Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 71 in total

  1. Ang LF, Por LY, Yam MF
    PLoS One, 2013;8(8):e70597.
    PMID: 23940599 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070597
    Two chitosan samples (medium molecular weight (MMCHI) and low molecular weight (LMCHI)) were investigated as an enzyme immobilization matrix for the fabrication of a glucose biosensor. Chitosan membranes prepared from acetic acid were flexible, transparent, smooth and quick-drying. The FTIR spectra showed the existence of intermolecular interactions between chitosan and glucose oxidase (GOD). Higher catalytic activities were observed on for GOD-MMCHI than GOD-LMCHI and for those crosslinked with glutaraldehyde than using the adsorption technique. Enzyme loading greater than 0.6 mg decreased the activity. Under optimum conditions (pH 6.0, 35°C and applied potential of 0.6 V) response times of 85 s and 65 s were observed for medium molecular weight chitosan glucose biosensor (GOD-MMCHI/PT) and low molecular weight chitosan glucose biosensor (GOD-LMCHI/PT), respectively. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant ([Formula: see text]) was found to be 12.737 mM for GOD-MMCHI/PT and 17.692 mM for GOD-LMCHI/PT. This indicated that GOD-MMCHI/PT had greater affinity for the enzyme. Moreover, GOD-MMCHI/PT showed higher sensitivity (52.3666 nA/mM glucose) when compared with GOD-LMCHI/PT (9.8579 nA/mM glucose) at S/N>3. Better repeatability and reproducibility were achieved with GOD-MMCHI/PT than GOD-LMCHI/PT regarding glucose measurement. GOD-MMCHI/PT was found to give the highest enzymatic activity among the electrodes under investigation. The extent of interference encountered by GOD-MMCHI/PT and GOD-LMCHI/PT was not significantly different. Although the Nafion coated biosensor significantly reduced the signal due to the interferents under study, it also significantly reduced the response to glucose. The performance of the biosensors in the determination of glucose in rat serum was evaluated. Comparatively better accuracy and recovery results were obtained for GOD-MMCHI/PT. Hence, GOD-MMCHI/PT showed a better performance when compared with GOD-LMCHI/PT. In conclusion, chitosan membranes shave the potential to be a suitable matrix for the development of glucose biosensors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation*
  2. Thio TH, Ibrahim F, Al-Faqheri W, Soin N, Kahar Bador M, Madou M
    PLoS One, 2015;10(4):e0121836.
    PMID: 25853411 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121836
    A centrifugal compact disc (CD) microfluidic platform with reservoirs, micro-channels, and valves can be employed for implementing a complete immunoassay. Detection or biosensor chambers are either coated for immuno-interaction or a biosensor chip is inserted in them. On microfluidic CDs featuring such multi-step chemical/biological processes, the biosensor chamber must be repeatedly filled with fluids such as enzymes solutions, buffers, and washing solutions. After each filling step, the biosensor chamber needs to be evacuated by a passive siphoning process to prepare it for the next step in the assay. However, rotational speed dependency and limited space on a CD are two big obstacles to performing such repetitive filling and siphoning steps. In this work, a unique thermo-pneumatic (TP) Push-Pull pumping method is employed to provide a superior alternative biosensor chamber filling and evacuation technique. The proposed technique is demonstrated on two CD designs. The first design features a simple two-step microfluidic process to demonstrate the evacuation technique, while the second design shows the filling and evacuation technique with an example sequence for an actual immunoassay. In addition, the performance of the filling and evacuation technique as a washing step is also evaluated quantitatively and compared to the conventional manual bench top washing method. The two designs and the performance evaluation demonstrate that the technique is simple to implement, reliable, easy to control, and allows for repeated push-pulls and thus filling and emptying of the biosensor chamber. Furthermore, by addressing the issue of rotational speed dependency and limited space concerns in implementing repetitive filling and evacuation steps, this newly introduced technique increases the flexibility of the microfluidic CD platform to perform multi-step biological and chemical processes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation*
  3. Alahnomi RA, Zakaria Z, Ruslan E, Ab Rashid SR, Mohd Bahar AA, Shaaban A
    PLoS One, 2017;12(9):e0185122.
    PMID: 28934301 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0185122
    A novel symmetrical split ring resonator (SSRR) based microwave sensor with spurline filters for detecting and characterizing the properties of solid materials has been developed. Due to the weak perturbation in the interaction of material under test (MUT) and planar microwave sensor, spurline filters were embedded to the SSRR microwave sensor which effectively enhanced Q-factor with suppressing the undesired harmonic frequency. The spurline filter structures force the presented sensor to resonate at a fundamental frequency of 2.2 GHz with the capabilities of suppressing rejected harmonic frequency and miniaturization in circuit size. A wide bandwidth rejection is achieved by using double spurlines filters with high Q-factor achievement (up to 652.94) compared to single spurline filter. The new SSRR sensor with spurline filters displayed desired properties such as high sensitivity, accuracy, and performance with a 1.3% typical percentage error in the measurement results. Furthermore, the sensor has been successfully applied for detecting and characterizing solid materials (such as Roger 5880, Roger 4350, and FR4) and evidently demonstrated that it can suppress the harmonic frequency effectively. This novel design with harmonic suppression is useful for various applications such as food industry (meat, fruit, vegetables), biological medicine (derived from proteins and other substances produced by the body), and Therapeutic goods (antiseptics, vitamins, anti-psychotics, and other medicines).
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation*
  4. Kashif M, Bakar AA, Arsad N, Shaari S
    Sensors (Basel), 2014 Aug 28;14(9):15914-38.
    PMID: 25171117 DOI: 10.3390/s140915914
    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a novel optical sensing technique with a unique ability to monitor molecular binding in real-time for biological and chemical sensor applications. Interferometry is an excellent tool for accurate measurement of SPR changes, the measurement and comparison is made for the sensitivity, dynamic range and resolution of the different analytes using interferometry techniques. SPR interferometry can also employ phase detection in addition to the amplitude of the reflected light wave, and the phase changes more rapidly compared with other approaches, i.e., intensity, angle and wavelength. Therefore, the SPR phase interferometer offers the advantages of spatial phase resolution and high sensitivity. This work discusses the advancements in interferometric SPR methods to measure the phase shifts due to refractive index changes. The main application areas of SPR sensors are demonstrated, i.e., the Fabry-Perot interferometer, Michelson interferometer and Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with different configurations. The three interferometers are discussed in detail, and solutions are suggested to enhance the performance parameters that will aid in future biological and chemical sensors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation*
  5. Citartan M, Gopinath SC, Tominaga J, Tang TH
    Analyst, 2013 Jul 7;138(13):3576-92.
    PMID: 23646346 DOI: 10.1039/c3an36828a
    Reporting biomolecular interactions has become part and parcel of many applications of science towards an in-depth understanding of disease and gene regulation. Apart from that, in diagnostic applications where biomolecules (antibodies and aptamers) are vastly applied, meticulous monitoring of biomolecular interaction is vital for clear-cut diagnosis. Several currently available methods of analyzing the interaction of the ligands with the appropriate analytes are aided by labeling using fluorescence or luminescence techniques. However, labeling is cumbersome and can occupy important binding sites of interactive molecules to be labeled, which may interfere with the conformational changes of the molecules and increase non-specificity. Optical-based sensing can provide an alternative way as a label-free procedure for monitoring biomolecular interactions. Optical sensors affiliated with different operating principles, including surface plasmon changes, scattering and interferometry, can impart a huge impact for in-house and point-of-care applications. This optical-based biosensing permits real-time monitoring, obviating the use of hazardous labeling molecules such as radioactive tags. Herein, label-free ways of reporting biomolecular interactions by various optical biosensors were gleaned.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation
  6. Eslaminejad M, Razak SA
    Sensors (Basel), 2012;12(10):13508-44.
    PMID: 23202008 DOI: 10.3390/s121013508
    Wireless sensor networks basically consist of low cost sensor nodes which collect data from environment and relay them to a sink, where they will be subsequently processed. Since wireless nodes are severely power-constrained, the major concern is how to conserve the nodes' energy so that network lifetime can be extended significantly. Employing one static sink can rapidly exhaust the energy of sink neighbors. Furthermore, using a non-optimal single path together with a maximum transmission power level may quickly deplete the energy of individual nodes on the route. This all results in unbalanced energy consumption through the sensor field, and hence a negative effect on the network lifetime. In this paper, we present a comprehensive taxonomy of the various mechanisms applied for increasing the network lifetime. These techniques, whether in the routing or cross-layer area, fall within the following types: multi-sink, mobile sink, multi-path, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, depending on the protocol operation. In this taxonomy, special attention has been devoted to the multi-sink, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, which have not yet received much consideration in the literature. Moreover, each class covers a variety of the state-of-the-art protocols, which should provide ideas for potential future works. Finally, we compare these mechanisms and discuss open research issues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation*
  7. Alim S, Vejayan J, Yusoff MM, Kafi AKM
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2018 Dec 15;121:125-136.
    PMID: 30205246 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2018.08.051
    The innovation of nanoparticles assumes a critical part of encouraging and giving open doors and conceivable outcomes to the headway of new era devices utilized as a part of biosensing. The focused on the quick and legitimate detecting of specific biomolecules using functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has turned into a noteworthy research enthusiasm for the most recent decade. Sensors created with gold nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes or in some cases by utilizing both are relied upon to change the very establishments of detecting and distinguishing various analytes. In this review, we will examine the current utilization of functionalized AuNPs and CNTs with other synthetic mixes for the creation of biosensor prompting to the location of particular analytes with low discovery cutoff and quick reaction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation
  8. Said FA, Menon PS, Rajendran V, Shaari S, Majlis BY
    IET Nanobiotechnol, 2017 Dec;11(8):981-986.
    PMID: 29155398 DOI: 10.1049/iet-nbt.2017.0051
    In this study, the authors investigated the effects of a single layer graphene as a coating layer on top of metal thin films such as silver, gold, aluminum and copper using finite-difference time domain method. To enhance the resolution of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor, it is necessary to increase the SPR reflectivity and decrease the full-width-half maximum (FWHM) of the SPR curve so that there is minimum uncertainty in the determination of the resonance dip. Numerical data was verified with analytical and experimental data where all the data were in good agreement with resonance angle differing in <10% due to noise present in components such as humidity and temperature. In further analysis, reflectivity and FWHM were compared among four types of metal with various thin film thicknesses where graphene was applied on top of the metal layers, and data was compared against pure conventional metal thin films. A 60 nm-thick Au thin film results in higher performance with reflectivity of 92.4% and FWHM of 0.88° whereas single layer graphene-on-60 nm-thick Au gave reflectivity of 91.7% and FWHM of 1.32°. However, a graphene-on-40 nm-thick Ag also gave good performance with narrower FWHM of 0.88° and reflection spectra of 89.2%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation*
  9. Nouri M, Meshginqalam B, Sahihazar MM, Sheydaie Pour Dizaji R, Ahmadi MT, Ismail R
    IET Nanobiotechnol, 2018 Dec;12(8):1125-1129.
    PMID: 30964025 DOI: 10.1049/iet-nbt.2018.5068
    Nowadays, sensitive biosensors with high selectivity, lower costs and short response time are required for detection of DNA. The most preferred materials in DNA sensor designing are nanomaterials such as carbon and Au nanoparticles, because of their very high surface area and biocompatibility which lead to performance and sensitivity improvements in DNA sensors. Carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be considered as a suitable DNA sensor platform due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, favourable electronic properties and fast electron transfer rate. Therefore, in this study, the CNTs which are synthesised by pulsed AC arc discharge method on a high-density polyethylene substrate are used as conducting channels in a chemiresistor for the electrochemical detection of double stranded DNA. Moreover, the response of the proposed sensor is investigated experimentally and analytically in different temperatures, which confirm good agreement between the presented model and experimental data.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation*
  10. Bahadoran M, Noorden AF, Mohajer FS, Abd Mubin MH, Chaudhary K, Jalil MA, et al.
    Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol, 2016;44(1):315-21.
    PMID: 25133457 DOI: 10.3109/21691401.2014.948549
    A new microring resonator system is proposed for the detection of the Salmonella bacterium in drinking water, which is made up of SiO2-TiO2 waveguide embedded inside thin film layer of the flagellin. The change in refractive index due to the binding of the Salmonella bacterium with flagellin layer causes a shift in the output signal wavelength and the variation in through and drop port's intensities, which leads to the detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water. The sensitivity of proposed sensor for detecting of Salmonella bacterium in water solution is 149 nm/RIU and the limit of detection is 7 × 10(-4)RIU.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation*
  11. Alqasaimeh M, Heng LY, Ahmad M, Raj AS, Ling TL
    Sensors (Basel), 2014 Jul 22;14(7):13186-209.
    PMID: 25054632 DOI: 10.3390/s140713186
    A new silica-gel nanospheres (SiO2NPs) composition was formulated, followed by biochemical surface functionalization to examine its potential in urea biosensor development. The SiO2NPs were basically synthesized based on sol-gel chemistry using a modified Stober method. The SiO2NPs surfaces were modified with amine (-NH2) functional groups for urease immobilization in the presence of glutaric acid (GA) cross-linker. The chromoionophore pH-sensitive dye ETH 5294 was physically adsorbed on the functionalized SiO2NPs as pH transducer. The immobilized urease determined urea concentration reflectometrically based on the colour change of the immobilized chromoionophore as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The pH changes on the biosensor due to the catalytic enzyme reaction of immobilized urease were found to correlate with the urea concentrations over a linear response range of 50-500 mM (R2 = 0.96) with a detection limit of 10 mM urea. The biosensor response time was 9 min with reproducibility of less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD). This optical urea biosensor did not show interferences by Na+, K+, Mg2+ and NH4+ ions. The biosensor performance has been validated using urine samples in comparison with a non-enzymatic method based on the use of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) reagent and demonstrated a good correlation between the two different methods (R2 = 0.996 and regression slope of 1.0307). The SiO2NPs-based reflectometric urea biosensor showed improved dynamic linear response range when compared to other nanoparticle-based optical urea biosensors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation*
  12. Masrie M, Majlis BY, Yunas J
    Biomed Mater Eng, 2014;24(6):1951-8.
    PMID: 25226891 DOI: 10.3233/BME-141004
    This paper discusses the process technology to fabricate multilayer-Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based microfluidic device for bio-particles concentration detection in Lab-on-chip system. The micro chamber and the fluidic channel were fabricated using standard photolithography and soft lithography process. Conventional method by pouring PDMS on a silicon wafer and peeling after curing in soft lithography produces unspecific layer thickness. In this work, a multilayer-PDMS method is proposed to produce a layer with specific and fixed thickness micron size after bonding that act as an optimum light path length for optimum light detection. This multilayer with precise thickness is required since the microfluidic is integrated with optical transducer. Another significant advantage of this method is to provide excellent bonding between multilayer-PDMS layer and biocompatible microfluidic channel. The detail fabrication process were illustrated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and discussed in this work. The optical signal responses obtained from the multilayer-PDMS microfluidic channel with integrated optical transducer were compared with those obtained with the microfluidic channel from a conventional method. As a result, both optical signal responses did not show significant differences in terms of dispersion of light propagation for both media.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation*
  13. Gopinath SC, Tang TH, Chen Y, Citartan M, Tominaga J, Lakshmipriya T
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2014 Nov 15;61:357-69.
    PMID: 24912036 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2014.05.024
    Influenza viruses, which are RNA viruses belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae, cause respiratory diseases in birds and mammals. With seasonal epidemics, influenza spreads all over the world, resulting in pandemics that cause millions of deaths. Emergence of various types and subtypes of influenza, such as H1N1 and H7N9, requires effective surveillance to prevent their spread and to develop appropriate anti-influenza vaccines. Diagnostic probes such as glycans, aptamers, and antibodies now allow discrimination among the influenza strains, including new subtypes. Several sensors have been developed based on these probes, efforts made to augment influenza detection. Herein, we review the currently available sensing strategies to detect influenza viruses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation
  14. Gopinath SC, Tang TH, Chen Y, Citartan M, Lakshmipriya T
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2014 Oct 15;60:332-42.
    PMID: 24836016 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2014.04.014
    The ubiquitous nature of bacteria enables them to survive in a wide variety of environments. Hence, the rise of various pathogenic species that are harmful to human health raises the need for the development of accurate sensing systems. Sensing systems are necessary for diagnosis and epidemiological control of pathogenic organism, especially in the food-borne pathogen and sanitary water treatment facility' bacterial populations. Bacterial sensing for the purpose of diagnosis can function in three ways: bacterial morphological visualization, specific detection of bacterial component and whole cell detection. This paper provides an overview of the currently available bacterial detection systems that ranges from microscopic observation to state-of-the-art smartphone-based detection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation*
  15. Hu J, Wang S, Wang L, Li F, Pingguan-Murphy B, Lu TJ, et al.
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2014 Apr 15;54:585-97.
    PMID: 24333570 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2013.10.075
    Advanced diagnostic technologies, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), have been widely used in well-equipped laboratories. However, they are not affordable or accessible in resource-limited settings due to the lack of basic infrastructure and/or trained operators. Paper-based diagnostic technologies are affordable, user-friendly, rapid, robust, and scalable for manufacturing, thus holding great potential to deliver point-of-care (POC) diagnostics to resource-limited settings. In this review, we present the working principles and reaction mechanism of paper-based diagnostics, including dipstick assays, lateral flow assays (LFAs), and microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs), as well as the selection of substrates and fabrication methods. Further, we report the advances in improving detection sensitivity, quantification readout, procedure simplification and multi-functionalization of paper-based diagnostics, and discuss the disadvantages of paper-based diagnostics. We envision that miniaturized and integrated paper-based diagnostic devices with the sample-in-answer-out capability will meet the diverse requirements for diagnosis and treatment monitoring at the POC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation*
  16. Saeedfar K, Heng LY, Ling TL, Rezayi M
    Sensors (Basel), 2013;13(12):16851-66.
    PMID: 24322561 DOI: 10.3390/s131216851
    A novel method for the rapid modification of fullerene for subsequent enzyme attachment to create a potentiometric biosensor is presented. Urease was immobilized onto the modified fullerene nanomaterial. The modified fullerene-immobilized urease (C60-urease) bioconjugate has been confirmed to catalyze the hydrolysis of urea in solution. The biomaterial was then deposited on a screen-printed electrode containing a non-plasticized poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PnBA) membrane entrapped with a hydrogen ionophore. This pH-selective membrane is intended to function as a potentiometric urea biosensor with the deposition of C60-urease on the PnBA membrane. Various parameters for fullerene modification and urease immobilization were investigated. The optimal pH and concentration of the phosphate buffer for the urea biosensor were 7.0 and 0.5 mM, respectively. The linear response range of the biosensor was from 2.31 × 10-3 M to 8.28 × 10-5 M. The biosensor's sensitivity was 59.67 ± 0.91 mV/decade, which is close to the theoretical value. Common cations such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ showed no obvious interference with the urea biosensor's response. The use of a fullerene-urease bio-conjugate and an acrylic membrane with good adhesion prevented the leaching of urease enzyme and thus increased the stability of the urea biosensor for up to 140 days.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation*
  17. Arip MN, Heng LY, Ahmad M, Ujang S
    Talanta, 2013 Nov 15;116:776-81.
    PMID: 24148473 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2013.07.065
    The characteristics of a potentiometric biosensor for the determination of permethrin in treated wood based on immobilised cells of the fungus Lentinus sajor-caju on a potentiometric transducer are reported this paper. The potentiometric biosensor was prepared by immobilisation of the fungus in alginate gel deposited on a pH-sensitive transducer employing a photocurable acrylic matrix. The biosensor gave a good response in detecting permethrin over the range of 1.0-100.0 µM. The slope of the calibration curve was 56.10 mV/decade with detection limit of 1.00 µM. The relative standard deviation for the sensor reproducibility was 4.86%. The response time of the sensor was 5 min at optimum pH 8.0 with 1.00 mg/electrode of fungus L. sajor-caju. The permethrin biosensor performance was compared with the conventional method for permethrin analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analytical results agreed well with the HPLC method (at 95% confidence limit). There was no interference from commonly used organophosphorus pesticides such as diazinon, parathion, paraoxon, and methyl parathion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation*
  18. Zakaria Z, Abdul Rahim R, Mansor MS, Yaacob S, Ayub NM, Muji SZ, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2012;12(6):7126-56.
    PMID: 22969341 DOI: 10.3390/s120607126
    Magnetic Induction Tomography (MIT), which is also known as Electromagnetic Tomography (EMT) or Mutual Inductance Tomography, is among the imaging modalities of interest to many researchers around the world. This noninvasive modality applies an electromagnetic field and is sensitive to all three passive electromagnetic properties of a material that are conductivity, permittivity and permeability. MIT is categorized under the passive imaging family with an electrodeless technique through the use of excitation coils to induce an electromagnetic field in the material, which is then measured at the receiving side by sensors. The aim of this review is to discuss the challenges of the MIT technique and summarize the recent advancements in the transmitters and sensors, with a focus on applications in biological tissue imaging. It is hoped that this review will provide some valuable information on the MIT for those who have interest in this modality. The need of this knowledge may speed up the process of adopted of MIT as a medical imaging technology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation*
  19. Soon CF, Youseffi M, Berends RF, Blagden N, Denyer MC
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2013 Jan 15;39(1):14-20.
    PMID: 22809522 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2012.06.032
    Keratinocyte traction forces play a crucial role in wound healing. The aim of this study was to develop a novel cell traction force (CTF) transducer system based on cholesteryl ester liquid crystals (LC). Keratinocytes cultured on LC induced linear and isolated deformation lines in the LC surface. As suggested by the fluorescence staining, the deformation lines appeared to correlate with the forces generated by the contraction of circumferential actin filaments which were transmitted to the LC surface via the focal adhesions. Due to the linear viscoelastic behavior of the LC, Hooke's equation was used to quantify the CTFs by associating Young's modulus of LC to the cell induced stresses and biaxial strain in forming the LC deformation. Young's modulus of the LC was profiled by using spherical indentation and determined at approximately 87.1±17.2kPa. A new technique involving cytochalasin-B treatment was used to disrupt the intracellular force generating actin fibers, and consequently the biaxial strain in the LC induced by the cells was determined. Due to the improved sensitivity and spatial resolution (∼1μm) of the LC based CTF transducer, a wide range of CTFs was determined (10-120nN). These were found to be linearly proportional to the length of the deformations. The linear relationship of CTF-deformations was then applied in a bespoke CTF mapping software to estimate CTFs and to map CTF fields. The generated CTF map highlighted distinct distributions and different magnitude of CTFs were revealed for polarized and non-polarized keratinocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation*
  20. Tehrani RM, Ab Ghani S
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2012 Oct-Dec;38(1):278-83.
    PMID: 22742810 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2012.05.044
    A non-enzymatic glucose sensor of multi-walled carbon nanotube-ruthenium oxide/composite paste electrode (MWCNT-RuO(2)/CPE) was developed. The electrode was characterized by using XRD, SEM, TEM and EIS. Meanwhile, cyclic voltammetry and amperometry were used to check on the performances of the MWCNT-RuO(2)/CPE towards glucose. The proposed electrode has displayed a synergistic effect of RuO(2) and MWCNT on the electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in 3M NaOH. This was possible via the formation of transitions of two redox pairs, viz. Ru(VI)/Ru(IV) and Ru(VII)/Ru(VI). A linear range of 0.5-50mM glucose and a limit of detection of 33 μM glucose (S/N=3) were observed. There was no significant interference observable from the traditional interferences, viz. ascorbic acid and uric acid. Indeed, results so obtained have indicated that the developed MWCNT-RuO(2)/CPE would pave the way for a better future to glucose sensor development as its fabrication was without the use of any enzyme.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation
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