried out using mouse fibroblast cells (L929) grown on nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct showed an increase in cell proliferation. In vivo study using animal model (Sprague Dawley rats) showed that nanofibrous P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct had a significant effect on wound contractions with the highest percentage of wound closure of 79%. Hence, P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct suitable for wound dressing have been developed using nano-fabrication technique.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  12. Chang HC, Sun T, Sultana N, Lim MM, Khan TH, Ismail AF
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Apr 1;61:396-410.
    PMID: 26838866 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.12.074
    In the current study, electrospinning technique was used to fabricate composite membranes by blending of a synthetic polymer, polylactic acid (PLA) and a natural polymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), PHBV. Conductive membranes were prepared by dipping PLA/PHBV electrospun membranes into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  13. Keong LC, Halim AS
    Int J Mol Sci, 2009 Mar;10(3):1300-13.
    PMID: 19399250 DOI: 10.3390/ijms10031300
    One of the ultimate goals of wound healing research is to find effective healing techniques that utilize the regeneration of similar tissues. This involves the modification of various wound dressing biomaterials for proper wound management. The biopolymer chitosan (beta-1,4-D-glucosamine) has natural biocompatibility and biodegradability that render it suitable for wound management. By definition, a biocompatible biomaterial does not have toxic or injurious effects on biological systems. Chemical and physical modifications of chitosan influence its biocompatibility and biodegradability to an uncertain degree. Hence, the modified biomedical-grade of chitosan derivatives should be pre-examined in vitro in order to produce high-quality, biocompatible dressings. In vitro toxicity examinations are more favorable than those performed in vivo, as the results are more reproducible and predictive. In this paper, basic in vitro tools were used to evaluate cellular and molecular responses with regard to the biocompatibility of biomedical-grade chitosan. Three paramount experimental parameters of biocompatibility in vitro namely cytocompatibility, genotoxicity and skin pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, were generally reviewed for biomedical-grade chitosan as wound dressing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
  14. Alkhader E, Billa N, Roberts CJ
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2017 May;18(4):1009-1018.
    PMID: 27582072 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-016-0623-y
    In the present study, we report the properties of a mucoadhesive chitosan-pectinate nanoparticulate formulation able to retain its integrity in the milieu of the upper gastrointestinal tract and subsequently, mucoadhere and release curcumin in colon conditions. Using this system, we aimed to deliver curcumin to the colon for the possible management of colorectal cancer. The delivery system comprised of a chitosan-pectinate composite nanopolymeric with a z-average of 206.0 nm (±6.6 nm) and zeta potential of +32.8 mV (±0.5 mV) and encapsulation efficiency of 64%. The nanoparticles mucoadhesiveness was higher at alkaline pH compared to acidic pH. Furthermore, more than 80% release of curcumin was achieved in pectinase-enriched medium (pH 6.4) as opposed to negligible release in acidic and enzyme-restricted media at pH 6.8. SEM images of the nanoparticles after exposure to the various media indicate a retained matrix in acid media as opposed to a distorted/fragmented matrix in pectinase-enriched medium. The data strongly indicates that the system has the potential to be applied as a colon-targeted mucoadhesive curcumin delivery system for the possible treatment of colon cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  15. Hussain Z, Thu HE, Shuid AN, Katas H, Hussain F
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018;19(5):527-550.
    PMID: 28676002 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170704132523
    BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are the chronic, non-healing complications of diabetic mellitus which compels a significant burden to the patients and the healthcare system. Peripheral vascular disease, diabetic neuropathy, and abnormal cellular and cytokine/chemokine activity are among the prime players which exacerbate the severity and prevent wound repair. Unlike acute wounds, DFUs impose a substantial challenge to the conventional wound dressings and demand the development of novel and advanced wound healing modalities. In general, an ideal wound dressing should provide a moist wound environment, offer protection from secondary infections, eliminate wound exudate and stimulate tissue regeneration.

    OBJECTIVE: To date, numerous conventional wound dressings are employed for the management of DFUs but there is a lack of absolute and versatile choice. The current review was therefore aimed to summarize and critically discuss the available evidences related to pharmaceutical and therapeutic viability of polymer-based dressings for the treatment of DFUs.

    RESULTS: A versatile range of naturally-originated polymers including chitosan (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA), cellulose, alginate, dextran, collagen, gelatin, elastin, fibrin and silk fibroin have been utilized for the treatment of DFUs. These polymers have been used in the form of hydrogels, films, hydrocolloids, foams, membranes, scaffolds, microparticles, and nanoparticles. Moreover, the wound healing viability and clinical applicability of various mutually modified, semi-synthetic or synthetic polymers have also been critically discussed.

    CONCLUSION: In summary, this review enlightens the most recent developments in polymer-based wound dressings with special emphasis on advanced polymeric biomaterials, innovative therapeutic strategies and delivery approaches for the treatment of DFUs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
  16. Ullah S, Zainol I, Idrus RH
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2017 Nov;104(Pt A):1020-1029.
    PMID: 28668615 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.06.080
    The zinc oxide nanoparticles (particles size <50nm) incorporated into chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds and investigated the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation on microstructure, mechanical properties, biodegradation and cytocompatibility of 3D porous scaffolds. The 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 4.0% zinc oxide nanoparticles chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds were fabricated via freeze-drying technique. The zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation effects consisting in chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds were investigated by mechanical and swelling tests, and effect on the morphology of scaffolds examined microscopically. The biodegradation and cytocompatibility tests were used to investigate the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation on the ability of scaffolds to use for tissue engineering application. The mean pore size and swelling ratio of scaffolds were decreased upon incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles however, the porosity, tensile modulus and biodegradation rate were increased upon incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles. In vitro culture of human fibroblasts and keratinocytes showed that the zinc oxide nanoparticles facilitated cell adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds. It was found that the zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation enhanced porosity, tensile modulus and cytocompatibility of chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
  17. MubarakAli D, LewisOscar F, Gopinath V, Alharbi NS, Alharbi SA, Thajuddin N
    Microb Pathog, 2018 Jan;114:323-327.
    PMID: 29229504 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2017.11.043
    Chitosan is the second most abundant polymer obtained from the byproduct of seafood. Chitosan and its derivatives and chitosan loaded drugs are the recent area of interest against microbial pathogenesis. The cationic chitosan nanoparticles (ChNPs) interact with the anionic surfaces of the microbial cell membrane, which promotes antimicrobial activity. Although, ChNPs are potential against pathogenic microbes, selection of adaptable, suitable and cost effective synthesis method is much important. In the present study, ChNPs were synthesized adopting ionic gelation using sodium tripolyphosphate as a cross linking agent and characterized by FTIR, DLS, SEM and TEM analysis. ChNPs were investigated for antimicrobial activity against bacterial (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) and fungal (Candida albicans) pathogens. ChNPs showed bactericidal activity at the lower minimum inhibitory concentration of about 40-80 μg mL-1. Interestingly, ChNPs exhibits biocompatible antioxidant property by inhibiting DPPH free radicals at 76% and also proven to be a potential candidate against the microbial pathogenesis with an inevitable applications in biomedicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
  18. Ngadiman NH, Idris A, Irfan M, Kurniawan D, Yusof NM, Nasiri R
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2015 Sep;49:90-104.
    PMID: 26002419 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2015.04.029
    Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticle with its unique magnetic properties is recently known to enhance the cell growth rate. In this study, γ-Fe2O3 is mixed into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix and then electrospun to form nanofibers. Design of experiments was used to determine the optimum parameter settings for the electrospinning process so as to produce elctrospun mats with the preferred characteristics such as good morphology, Young's modulus and porosity. The input factors of the electrospinnning process were nanoparticles content (1-5%), voltage (25-35 kV), and flow rate (1-3 ml/h) while the responses considered were Young's modulus and porosity. Empirical models for both responses as a function of the input factors were developed and the optimum input factors setting were determined, and found to be at 5% nanoparticle content, 35 kV voltage, and 1 ml/h volume flow rate. The characteristics and performance of the optimum PVA/γ-Fe2O3 nanofiber mats were compared with those of neat PVA nanofiber mats in terms of morphology, thermal properties, and hydrophilicity. The PVA/γ-Fe2O3 nanofiber mats exhibited higher fiber diameter and surface roughness yet similar thermal properties and hydrophilicity compared to neat PVA PVA/γ-Fe2O3 nanofiber mats. Biocompatibility test by exposing the nanofiber mats with human blood cells was performed. In terms of clotting time, the PVA/γ-Fe2O3 nanofibers exhibited similar behavior with neat PVA. The PVA/γ-Fe2O3 nanofibers also showed higher cells proliferation rate when MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was done using human skin fibroblast cells. Thus, the PVA/γ-Fe2O3 electrospun nanofibers can be a promising biomaterial for tissue engineering scaffolds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  19. Amin Yavari S, Chai YC, Böttger AJ, Wauthle R, Schrooten J, Weinans H, et al.
    PMID: 25842117 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.02.050
    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  20. Ujang Z, Abdul Rashid AH, Suboh SK, Halim AS, Lim CK
    J Appl Biomater Funct Mater, 2014 Dec 30;12(3):155-62.
    PMID: 24700269 DOI: 10.5301/jabfm.5000190
    BACKGROUND: The physical and biological characteristics of oligochitosan (O-C) film, including its barrier and mechanical properties, in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility, were studied to assess its potential use as a wound dressing.

    METHODS: Membrane films were prepared from water-soluble O-C solution blended with various concentrations of glycerol to modify the physical properties of the films. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility evaluations were performed using primary human skin fibroblast cultures and subcutaneous implantation in a rat model, respectively.

    RESULTS: Addition of glycerol significantly influenced the barrier and mechanical properties of the films. Water absorption capacity was in the range of 80%-160%, whereas water vapor transmission rate varied from 1,180 to 1,618 g/m2 per day. Both properties increased with increasing glycerol concentration. Tensile strength decreased while elongation at break increased with the addition of glycerol. O-C films were found to be noncytotoxic to human fibroblast cultures and histological examination proved that films are biocompatible.

    CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the membrane film from O-C has potential application as a wound-dressing material.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
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