Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 412 in total

  1. Noor ‘Ain, M.N., Nordashima, A.S., Mazne, M., Azyani, Y., Mohd Rohaizat, H.
    Medicine & Health, 2020;15(1):187-197.
    Karsinoma tiroid biasanya didiagnoskan berdasarkan kriteria morfologi tertentu. Dalam sesetengah kes, diagnosis yang tepat mungkin sukar apabila ciri-ciri morfologi adalah tidak ketara. Kajian ini menilai kegunaan Hector Battifora Mesothelial-1 (HBME-1) sebagai penanda immunohistokimia untuk membezakan tisu tiroid barah dengan bukan barah dan untuk membandingkan ekspresi HBME-1 dalam pelbagai jenis tisu tiroid. Sensitiviti dan spesifisiti HBME-1 sebagai penanda khusus untuk karsinoma tiroid juga dikaji. Sejumlah 54 kes barah dan 54 kes bukan barah tiroid yang didiagnos di Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia untuk tempoh tujuh tahun telah dikumpul. Semua kes diwarnai dengan HBME-1 dan dinilai oleh tiga pemerhati bebas. Kes-kes tersebut diberi skor berdasarkan nisbah pewarnaan dan dinilai sebagai skor 0 (kurang daripada 10%), 1+ (10-25%), 2+ (26-50%) atau 3+ (lebih daripada 50%). Di samping itu, perkaitan antara skor bagi kes barah dengan peringkat patologi tumor juga dikaji. HBME-1 menunjukkan ungkapan pewarnaan yang lebih signifikan dalam kes barah berbanding bukan barah (P
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor
  2. Hadi H, Wan Shuaib WMA, Raja Ali RA, Othman H
    Medicina (Kaunas), 2022 Jul 28;58(8).
    PMID: 36013482 DOI: 10.3390/medicina58081015
    Background and Objectives: We aim to compare the diagnostic performance of Protein induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II), a biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in differentiating HCC and non-malignant high-risk (NMHR) groups and to determine their cut-off values. Materials and Methods: A total of 163 patients, including 40 with HCC and 123 with NMHR (100 with liver cirrhosis and 23 with non-cirrhotic high-risk patients) were prospectively enrolled. The levels of AFP and PIVKA-II were measured, and their cut-off values were determined. We calculated and compared the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves of PIVKA-II, AFP, and their combination. Results: The levels of PIVKA-II and AFP were found to be significantly higher in the HCC compared to NMHR patients (p < 0.0001). For the differentiation of HCC from NMHR, the optimal cutoff values for PIVKA-II and AFP were 36.7 mAU/mL (90% sensitivity; 82.1% specificity) and 14.2 ng/mL (75% sensitivity; 93.5% specificity), respectively. The AUROC of PIVKA-II (0.905, p < 0.0001) was higher compared to AFP (0.869, p < 0.0001), but the combination of PIVKA−II and AFP gave the highest AUROC value (0.911, p < 0.0001). However, their differences were not statistically significant (AFP vs. PIVKA; p = 0.4775, AFP vs. Combination; p = 0.3808, PIVKA vs. Combination; p = 0.2268). Conclusions: PIVKA-II and AFP showed equal performance in detecting HCC in high-risk patients. AFP as a screening marker for HCC may be adequate, and replacing or adding the PIVKA-II test in current clinical practice may be of little value.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism
  3. Jayaraj R, Polpaya K, Kunale M, Kodiveri Muthukaliannan G, Shetty S, Baxi S, et al.
    Genes (Basel), 2022 Dec 10;13(12).
    PMID: 36553594 DOI: 10.3390/genes13122325
    Background: Chemoresistance is a significant barrier to combating head and neck cancer, and decoding this resistance can widen the therapeutic application of such chemotherapeutic drugs. This systematic review and meta-analysis explores the influence of microRNA (miRNA) expressions on chemoresistance in head and neck cancers (HNC). The objective is to evaluate the theragnostic effects of microRNA expressions on chemoresistance in HNC patients and investigate the utility of miRNAs as biomarkers and avenues for new therapeutic targets. Methods: We performed a comprehensive bibliographic search that included the SCOPUS, PubMed, and Science Direct bibliographic databases. These searches conformed to a predefined set of search strategies. Following the PRISMA guidelines, inclusion and exclusion criteria were framed upon completing the literature search. The data items extracted were tabulated and collated in MS Excel. This spreadsheet was used to determine the effect size estimation for the theragnostic effects of miRNA expressions on chemoresistance in HNC, the hazard ratio (HR), and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The comprehensive meta-analysis was performed using the random effects model. Heterogeneity among the data collected was assessed using the Q test, Tau2, I2, and Z measures. Publication bias of the included studies was checked using the Egger's bias indicator test, Orwin and classic fail-safe N test, Begg and Mazumdar rank collection test, and Duval and Tweedie's trim and fill methods. Results: After collating the data from 23 studies, dysregulation of 34 miRNAs was observed in 2189 people. These data were gathered from 23 studies. Out of the 34 miRNAs considered, 22 were up-regulated, while 12 were down-regulated. The TaqMan transcription kits were the most used miRNA profiling platform, and miR-200c was seen to have a mixed dysregulation. We measured the overall pooled effect estimate of HR to be 1.516 for the various analyzed miRNA at a 95% confidence interval of 1.303-1.765, with a significant p-value. The null hypothesis test's Z value was 5.377, and the p-value was correspondingly noted to be less than 0.0001. This outcome indicates that the risk of death is determined to be higher in up-regulated groups than in down-regulated groups. Among the 34 miRNAs that were investigated, seven miRNAs were associated with an improved prognosis, especially with the overexpression of these seven miRNAs (miR15b-5p, miR-548b, miR-519d, miR-1278, miR-145, miR-200c, Hsa- miR139-3p). Discussion: The findings reveal that intricate relationships between miRNAs' expression and chemotherapeutic resistance in HNC are more likely to exist and can be potential therapeutic targets. This review suggests the involvement of specific miRNAs as predictors of chemoresistance and sensitivity in HNC. The examination of the current study results illustrates the significance of miRNA expression as a theragnostic biomarker in medical oncology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics
  4. Jeon AJ, Teo YY, Sekar K, Chong SL, Wu L, Chew SC, et al.
    BMC Cancer, 2023 Feb 03;23(1):118.
    PMID: 36737737 DOI: 10.1186/s12885-022-10444-3
    BACKGROUND: Conventional differential expression (DE) testing compares the grouped mean value of tumour samples to the grouped mean value of the normal samples, and may miss out dysregulated genes in small subgroup of patients. This is especially so for highly heterogeneous cancer like Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC).

    METHODS: Using multi-region sampled RNA-seq data of 90 patients, we performed patient-specific differential expression testing, together with the patients' matched adjacent normal samples.

    RESULTS: Comparing the results from conventional DE analysis and patient-specific DE analyses, we show that the conventional DE analysis omits some genes due to high inter-individual variability present in both tumour and normal tissues. Dysregulated genes shared in small subgroup of patients were useful in stratifying patients, and presented differential prognosis. We also showed that the target genes of some of the current targeted agents used in HCC exhibited highly individualistic dysregulation pattern, which may explain the poor response rate.

    DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Our results highlight the importance of identifying patient-specific DE genes, with its potential to provide clinically valuable insights into patient subgroups for applications in precision medicine.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics; Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism
  5. Seow P, Narayanan V, Romelean RJ, Wong JHD, Win MT, Chandran H, et al.
    Acad Radiol, 2020 02;27(2):180-187.
    PMID: 31155487 DOI: 10.1016/j.acra.2019.04.015
    RATIONALE AND PURPOSE: Our study evaluated the capability of magnetic resonance imaging in- and opposed-phase (IOP) derived lipid fraction as a novel prognostic biomarker of survival outcome in glioma.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 46 histologically proven glioma (WHO grades II-IV) patients using standard 3T magnetic resonance imaging brain tumor protocol and IOP sequence. Lipid fraction was derived from the IOP sequence signal-loss ratio. The lipid fraction of solid nonenhancing region of glioma was analyzed, using a three-group analysis approach based on volume under surface of receiver-operating characteristics to stratify the prognostic factors into three groups of low, medium, and high lipid fraction. The survival outcome was evaluated, using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression model.

    RESULTS: Significant differences were seen between the three groups (low, medium, and high lipid fraction groups) stratified by the optimal cut-off point for overall survival (OS) (p ≤ 0.01) and time to progression (p ≤ 0.01) for solid nonenhancing region. The group with high lipid fraction had five times higher risk of poor survival and earlier time to progression compared to the low lipid fraction group. The OS plot stratified by lipid fraction also had a strong correlation with OS plot stratified by WHO grade (R = 0.61, p < 0.01), implying association to underlying histopathological changes.

    CONCLUSION: The lipid fraction of solid nonenhancing region showed potential for prognostication of glioma. This method will be a useful adjunct in imaging protocol for treatment stratification and as a prognostic tool in glioma patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis*
  6. Ling L, Aldoghachi AF, Chong ZX, Ho WY, Yeap SK, Chin RJ, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2022 Dec 06;23(23).
    PMID: 36499713 DOI: 10.3390/ijms232315382
    Detecting breast cancer (BC) at the initial stages of progression has always been regarded as a lifesaving intervention. With modern technology, extensive studies have unraveled the complexity of BC, but the current standard practice of early breast cancer screening and clinical management of cancer progression is still heavily dependent on tissue biopsies, which are invasive and limited in capturing definitive cancer signatures for more comprehensive applications to improve outcomes in BC care and treatments. In recent years, reviews and studies have shown that liquid biopsies in the form of blood, containing free circulating and exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs), have become increasingly evident as a potential minimally invasive alternative to tissue biopsy or as a complement to biomarkers in assessing and classifying BC. As such, in this review, the potential of miRNAs as the key BC signatures in liquid biopsy are addressed, including the role of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning platforms (ML), in capitalizing on the big data of miRNA for a more comprehensive assessment of the cancer, leading to practical clinical utility in BC management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics
  7. Yap NY, Ong TA, Pailoor J, Gobe G, Rajandram R
    Biomarkers, 2023 Feb;28(1):24-31.
    PMID: 36315054 DOI: 10.1080/1354750X.2022.2142292
    Purpose: CD14-positive tumour and immune cells have been implicated in cancer progression. This study evaluated the prognostic significance of CD14 immunostaining in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) compared to the adjacent non-cancer kidney, and serum soluble CD14 (sCD14) levels in patients versus controls.Methods: Immunohistochemistry was performed for CD14 on ccRCC and the corresponding adjacent non-cancer kidney tissue from 88 patients. Staining intensity was determined using Aperio ImageScope morphometry. Serum sCD14 was evaluated for 39 ccRCC patients and 38 non-cancer controls using ELISA. CD14 levels were compared with tumour characteristics and survival status.Results: CD14 overall and nuclear immunostaining was higher in ccRCC compared to the adjacent non-cancer kidney tissue. CD14 nuclear immunostaining in the adjacent non-cancer kidney was significantly associated with advanced stage and adverse RCC survival prognosis. Serum sCD14 concentration was elevated in ccRCC patients compared to non-cancer controls and was also significantly associated with tumour stage and worse survival prognosis. Higher CD14 expression, in particular CD14 positive immune cell infiltrates found in the adjacent non-RCC kidney tissue, were associated with tumour progression and poorer prognosis.Conclusion: The levels of CD14 in non-RCC adjacent kidney and serum could be potential prognostic indicators.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism
  8. Liau XL, Salvamani S, Gunasekaran B, Chellappan DK, Rhodes A, Ulaganathan V, et al.
    Br J Biomed Sci, 2023;80:11103.
    PMID: 37025163 DOI: 10.3389/bjbs.2023.11103
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is ranked as the third most common cancer and second deadliest cancer in both men and women in the world. Currently, the cure rate and 5-year survival rate of CRC patients remain relatively low. Therefore, discovering a novel molecular biomarker that can be used to improve CRC screening, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment would be beneficial. Long non-coding RNA colon cancer-associated transcript 1 (CCAT 1) has been found overexpressed in CRC and is associated with CRC tumorigenesis and treatment outcome. CCAT 1 has a high degree of specificity and sensitivity, it is readily detected in CRC tissues and is significantly overexpressed in both premalignant and malignant CRC tissues. Besides, CCAT 1 is associated with clinical manifestation and advanced features of CRC, such as lymph node metastasis, high tumor node metastasis stage, differentiation, invasion, and distant metastasis. In addition, they can upregulate oncogenic c-MYC and negatively modulate microRNAs via different mechanisms of action. Furthermore, dysregulated CCAT 1 also enhances the chemoresistance in CRC cells while downregulation of them reverses the malignant phenotypes of cancer cells. In brief, CCAT 1 serves as a potential screening, diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in CRC, it also serves as a potential therapeutic marker to treat CRC patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics
  9. Lee SH, Brianna
    Pathol Res Pract, 2024 Feb;254:155073.
    PMID: 38218039 DOI: 10.1016/j.prp.2023.155073
    Breast cancer has become the most diagnosed cancer worldwide in 2020 with high morbidity and mortality rates. The alarming increase in breast cancer incidence has sprung many researchers to focus on developing novel screening tests to identify early breast cancer which will allow clinicians to provide timely and effective treatments. With much evidence supporting the notion that the deregulation of miRNAs (a class of non-coding RNA) greatly contributes to cancer initiation and progression, the promising role of miRNAs as cancer biomarkers is gaining traction in the research world. Among the upregulated miRNAs identified in breast carcinogenesis, miR-21 was shown to be significantly expressed in breast cancer tissues and bodily fluids of breast cancer patients. Therein, this review paper aims to provide an overview of breast cancer, the role and significance of miR-21 in breast cancer pathogenesis, and its potential as a breast cancer biomarker. The paper also discusses the current types of tumor biomarkers and their limitations, the presence of miR-21 in extracellular vesicles and plasma, screening methods available for miRNA detection along with some challenges faced in developing diagnostic miR-21 testing for breast cancer to provide readers with a comprehensive outlook based on using miR-21 in clinical settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics
  10. Mohd Khair SZN, Abd Radzak SM, Mohamed Yusoff AA
    Dis Markers, 2021;2021:7675269.
    PMID: 34326906 DOI: 10.1155/2021/7675269
    Cancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases, the progression of which demands an accumulation of genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations of the human nuclear genome or possibly in the mitochondrial genome as well. Despite modern diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to battle cancer, there are still serious concerns about the increase in death from cancer globally. Recently, a growing number of researchers have extensively focused on the burgeoning area of biomarkers development research, especially in noninvasive early cancer detection. Intergenomic cross talk has triggered researchers to expand their studies from nuclear genome-based cancer researches, shifting into the mitochondria-mediated associations with carcinogenesis. Thus, it leads to the discoveries of established and potential mitochondrial biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity. The research field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) biomarkers has the great potential to confer vast benefits for cancer therapeutics and patients in the future. This review seeks to summarize the comprehensive insights of nuclear genome cancer biomarkers and their usage in clinical practices, the intergenomic cross talk researches that linked mitochondrial dysfunction to carcinogenesis, and the current progress of mitochondrial cancer biomarker studies and development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism*
  11. Lu B, Natarajan E, Balaji Raghavendran HR, Markandan UD
    Technol Cancer Res Treat, 2023;22:15330338221145246.
    PMID: 36601658 DOI: 10.1177/15330338221145246
    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality in women. Triple-negative breast cancers do not express estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and have a higher recurrence rate, greater metastatic potential, and lower overall survival rate than those of other breast cancers. Treatment of triple-negative breast cancer is challenging; molecular-targeted therapies are largely ineffective and there is no standard treatment. In this review, we evaluate current attempts to classify triple-negative breast cancers based on their molecular features. We also describe promising treatment methods with different advantages and discuss genetic biomarkers and other prediction tools. Accurate molecular classification of triple-negative breast cancers is critical for patient risk categorization, treatment decisions, and surveillance. This review offers new ideas for more effective treatment of triple-negative breast cancer and identifies novel targets for drug development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics; Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism
  12. Osei GY, Adu-Amankwaah J, Koomson S, Beletaa S, Asiamah EA, Smith-Togobo C, et al.
    Mol Biol Rep, 2023 Nov;50(11):9575-9585.
    PMID: 37776413 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-023-08810-w
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a serious global health concern, with a high incidence and mortality rate. Although there have been advancements in the early detection and treatment of CRC, therapy resistance is common. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a type of small non-coding RNA that regulates gene expression, are key players in the initiation and progression of CRC. Recently, there has been growing attention to the complex interplay of miRNAs in cancer development. miRNAs are powerful RNA molecules that regulate gene expression and have been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, including carcinogenesis. By identifying current challenges and limitations of treatment strategies and suggesting future research directions, this review aims to contribute to ongoing efforts to enhance CRC diagnosis and treatment. It also provides a comprehensive overview of the role miRNAs play in CRC carcinogenesis and explores the potential of miRNA-based therapies as a treatment option. Importantly, this review highlights the exciting potential of targeted modulation of miRNA function as a therapeutic approach for CRC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics; Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism
  13. Lai LC, Cheong SK, Goh KL, Leong CF, Loh CS, Lopez JB, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2003 Dec;25(2):83-105.
    PMID: 16196365
    Tumour markers are substances related to the presence or progress of a tumour. An ideal tumour marker is (1) detectable only when malignancy is present, (2) specific for the type and site of malignancy, (3) correlates with the amount of malignant tissue present and (4) responds rapidly to a change in tumour size. At present, no tumour marker fulfills all of the above criteria. The first part of the review discusses the clinical usefulness of the commonly requested serum tumour markers, namely, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), CA 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 125, CA 15-3, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and alpha-foetoprotein (AFP). It is hoped that this review article will decrease the abuse and misuse of these commonly requested serum tumour markers. The second part of the review discusses the clinical usefulness of catecholamines and their metabolites, calcitonin, thyroglobulin, parathyroid hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, oestrogen and progesterone receptors, p53, HER-2/c-erbB2, BRCA1 and BRCA2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism*
  14. Khairil Anwar NA, Mohd Nazri MN, Murtadha AH, Mohd Adzemi ER, Balakrishnan V, Mustaffa KMF, et al.
    Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai), 2021 Jul 28;53(8):961-978.
    PMID: 34180502 DOI: 10.1093/abbs/gmab077
    Aggressive tissue biopsy is commonly unavoidable in the management of most suspected tumor cases to conclusively verify the presence of cancerous cells through histological assessment. The extracted tissue is also immunostained for detection of antigens (tissue tumor markers) of potential prognostic or therapeutic importance to assist in treatment decision. Although liquid biopsies can be a powerful tool for monitoring treatment response, they are still excluded from standard cancer diagnostics, and their utility is still being debated in the scientific community. With a myriad of soluble tissue tumor markers now being discovered, liquid biopsies could completely change the current paradigms of cancer management. Recently, soluble programmed cell death ligand-1 (sPD-L1), which is found in the peripheral blood, i.e. serum and plasma, has shown potential as a pre-therapeutic predictive marker as well as a prognostic biomarker to monitor treatment efficacy. Thus, this review focuses on the emergence of sPD-L1 and promising technologies for its detection in order to support liquid biopsies for future cancer management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism*
  15. Zhang W, Li K, Guo J, Ma T, Wang D, Shi S, et al.
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem, 2021 Aug;68(4):896-901.
    PMID: 32822079 DOI: 10.1002/bab.2012
    Researches have proved that increasing level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an indicator for the progression of prostate cancer. The present study was focused to determine the PSA level by using anti-PSA antibody conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles, as the probe immobilized on the gap-fingered electrode sensing surface. The detection limit and sensitivity were found at the level of 1.9 pg/mL on the linear regression curve (y = 1.6939x - 0.5671; R² = 0.9878). A dose-dependent liner range was found from 1.9 until 60 pg/mL. Further, PSA was spiked in human serum and did not affect the interaction of PSA and its antibody. This method of detection quantifies the level of PSA, which helps to diagnose prostate cancer at its earlier stage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/blood*
  16. Zhao MM, Awang Z, Jumuddin FAB
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2024 Feb 01;25(2):603-608.
    PMID: 38415547 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2024.25.2.603
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the high expression of peroxisome membrane protein 4 (PXMP4) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its clinical significance.

    METHODS: The expression of PXMP4 mRNA in HCC tissues and corresponding adjacent tissues was detected by Q-PCR, and the expression of PXMP4 protein was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The correlation of PXMP4 protein expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis of HCC was analyzed.

    RESULTS: The expression levels of PXMP4 mRNA and protein in HCC tissues were significantly higher than those in adjacent tissues (P < 0.05), and its high expression was significantly correlated with tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, depth of invasion and TNM stage (P < 0.05). Patients with high expression of PXMP4 had a poor prognosis (P < 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: The high expression of PXMP4 may promote the occurrence and development of HCC, and inhibition of PXMP4 may be one of the potential molecular targets for targeted therapy of HCC.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics
  17. Jahangir CA, Page DB, Broeckx G, Gonzalez CA, Burke C, Murphy C, et al.
    J Pathol, 2024 Mar;262(3):271-288.
    PMID: 38230434 DOI: 10.1002/path.6238
    Recent advances in the field of immuno-oncology have brought transformative changes in the management of cancer patients. The immune profile of tumours has been found to have key value in predicting disease prognosis and treatment response in various cancers. Multiplex immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence have emerged as potent tools for the simultaneous detection of multiple protein biomarkers in a single tissue section, thereby expanding opportunities for molecular and immune profiling while preserving tissue samples. By establishing the phenotype of individual tumour cells when distributed within a mixed cell population, the identification of clinically relevant biomarkers with high-throughput multiplex immunophenotyping of tumour samples has great potential to guide appropriate treatment choices. Moreover, the emergence of novel multi-marker imaging approaches can now provide unprecedented insights into the tumour microenvironment, including the potential interplay between various cell types. However, there are significant challenges to widespread integration of these technologies in daily research and clinical practice. This review addresses the challenges and potential solutions within a structured framework of action from a regulatory and clinical trial perspective. New developments within the field of immunophenotyping using multiplexed tissue imaging platforms and associated digital pathology are also described, with a specific focus on translational implications across different subtypes of cancer. © 2024 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics
  18. Ahmed H, Paterson I, Aziz SA, Cremona O, Robinson M, Carrozzo M, et al.
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2023 Sep;52(8):710-717.
    PMID: 37339783 DOI: 10.1111/jop.13460
    BACKGROUND: Most oral squamous cell carcinoma patients present with late-stage disease. Early detection of the disease is considered to be the most effective way of improving patient outcomes. Several biomarkers have been identified as indicators of oral cancer development and progression; however, none have been translated into clinical practice. In this study, we have investigated the role of Epsin3, an endocytic adaptor protein, and Notch1, a transmembrane signalling protein, in oral carcinogenesis with a view to explore their potential as biomarkers.

    METHODS: Oral cancer cell lines and a normal oral keratinocyte cell line were used together with tissue samples of normal oral mucosa (n = 21), oral epithelial dysplasia (n = 74) and early stage (Stages I and II) oral squamous cell carcinoma (n = 31). Immunocytochemical staining, immunoblotting and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to assess protein as well as gene expression levels.

    RESULTS: The expression levels of Epsin3 and Notch1 mRNA and protein are variable across different oral squamous cell carcinoma derived cell lines. Epsin3 was upregulated in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma tissues compared with normal epithelium. Overexpression of Epsin3 resulted in a significant reduction of Notch1 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Notch1 was generally downregulated in the dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma samples.

    CONCLUSION: Epsin3 is upregulated in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma and has the potential to be used as a biomarker for oral epithelial dysplasia. Notch signalling is downregulated in oral squamous cell carcinoma, possibly through an Epsin3-induced de-activation pathway.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis
  19. Gopinath SCB, Ramanathan S, More M, Patil K, Patil SJ, Patil N, et al.
    Curr Med Chem, 2024;31(12):1464-1484.
    PMID: 37702170 DOI: 10.2174/0929867331666230912101634
    The engineering of nanoscale materials has broadened the scope of nanotechnology in a restricted functional system. Today, significant priority is given to immediate health diagnosis and monitoring tools for point-of-care testing and patient care. Graphene, as a one-atom carbon compound, has the potential to detect cancer biomarkers and its derivatives. The atom-wide graphene layer specialises in physicochemical characteristics, such as improved electrical and thermal conductivity, optical transparency, and increased chemical and mechanical strength, thus making it the best material for cancer biomarker detection. The outstanding mechanical, electrical, electrochemical, and optical properties of two-dimensional graphene can fulfil the scientific goal of any biosensor development, which is to develop a more compact and portable point-of-care device for quick and early cancer diagnosis. The bio-functionalisation of recognised biomarkers can be improved by oxygenated graphene layers and their composites. The significance of graphene that gleans its missing data for its high expertise to be evaluated, including the variety in surface modification and analytical reports. This review provides critical insights into graphene to inspire research that would address the current and remaining hurdles in cancer diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor
  20. Chen Y, Azman SN, Kerishnan JP, Zain RB, Chen YN, Wong YL, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(10):e109012.
    PMID: 25272005 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109012
    One of the most common cancers worldwide is oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), which is associated with a significant death rate and has been linked to several risk factors. Notably, failure to detect these neoplasms at an early stage represents a fundamental barrier to improving the survival and quality of life of OSCC patients. In the present study, serum samples from OSCC patients (n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 25) were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and silver staining in order to identify biomarkers that might allow early diagnosis. In this regard, 2-DE spots corresponding to various up- and down-regulated proteins were sequenced via high-resolution MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and analyzed using the MASCOT database. We identified the following differentially expressed host-specific proteins within sera from OSCC patients: leucine-rich α2-glycoprotein (LRG), alpha-1-B-glycoprotein (ABG), clusterin (CLU), PRO2044, haptoglobin (HAP), complement C3c (C3), proapolipoprotein A1 (proapo-A1), and retinol-binding protein 4 precursor (RBP4). Moreover, five non-host factors were detected, including bacterial antigens from Acinetobacter lwoffii, Burkholderia multivorans, Myxococcus xanthus, Laribacter hongkongensis, and Streptococcus salivarius. Subsequently, we analyzed the immunogenicity of these proteins using pooled sera from OSCC patients. In this regard, five of these candidate biomarkers were found to be immunoreactive: CLU, HAP, C3, proapo-A1 and RBP4. Taken together, our immunoproteomics approach has identified various serum biomarkers that could facilitate the development of early diagnostic tools for OSCC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/blood
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