MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three categories of materials, namely, test group 1 (cGIC or type IX GIC), test group 2 (HA-GIC or hydroxyapatite-added GIC), and positive control (glass cover slips) were incubated with human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. The samples were viewed under scanning electron microscope to study the morphological characteristics of fibroblasts. Additionally, elemental analysis was performed to differentiate between the two test groups based on surface chemical composition.
RESULTS: Test group 1 (cGIC) exhibited cells with curled up morphology, indicative of poor attachment to the substrate. Test group 2 (Ha-GIC) exhibited cells with flattened morphology and numerous cellular extensions such as lamellipodia and blebs, indicative of good attachment to the substrate. The test group 2 (Ha-GIC) demonstrated higher surface elemental percentages of calcium and phosphorus.
CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this study, it may be concluded that hydroxyapatite-added GIC is more biocompatible than conventional GIC (type IX), probably attributed to high elemental percentages of calcium and phosphorus.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The search for an ideal cervical restorative dental material has been ever elusive. Hydroxyapatite-added GIC is a simple and economical dental material to fabricate from basic conventional GIC. The results from this study strengthen its candidature for cervical and root surface restorations which may later require soft tissue augmentation. The possibility of connective tissue adhesion to this material is an exciting prospect in the field of periorestorative dentistry.
OBJECTIVE: To date, numerous conventional wound dressings are employed for the management of DFUs but there is a lack of absolute and versatile choice. The current review was therefore aimed to summarize and critically discuss the available evidences related to pharmaceutical and therapeutic viability of polymer-based dressings for the treatment of DFUs.
RESULTS: A versatile range of naturally-originated polymers including chitosan (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA), cellulose, alginate, dextran, collagen, gelatin, elastin, fibrin and silk fibroin have been utilized for the treatment of DFUs. These polymers have been used in the form of hydrogels, films, hydrocolloids, foams, membranes, scaffolds, microparticles, and nanoparticles. Moreover, the wound healing viability and clinical applicability of various mutually modified, semi-synthetic or synthetic polymers have also been critically discussed.
CONCLUSION: In summary, this review enlightens the most recent developments in polymer-based wound dressings with special emphasis on advanced polymeric biomaterials, innovative therapeutic strategies and delivery approaches for the treatment of DFUs.
METHODS: Membrane films were prepared from water-soluble O-C solution blended with various concentrations of glycerol to modify the physical properties of the films. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility evaluations were performed using primary human skin fibroblast cultures and subcutaneous implantation in a rat model, respectively.
RESULTS: Addition of glycerol significantly influenced the barrier and mechanical properties of the films. Water absorption capacity was in the range of 80%-160%, whereas water vapor transmission rate varied from 1,180 to 1,618 g/m2 per day. Both properties increased with increasing glycerol concentration. Tensile strength decreased while elongation at break increased with the addition of glycerol. O-C films were found to be noncytotoxic to human fibroblast cultures and histological examination proved that films are biocompatible.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the membrane film from O-C has potential application as a wound-dressing material.