Dry adhesives that combine strong adhesion, high transparency, and reusability are needed to support developments in emerging fields such as medical electrodes and the bonding of electronic optical devices. However, achieving all of these features in a single material remains challenging. Herein, we propose a pressure-responsive polyurethane (PU) adhesive inspired by the octopus sucker. This adhesive not only showcases reversible adhesion to both solid materials and biological tissues but also exhibits robust stability and high transparency (>90%). As the adhesive strength of the PU adhesive corresponds to the application force, adhesion could be adjusted by the preloading force and/or pressure. The adhesive exhibits high static adhesion (∼120 kPa) and 180° peeling force (∼500 N/m), which is far stronger than those of most existing artificial dry adhesives. Moreover, the adhesion strength is effectively maintained even after 100 bonding-peeling cycles. Because the adhesive tape relies on the combination of negative pressure and intermolecular forces, it overcomes the underlying problems caused by glue residue like that left by traditional glue tapes after removal. In addition, the PU adhesive also shows wet-cleaning performance; the contaminated tape can recover 90-95% of the lost adhesion strength after being cleaned with water. The results show that an adhesive with a microstructure designed to increase the contribution of negative pressure can combine high reversible adhesion and long fatigue life.
The use of in vitromodel for screening pharmacological compounds or natural products has gained global interest. The choice of cells to be manipulated plays a vital role in coming up with the best-suitedmodel for specific diseases, including neurodegenerativediseases (ND). A good in vitro ND model should provide appropriate morphological and molecular features that mimic ND conditions where it can be used to screen potential properties of natural products in addition to unravelling the molecular mechanisms of ND. In this mini review, we intend to demonstrate two prospective stem cell lines as the potential cell source for in vitroND model and compare them to the commonly used cells. The common source of cells that have been usedas the in vitroND models is discussedbefore going into details talking about the two prospective stem cell lines.
This work was carried out with the aim to optimise the tool path by simulating the removal of material in a finite element environment which is controlled by a genetic algorithm (GA). To simulate the physical removal of material during machining, a finite element model was designed to represent a thin walled workpiece. The target was to develop models which mimic the actual cutting process using the finite element method (FEM), to validate the developed tool path strategy algorithm with the actual machining process and to programme the developed algorithm into the software. The workpiece was to be modelled using the CAD (ABAQUS CAE) software to create a basic geometry co-ordinate system which could then be used to create the finite element method and necessary requirement by ABAQUS, such as the boundary condition, the material type, and the element type.
Biomimetic supramolecular dual networks: By mimicking the structure/function model of titin, integration of dynamic cucurbituril mediated host-guest interactions with a trace amount of covalent cross-linking leads to hierarchical dual networks with intriguing toughness, strength, elasticity, and energy dissipation properties. Dynamic host-guest interactions can be dissociated as sacrificial bonds and their facile reformation results in self-recovery of the dual network structure as well as its mechanical properties.
Effluent discharge from septic tanks is affecting the environment in developing countries. The most challenging issue facing these countries is the cost of inadequate sanitation, which includes significant economic, social, and environmental burdens. Although most sanitation facilities are evaluated based on their immediate costs and benefits, their long-term performance should also be investigated. In this study, effluent quality-namely, the biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total suspended solid (TSS)-was assessed using a biomimetics engineering approach. A novel immune network algorithm (INA) approach was applied to a septic sludge treatment plant (SSTP) for effluent-removal predictive modelling. The Matang SSTP in the city of Kuching, Sarawak, on the island of Borneo, was selected as a case study. Monthly effluent discharges from 2007 to 2011 were used for training, validating, and testing purposes using MATLAB 7.10. The results showed that the BOD effluent-discharge prediction was less than 50% of the specified standard after the 97(th) month of operation. The COD and TSS effluent removals were simulated at the 85(th) and the 121(st) months, respectively. The study proved that the proposed INA-based SSTP model could be used to achieve an effective SSTP assessment and management technique.
When the amount of data and information is said to double in every 20 months or so, feature selection has become highly important and beneficial. Further improvements in feature selection will positively affect a wide array of applications in fields such as pattern recognition, machine learning, or signal processing. Bio-inspired method called Bat Algorithm hybridized with a Naive Bayes classifier has been presented in this work. The performance of the proposed feature selection algorithm was investigated using twelve benchmark datasets from different domains and was compared to three other well-known feature selection algorithms. Discussion focused on four perspectives: number of features, classification accuracy, stability, and feature generalization. The results showed that BANB significantly outperformed other algorithms in selecting lower number of features, hence removing irrelevant, redundant, or noisy features while maintaining the classification accuracy. BANB is also proven to be more stable than other methods and is capable of producing more general feature subsets.
For the past 20 years, many authors have focused their investigations on wireless sensor networks. Various issues related to wireless sensor networks such as energy minimization (optimization), compression schemes, self-organizing network algorithms, routing protocols, quality of service management, security, energy harvesting, etc., have been extensively explored. The three most important issues among these are energy efficiency, quality of service and security management. To get the best possible results in one or more of these issues in wireless sensor networks optimization is necessary. Furthermore, in number of applications (e.g., body area sensor networks, vehicular ad hoc networks) these issues might conflict and require a trade-off amongst them. Due to the high energy consumption and data processing requirements, the use of classical algorithms has historically been disregarded. In this context contemporary researchers started using bio-mimetic strategy-based optimization techniques in the field of wireless sensor networks. These techniques are diverse and involve many different optimization algorithms. As far as we know, most existing works tend to focus only on optimization of one specific issue of the three mentioned above. It is high time that these individual efforts are put into perspective and a more holistic view is taken. In this paper we take a step in that direction by presenting a survey of the literature in the area of wireless sensor network optimization concentrating especially on the three most widely used bio-mimetic algorithms, namely, particle swarm optimization, ant colony optimization and genetic algorithm. In addition, to stimulate new research and development interests in this field, open research issues, challenges and future research directions are highlighted.
Neonates are obligate nasal breather until they are at least two to five months old. Congenital nasal airway obstruction is one of the commonest causes of respiratory problem in newborn. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) was first described by Brown et al in 1989  and is a rare cause of nasal airway obstruction which may clinically mimic choanal atresia.(Copied from article)
Electrospinning is a simple and versatile technique to fabricate continuous fibers with diameter ranging from micrometers to a few nanometers. To date, the number of polymers that have been electrospun has exceeded 200. In recent years, electrospinning has become one of the most popular scaffold fabrication techniques to prepare nanofiber mesh for tissue engineering applications. Collagen, the most abundant extracellular matrix protein in the human body, has been electrospun to fabricate biomimetic scaffolds that imitate the architecture of native human tissues. As collagen nanofibers are mechanically weak in nature, it is commonly cross-linked or blended with synthetic polymers to improve the mechanical strength without compromising the biological activity. Electrospun collagen nanofiber mesh has high surface area to volume ratio, tunable diameter and porosity, and excellent biological activity to regulate cell function and tissue formation. Due to these advantages, collagen nanofibers have been tested for the regeneration of a myriad of tissues and organs. In this review, we gave an overview of electrospinning, encompassing the history, the instrument settings, the spinning process and the parameters that affect fiber formation, with emphasis given to collagen nanofibers' fabrication and application, especially the use of collagen nanofibers in skin tissue engineering.
Biomaterial scaffolds play crucial role to promote cell proliferation and foster the regeneration of new tissues. The progress in material science has paved the way for the generation of ingenious biomaterials. However, these biomaterials require further optimization to be effectively used in existing clinical treatments. It is crucial to develop biomaterials which mimics structure that can be actively involved in delivering signals to cells for the formation of the regenerated tissue. In this research we nanoengineered a functional scaffold to support the proliferation of myoblast cells. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] copolymer is chosen as scaffold material owing to its desirable mechanical and physical properties combined with good biocompatibility, thus eliciting appropriate host tissue responses. In this study P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer was biosynthesized using Cupriavidus malaysiensis USMAA1020 transformant harboring additional PHA synthase gene, and the viability of a novel P(3HB-co-4HB) electrospun nanofiber scaffold, surface functionalized with RGD peptides, was explored. In order to immobilize RGD peptides molecules onto the P(3HB-co-4HB) nanofibers surface, an aminolysis reaction was performed. The nanoengineered scaffolds were characterized using SEM, organic elemental analysis (CHN analysis), FTIR, surface wettability and their in vitro degradation behavior was evaluated. The cell culture study using H9c2 myoblast cells was conducted to assess the in vitro cellular response of the engineered scaffold. Our results demonstrated that nano-P(3HB-co-4HB)-RGD scaffold possessed an average fiber diameter distribution between 200 and 300 nm, closely biomimicking, from a morphological point of view, the structural ECM components, thus acting as potential ECM analogs. This study indicates that the surface conjugation of biomimetic RGD peptide to the nano-P(3HB-co-4HB) fibers increased the surface wettability (15 ± 2°) and enhanced H9c2 myoblast cells attachment and proliferation. In summary, the study reveals that nano-P(3HB-co-4HB)-RGD scaffold can be considered a promising candidate to be further explored as cardiac construct for building cardiac construct.
A systematic study of the electrochemical oxidation of 1,2-diarylalkenes was carried out with the focus on detailed product studies and variation of product type as a function of aromatic substitution. A reinvestigation of the electrochemical oxidation of 4,4'-dimethoxystilbene under various conditions was first carried out, and all products formed were fully characterized and quantitated. This was followed by a systematic investigation of the effect of aromatic substitution on the nature and distribution of the products. The aromatic substituents were found to fall into three main categories, viz., substrates in which the nature and position of the aromatic substituents gave rise to essentially the same products as 4,4'-dimethoxystilbene, for example, tetraaryltetrahydrofurans, dehydrotetralins, and aldehydes (p-MeO or p-NMe2 on one ring and X on the other ring, where X = o-MeO or p-alkyl, or m- or p-EWG; e.g., 4-methoxy-4'-trifluoromethylstilbene); those that gave rise to a mixture of indanyl (or tetralinyl) acetamides and dehydrotetralins (or pallidols) (both or one ring substituted by alkyl groups, e.g., 4,4'-dimethylstilbene); and those where strategic placement of donor groups, such as OMe and OH, led to the formation of ampelopsin F and pallidol-type carbon skeletons (e.g., 4,3',4'-trimethoxystilbene). Reaction pathways to rationalize the formation of the different products are presented.
Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied.
We describe the work on infusion of emotion into a limited-task autonomous spoken conversational agent situated in the domestic environment, using a need-inspired task-independent emotion model (NEMO). In order to demonstrate the generation of affect through the use of the model, we describe the work of integrating it with a natural-language mixed-initiative HiFi-control spoken conversational agent (SCA). NEMO and the host system communicate externally, removing the need for the Dialog Manager to be modified, as is done in most existing dialog systems, in order to be adaptive. The first part of the paper concerns the integration between NEMO and the host agent. The second part summarizes the work on automatic affect prediction, namely, frustration and contentment, from dialog features, a non-conventional source, in the attempt of moving towards a more user-centric approach. The final part reports the evaluation results obtained from a user study, in which both versions of the agent (non-adaptive and emotionally-adaptive) were compared. The results provide substantial evidences with respect to the benefits of adding emotion in a spoken conversational agent, especially in mitigating users' frustrations and, ultimately, improving their satisfaction.
Oligostilbenoids are polyphenols that are widely distributed in nature with multifaceted biological activities. To achieve biomimetic synthesis of unnatural derivatives, we subjected three resveratrol analogues to oligomerization by means of one-electron oxidants. Upon varying the metal oxidant (AgOAc, CuBr(2), FeCl(3)6 H(2)O, FeCl(3)6 H(2)O/NaI, PbO(2), VOF(3)), the solvent (over the whole range of polarities), and the oxygenated substitution pattern of the starting material, stilbenoid oligomers with totally different carbon skeletons were obtained. Here we propose to explain the determinism of the type of skeleton produced with the aid of hard and soft acid/base concepts in conjunction with the solvating properties of the solvents and the preferred alignment by the effect of pi stacking.
A method to fabricate a bioinspired nanobiosensor using electronic-based artificial taste receptors for glucose diagnosis is presented. Fabricated bioinspired glucose nanobiosensor designated based on an artificial taste bud including an amperometric glucose biosensor and taste bud-inspired circuits. In fact, the design of the taste bud-inspired circuits was inspired by the signal-processing mechanism of taste nerves which involves two layers. The first, known as a type II cell, detects the glucose by glucose oxidase and transduces the current signal obtained for the pulse pattern is conducted to the second layer, called type III cell, to induce synchronisation of the neural spiking activity. The oscillation results of fabricated bioinspired glucose nanobiosensor confirmed an increase in the frequency of the output pulse as a function of the glucose concentration. At high glucose concentrations, the bioinspired glucose nanobiosensor showed a pulse train of alternating short and long interpulse intervals. A computational analysis performed to validate the hypothesis, which was successfully reproduced the alternating behaviour of bioinspired glucose our nanobiosensor by increasing the output frequency and alternation of pulse intervals according to the reduction in the resistivity of the biosensor.
Herein we have engineered a micellar Cu protoporphyrin catalyst that mediates carbon bond activation using peroxide as an electron source. Cu protoporphyrin is a biomimetic model of active site of chloroperoxidase enzyme, which catalyzes the carbon bond halogenation in the presence of a suitable amount of H2O2. The encapsulation of Cu(II) Protoporphyrin IX/L-Cysteine inside of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide micelle increases the rate of chlorination at pH 3. The cited catalyst resists high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, which is previously reported as a suicide inactivator component of hemo-enzymes. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) data have revealed the formation of a micellar complex by encapsulation of six Cu(II) proporphyrins within each micelle. Moreover, electrochemical investigations indicate that L-Cysteine increases the intensity of electron transferred due to the formation of self-assembled monolayer on Au electrode. Our results paved a road toward the design of a more robust mimetic catalysis based on Protoporphyrin IX derivatives.
The skin of a fast swimming shark reveals riblet structures that help reduce the shark's skin friction drag, enhancing its efficiency and speed while moving in the water. Inspired by the structure of the shark skin denticles, our team has carried out a study as an effort in improving the hydrodynamic design of marine vessels through hull design modification which was inspired by this riblet structure of shark skin denticle. Our study covers on macroscaled design modification. This is an attempt to propose an alternative for a better economical and practical modification to obtain a more optimum cruising characteristics for marine vessels. The models used for this study are constructed using computer-aided design (CAD) software, and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are then carried out to predict the effectiveness of the hydrodynamic effects of the biomimetic shark skins on those models. Interestingly, the numerical calculated results obtained show that the presence of biomimetic shark skin implemented on the vessels give about 3.75% reduction of drag coefficient as well as reducing up to 3.89% in drag force experienced by the vessels. Theoretically, as force drag can be reduced, it can lead to a more efficient vessel with a better cruising speed. This will give better impact to shipping or marine industries around the world. However, it can be suggested that an experimental procedure is best to be conducted to verify the numerical result that has been obtained for further improvement on this research.
Dendrimers are hyperbranched nanoparticle structures along with its surface modifications can to be used in dental biomaterials for biomimetic remineralisation of enamel and dentin. The review highlights the therapeutic applications of dendrimers in the field of dentistry. It addresses the possible mechanisms of enhancement of mechanical properties of adhesives and resins structure. Dendrimers due to its unique construction of possessing inner hydrophobic and outer hydrophilic structure can act as drug carrier for delivery of antimicrobial drugs for treatment of periodontal diseases and at peripheral dental implant areas. Dendrimers due to its hyperbranched structures can provides a unique drug delivery vehicle for delivery of a drug at specific site for sustained release for therapeutic effects. Thus, dendrimers can be one of the most important constituents which can be incorporated in dental biomaterials for better outcomes in dentistry.
Conductive materials are potential candidates for developing bone tissue engineering scaffolds as they are nontoxic and can enhance bone tissue regeneration. Their bioactivity can be enhanced by depositing biomineralization in simulated body fluid (SBF). In the current study, a composite electrospun membrane made up of poly(lactic) acid, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), and hydroxyapatite was fabricated using an electrospinning method. The fabricated membranes were dip-coated with a conductive polymer solution, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(4-styrenesulfonate), to induce conductivity. Characterization of the membranes based on characteristics such as morphology, chemical bonding, and wettability was conducted using scanning electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and contact angle measurement. From the results, biomineralization of both coated and noncoated composite membranes was observed on the surface of nanofibers after 21 days in SBF. The membranes provide a superhydrophilic surface as shown by the contact angle. In conclusion, this biomimetic electrospun composite membrane could be used to further support cell growth for bone tissue engineering application.
Highly ordered ring-like structures are formed via the directed assembly of lipid domains in supported bilayers, using the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin. The ability of biological molecules to guide nanoscale assembly suggests potential biomimetic approaches to nanoscale structures.